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  • Deloukas, Panos, et al. (författare)
  • Large-scale association analysis identifies new risk loci for coronary artery disease
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 45:1, s. 25-33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the commonest cause of death. Here, we report an association analysis in 63,746 CAD cases and 130,681 controls identifying 15 loci reaching genome-wide significance, taking the number of susceptibility loci for CAD to 46, and a further 104 independent variants (r(2) < 0.2) strongly associated with CAD at a 5% false discovery rate (FDR). Together, these variants explain approximately 10.6% of CAD heritability. Of the 46 genome-wide significant lead SNPs, 12 show a significant association with a lipid trait, and 5 show a significant association with blood pressure, but none is significantly associated with diabetes. Network analysis with 233 candidate genes (loci at 10% FDR) generated 5 interaction networks comprising 85% of these putative genes involved in CAD. The four most significant pathways mapping to these networks are linked to lipid metabolism and inflammation, underscoring the causal role of these activities in the genetic etiology of CAD. Our study provides insights into the genetic basis of CAD and identifies key biological pathways.
  • Oldgren, Jonas, et al. (författare)
  • Myocardial damage, coagulation activity and the response to thrombin inhibition in unstable coronary artery disease.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Thrombosis and haemostasis. - 0340-6245. ; 91:2, s. 381-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Unstable coronary artery disease is in most cases associated with plaque rupture, activation of the coagulation system and subsequent intracoronary thrombus formation which may cause myocardial cell damage. The aim of the present analysis was to assess the relation between troponin T, markers of coagulation activity, i.e. prothrombin fragment 1+2, thrombin-antithrombin complex, soluble fibrin and D-dimer, and ischemic events, i.e. death, myocardial (re-)infarction or refractory angina. 320 patients with unstable coronary artery disease were randomized to 72 hours infusion with inogatran, a low molecular weight direct thrombin inhibitor, or unfractionated heparin. Patients with elevated troponin levels had higher levels of prothrombin fragment 1+2, soluble fibrin and D-dimer before, during, and at 24 hours after cessation of anticoagulant treatment. These troponin-positive patients tended to have worse short-term clinical outcome, without relation to markers of coagulation activity. Troponin-negative patients with unchanged or early increased thrombin generation during treatment had a cluster of ischemic events within 24 hours after cessation of the study drug. The 30-day ischemic event rate was 19 % in troponin-negative patients with unchanged or early increased prothrombin fragment 1+2, and 5.7 % in patients with decreased prothrombin fragment 1+2, p=0.006, and similarly 15 % in troponin-negative patients with unchanged or early increased thrombin-antithrombin complex and 4.5 % in patients with decreased thrombin-antithrombin complex, p=0.02. In conclusion, in unstable coronary artery disease a troponin elevation indicates higher risk and higher coagulation activity. However, among the troponin negative patients, with a lower risk and lower coagulation activity, a part of the patients seem to be non-responders to treatment with a thrombin inhibitor expressed as unchanged or raised coagulation activity and a raised risk of ischemic events early after cessation of treatment.
  • Aberg, Mikael, et al. (författare)
  • Tissue Factor Noncoagulant Signaling : Mechanisms and Implications for Cell Migration and Apoptosis
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis. - 0094-6176 .- 1098-9064. ; 41:7, s. 691-699
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Tissue factor (TF) is a 47-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein and the main initiator of the blood coagulation cascade. Binding to its ligand factor VIIa (FVIIa) also initiates noncoagulant signaling with broad biological implications. In this review, we discuss how TF interacts with other cell-surface proteins, which affect biological functions such as cell migration and cell survival. A vast number of publications have demonstrated the importance of TF-induced activation of protease-activated receptors, but recently published research has indicated a more complicated picture. As it has been discovered that TF interacts with integrins and receptor tyrosine kinases, novel signaling mechanisms for the TF/FVIIa complex have been presented. The knowledge of these new aspects of TF signaling may, for instance, facilitate the development of new treatment strategies for cancer and acute coronary syndromes, two examples of diseases characterized by aberrant TF expression and signaling.</p>
  • Alström, Ulrica, et al. (författare)
  • Platelet inhibition assessed with VerifyNow, flow cytometry and PlateletMapping in patients undergoing heart surgery
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Thrombosis Research. - 0049-3848 .- 1879-2472. ; 124:5, s. 572-577
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>INTRODUCTION: A substantial number of patients with coronary artery disease undergo cardiac surgery within five days of discontinuing anti-platelet treatment with aspirin and clopidogrel. The aims of this study were to describe the degree of platelet inhibition in patients with dual anti-platelet treatment scheduled for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery and to investigate whether the measured platelet inhibition correlated to intra- and postoperative risk for bleeding and transfusion requirements. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty patients were included. Platelet inhibition was analysed with flow cytometry including phosphorylation status of the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP-assay) and two bed-side analyzers, VerifyNow-System and PlateletMapping, a modified thrombelastograph. All 60 patients were analysed with VerifyNow and PlateletMapping, and 48 were analysed with flow cytometry and VASP-assay. RESULTS: There was a correlation between the ADP-receptor inhibition as measured by VASP-assay and VerifyNowP2Y(12) (r = -0.29, p&lt;0.05), and between VASP-assay and the expression of P-selectin (r = 0.29, p&lt;0.05) as measured by flow cytometry when platelets were stimulated with 5 microM ADP. VerifyNowP2Y(12) was the only measurement of platelet inhibition correlated to total blood loss (Spearman r = 0.29, p=0.03) and red blood cell transfusion (Spearman r = 0.43, p&lt;0.01) requirements, although this might be confounded by aprotinin treatment. CONCLUSION: We found a modest agreement between the methods for preoperative platelet inhibition, though not for PlateletMapping-MA(ADP). There was a correlation between preoperative platelet inhibition measured by VerifyNowP2Y(12) and surgical blood loss or transfusion requirements. However, for the individual patient, preoperative use of VerifyNowP2Y(12) as an instrument to decide bleeding and transfusion risk does not seem helpful.</p>
  • Alström, Ulrica, et al. (författare)
  • The platelet inhibiting effect of a clopidogrel bolus dose in patients on long-term acetylsalicylic acid treatment
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Thrombosis Research. - 0049-3848 .- 1879-2472. ; 120:3, s. 353-359
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>INTRODUCTION: Addition of clopidogrel to patients treated with ASA has been shown to decrease the incidence of in-stent thrombosis after percutaneous coronary interventions. However, it has also been reported that up to 30% of patients do not achieve adequate platelet inhibition from standard dosages of ASA and clopidogrel. There is a demand for reliable methods to measure the individual platelet inhibiting effect of this combination therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The primary aim of the present investigation was to compare three methods for evaluation of the platelet inhibiting effect of a clopidogrel bolus dose in patients on long-term acetylsalicylic acid treatment. Thirty patients presenting for coronary angiography/PCI were included. Two patients were excluded due to technical problems. All patients were on 75-100 mg ASA/day for at least 8 days. Blood samples were analysed before and 16 h after a 300 mg clopidogrel bolus dose. The platelet inhibiting effect was measured with (1) Whole blood flow cytometry (17 patients); (2) a bed-side test, Platelet Mapping assay for the thrombelastograph (28 patients); and (3) PFA (Platelet function analyser) -100 (26 patients). RESULTS: With flow cytometry, the percentage of platelets expressing P-selectin (p=0.03) on their surface decreased significantly after the bolus dose of clopidogrel. There was also a reduction of platelets binding fibrinogen when stimulated with ADP. A significantly (p=0.002) increased platelet inhibition could also be demonstrated with Platelet Mapping. PFA-100 could not measure any significant platelet inhibiting effect of clopidogrel. CONCLUSION: A significant platelet inhibition could be demonstrated with flow cytometry and the Platelet Mapping assay, but not with PFA-100. However, levels of response for the individual patient with these three methods were inconsistent. Further studies are needed to evaluate how the results correlate to the clinical risk of thrombosis and bleeding.</p>
  • Andersen, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • C-X-C Ligand 16 Is an Independent Predictor of Cardiovascular Death and Morbidity in Acute Coronary Syndromes
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology. - 1079-5642 .- 1524-4636. ; 39:11, s. 2402-2410
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>Objective:</strong></p><p>The chemokine CXCL16 (C-X-C motif ligand 16) is a scavenger receptor for OxLDL (oxidized low-density lipoproteins) and involved in inflammation at sites of atherosclerosis. This study aimed to investigate the association of CXCL16 with clinical outcome in patients with acute coronary syndrome.</p><p><strong>Approach and Results:</strong></p><p>Serial measurements of CXCL16 were performed in a subgroup of 5142 patients randomized in the PLATO trial (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcome). Associations between CXCL16 and a composite of cardiovascular death, spontaneous myocardial infarction or stroke, and the individual components were assessed by multivariable Cox regression analyses. The hazard ratio per 50% increase in admission levels of CXCL16 analyzed as continuous variable was 1.64 (95% CI, 1.44-1.88), P&lt;0.0001. This association remained statistically significant after adjustment for randomized treatment, clinical variables, CRP (C-reactive protein), leukocytes, cystatin C, NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide), troponin T, GDF-15 (growth differentiation factor 15), and other biomarkers; hazard ratio 1.23 (1.05-1.45), P=0.0126. The admission level of CXCL16 was independently associated with cardiovascular death (1.50 [1.17-1.92], P=0.0014) but not with ischemic events alone, in fully adjusted analyses. No statistically independent association was found between CXCL16 measured at 1 month, or change in CXCL16 from admission to 1 month, and clinical outcomes.</p><p><strong>Conclusions:</strong></p><p>In patients with acute coronary syndrome, admission level of CXCL16 is independently related to adverse clinical outcomes, mainly driven by an association to cardiovascular death. Thus, CXCL16 measurement may enhance risk stratification in patients with this condition.</p>
  • Aulin, Julia, et al. (författare)
  • Interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein and risk for death and cardiovascular events in patients with atrial fibrillation
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 170:6, s. 1151-1160
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background Inflammation has been associated with cardiovascular disease and the burden of atrial fibrillation (AF). In this study we evaluate inflammatory biomarkers and future cardiovascular events in AF patients in the RE-LY study. Methods Interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP) (n = 6,187), and fibrinogen (n = 4,893) were analyzed at randomization; outcomes were evaluated by Cox models and C-statistics. Results Adjusted for clinical risk factors IL-6 was independently associated with stroke or systemic embolism (P =.0041), major bleedings (P =.0001), vascular death (P&lt;.0001), and a composite thromboembolic outcome (ischemic stroke, systemic embolism, myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism and vascular death) (P&lt;.0001). CRP was independently related to myocardial infarction (P =.0047), vascular death (P =.0004), and the composite thromboembolic outcome (P =.0001). When further adjusted for cardiac (troponin andN-terminal fragment B-type natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP]) and renal (cystatin-C) biomarkers on top of clinical risk factors IL-6 remained significantly related to vascular death (P&lt;.0001), major bleeding (P&lt;.0170) and the composite thromboembolic outcome (P&lt;.0001), and CRP to myocardial infarction (.0104). Fibrinogen was not associated with any outcome. C-index for stroke or systemic embolism increased from 0.615 to 0.642 (P =.0017) when adding IL-6 to the clinically used CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc risk score with net reclassification improvement of 28%. Conclusion In patients with AF, IL-6 is related to higher risk of stroke and major bleeding, and both markers are related to higher risk of vascular death and the composite of thromboembolic events independent of clinical risk factors. Adjustment for cardiovascular biomarkers attenuated the prognostic value, although IL-6 remained related to mortality, the composite of thromboembolic events, and major bleeding, and CRP to myocardial infarction.</p>
  • Blume-Jensen, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Activation of the human c-kit product by ligand-induced dimerization mediates circular actin reorganization and chemotaxis
  • 1991
  • Ingår i: EMBO Journal. - 0261-4189 .- 1460-2075. ; 10:13, s. 4121-4128
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The proto-oncogene c-kit is allelic with the murine white spotting (W) locus and encodes a transmembrane protein tyrosine kinase that is structurally related to the receptors for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1). Recently the ligand for the c-kit product, stem cell factor (SCF), was identified in both transmembrane and soluble forms. In order to examine the mechanism for receptor activation by SCF and biological properties of the activated c-kit product, we transfected the wild-type human c-kit cDNA into porcine aortic endothelial cells. We found that the receptor was down-regulated and transmitted a mitogenic signal in response to stimulation with soluble SCF. We also demonstrate that SCF induces dimerization of the c-kit product in intact cells, and that dimerization of the receptor is correlated with activation of its kinase. Activation of the c-kit product by SCF was found to induce circular actin reorganization indistinguishable from that mediated by the PDGF beta-receptor in response to PDGF-BB. Furthermore, soluble SCF was a potent chemotactic agent for cells expressing the c-kit product, a property which might be of importance during embryonic development.</p>
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