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Sökning: WFRF:(Siemers Eric)

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  • Knopman, David S., et al. (författare)
  • The National Institute on Aging and the Alzheimer's Association Research Framework for Alzheimer's disease : Perspectives from the Research Roundtable
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's and Dementia. - Wiley. - 1552-5260. ; 14:4, s. 563-575
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Alzheimer's Association's Research Roundtable met in November 2017 to explore the new National Institute on Aging and the Alzheimer's Association Research Framework for Alzheimer's disease. The meeting allowed experts in the field from academia, industry, and government to provide perspectives on the new National Institute on Aging and the Alzheimer's Association Research Framework. This review will summarize the “A, T, N System” (Amyloid, Tau, and Neurodegeneration) using biomarkers and how this may be applied to clinical research and drug development. In addition, challenges and barriers to the potential adoption of this new framework will be discussed. Finally, future directions for research will be proposed.
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4.
  • Portelius, Erik, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • A novel Aβ isoform pattern in CSF reflects γ-secretase inhibition in Alzheimer disease
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's research & therapy. - 1758-9193. ; 2:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: LY450139 (semagacestat) inhibits gamma-secretase, a key enzyme for generation of amyloid beta (Abeta), the peptide deposited in plaques in Alzheimer disease (AD). Previous data have shown that LY450139 lowers plasma Abeta, but has no clear effect on Abeta1-40 or Abeta1-42 levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). By using targeted proteomics techniques, we recently identified several shorter Abeta isoforms, such as Abeta1-16, that in experimental settings increase during gamma-secretase inhibitor treatment, and thus may serve as sensitive biochemical indices of the treatment effect. Here, we test the hypothesis that these shorter Abeta isoforms may be biomarkers of gamma-secretase inhibitor treatment in clinical trials. METHODS: In a phase II clinical trial, 35 individuals with mild to moderate AD were randomized to placebo (n = 10) or LY450139 (100 mg (n = 15) or 140 mg (n = 10)) and underwent lumbar puncture at baseline and after 14 weeks of treatment. The CSF Abeta isoform pattern was analyzed with immunoprecipitation combined with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The CSF levels of Abeta1-14, Abeta1-15, and Abeta1-16 showed a dose-dependent increase by 57% and 74%, 21% and 35%, and 30% and 67%, respectively in the 100-mg and 140-mg treatment groups. Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 were unaffected by treatment. CONCLUSIONS: CSF Abeta1-14, Abeta1-15, and Abeta1-16 increase during gamma-secretase inhibitor treatment in AD, even at doses that do not affect Abeta1-42 or Abeta1-40, probably because of increased substrate availability of the C99 APP stub (APP beta-CTF) induced by gamma-secretase inhibition. These Abeta isoforms may be novel sensitive biomarkers to monitor the biochemical effect in clinical trials. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials.gov NCT00244322.
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5.
  • Portelius, Erik, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Amyloid-β(1-15/16) as a marker for γ-secretase inhibition in Alzheimer's disease.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD. - 1875-8908. ; 31:2, s. 335-41
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Amyloid-β (Aβ) producing enzymes are key targets for disease-modifying Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapies since Aβ trafficking is at the core of AD pathogenesis. Development of such drugs might benefit from the identification of markers indicating in vivo drug effects in the central nervous system. We have previously shown that Aβ(1-15) is produced by concerted β-and α-secretase cleavage of amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP). Here, we test the hypothesis that this pathway is more engaged upon γ-secretase inhibition in humans, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of Aβ(1-15/16) represent a biomarker for this effect. Twenty healthy men were treated with placebo (n = 5) or the γ-secretase inhibitor semagacestat (100 mg [n = 5], 140 mg [n = 5], or 280 mg [n = 5]). CSF samples were collected hourly over 36 hours and 10 time points were analyzed by immunoassay for Aβ(1-15/16), Aβ(x-38), Aβ(x-40), Aβ(x-42), sAβPPα, and sAβPPβ. The CSF concentration of Aβ(1-15/16) showed a dose-dependent response over 36 hours. In the 280 mg treatment group, a transient increase was seen with a maximum of 180% relative to baseline at 9 hours post administration of semagacestat. The concentrations of Aβ(x-38), Aβ(x-40), and Aβ(x-42) decreased the first 9 hours followed by increased concentrations after 36 hours relative to baseline. No significant changes were detected for CSF sAβPPα and sAβPPβ. Our data shows that CSF levels of Aβ(1-15/16) increase during treatment with semagacestat supporting its feasibility as a pharmacodynamic biomarker for drug candidates aimed at inhibiting γ-secretase-mediated AβPP-processing.
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  • Shaw, Leslie M, et al. (författare)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid biomarker signature in Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative subjects.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Annals of neurology. - 1531-8249. ; 65:4, s. 403-13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Develop a cerebrospinal fluid biomarker signature for mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) subjects. METHODS: Amyloid-beta 1 to 42 peptide (A beta(1-42)), total tau (t-tau), and tau phosphorylated at the threonine 181 were measured in (1) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained during baseline evaluation of 100 mild AD, 196 mild cognitive impairment, and 114 elderly cognitively normal (NC) subjects in ADNI; and (2) independent 56 autopsy-confirmed AD cases and 52 age-matched elderly NCs using a multiplex immunoassay. Detection of an AD CSF profile for t-tau and A beta(1-42) in ADNI subjects was achieved using receiver operating characteristic cut points and logistic regression models derived from the autopsy-confirmed CSF data. RESULTS: CSF A beta(1-42) was the most sensitive biomarker for AD in the autopsy cohort of CSF samples: receiver operating characteristic area under the curve of 0.913 and sensitivity for AD detection of 96.4%. In the ADNI cohort, a logistic regression model for A beta(1-42), t-tau, and APO epsilon 4 allele count provided the best assessment delineation of mild AD. An AD-like baseline CSF profile for t-tau/A beta(1-42) was detected in 33 of 37 ADNI mild cognitive impairment subjects who converted to probable AD during the first year of the study. INTERPRETATION: The CSF biomarker signature of AD defined by A beta(1-42) and t-tau in the autopsy-confirmed AD cohort and confirmed in the cohort followed in ADNI for 12 months detects mild AD in a large, multisite, prospective clinical investigation, and this signature appears to predict conversion from mild cognitive impairment to AD.
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7.
  • Shaw, Leslie M, et al. (författare)
  • Qualification of the analytical and clinical performance of CSF biomarker analyses in ADNI.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Acta neuropathologica. - 1432-0533. ; 121:5, s. 597-609
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The close correlation between abnormally low pre-mortem cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of amyloid-β1-42 (Aβ(1-42)) and plaque burden measured by amyloid imaging as well as between pathologically increased levels of CSF tau and the extent of neurodegeneration measured by MRI has led to growing interest in using these biomarkers to predict the presence of AD plaque and tangle pathology. A challenge for the widespread use of these CSF biomarkers is the high variability in the assays used to measure these analytes which has been ascribed to multiple pre-analytical and analytical test performance factors. To address this challenge, we conducted a seven-center inter-laboratory standardization study for CSF total tau (t-tau), phospho-tau (p-tau(181)) and Aβ(1-42) as part of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Aliquots prepared from five CSF pools assembled from multiple elderly controls (n = 3) and AD patients (n = 2) were the primary test samples analyzed in each of three analytical runs by the participating laboratories using a common batch of research use only immunoassay reagents (INNO-BIA AlzBio3, xMAP technology, from Innogenetics) on the Luminex analytical platform. To account for the combined effects on overall precision of CSF samples (fixed effect), different laboratories and analytical runs (random effects), these data were analyzed by mixed-effects modeling with the following results: within center %CV 95% CI values (mean) of 4.0-6.0% (5.3%) for CSF Aβ(1-42); 6.4-6.8% (6.7%) for t-tau and 5.5-18.0% (10.8%) for p-tau(181) and inter-center %CV 95% CI range of 15.9-19.8% (17.9%) for Aβ(1-42), 9.6-15.2% (13.1%) for t-tau and 11.3-18.2% (14.6%) for p-tau(181). Long-term experience by the ADNI biomarker core laboratory replicated this degree of within-center precision. Diagnostic threshold CSF concentrations for Aβ(1-42) and for the ratio t-tau/Aβ(1-42) were determined in an ADNI independent, autopsy-confirmed AD cohort from whom ante-mortem CSF was obtained, and a clinically defined group of cognitively normal controls (NCs) provides statistically significant separation of those who progressed from MCI to AD in the ADNI study. These data suggest that interrogation of ante-mortem CSF in cognitively impaired individuals to determine levels of t-tau, p-tau(181) and Aβ(1-42), together with MRI and amyloid imaging biomarkers, could replace autopsy confirmation of AD plaque and tangle pathology as the "gold standard" for the diagnosis of definite AD in the near future.
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  • Trojanowski, John Q, et al. (författare)
  • Update on the biomarker core of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative subjects.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's & dementia : the journal of the Alzheimer's Association. - 1552-5279. ; 6:3, s. 230-8
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Here, we review progress by the Penn Biomarker Core in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) toward developing a pathological cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma biomarker signature for mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) as well as a biomarker profile that predicts conversion of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and/or normal control subjects to AD. The Penn Biomarker Core also collaborated with other ADNI Cores to integrate data across ADNI to temporally order changes in clinical measures, imaging data, and chemical biomarkers that serve as mileposts and predictors of the conversion of normal control to MCI as well as MCI to AD, and the progression of AD. Initial CSF studies by the ADNI Biomarker Core revealed a pathological CSF biomarker signature of AD defined by the combination of Abeta1-42 and total tau (T-tau) that effectively delineates mild AD in the large multisite prospective clinical investigation conducted in ADNI. This signature appears to predict conversion from MCI to AD. Data fusion efforts across ADNI Cores generated a model for the temporal ordering of AD biomarkers which suggests that Abeta amyloid biomarkers become abnormal first, followed by changes in neurodegenerative biomarkers (CSF tau, F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) with the onset of clinical symptoms. The timing of these changes varies in individual patients due to genetic and environmental factors that increase or decrease an individual's resilience in response to progressive accumulations of AD pathologies. Further studies in ADNI will refine this model and render the biomarkers studied in ADNI more applicable to routine diagnosis and to clinical trials of disease modifying therapies.
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