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1.
  • Arthur Hvidtfeldt, Ulla, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term exposure to fine particle elemental components and lung cancer incidence in the ELAPSE pooled cohort
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Environmental Research. - 0013-9351 .- 1096-0953. ; 193
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: An association between long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and lung cancer has been established in previous studies. PM2.5 is a complex mixture of chemical components from various sources and little is known about whether certain components contribute specifically to the associated lung cancer risk. The present study builds on recent findings from the Effects of Low-level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE) collaboration and addresses the potential association between specific elemental components of PM2.5 and lung cancer incidence.Methods: We pooled seven cohorts from across Europe and assigned exposure estimates for eight components of PM2.5 representing non-tail pipe emissions (copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn)), long-range transport (sulfur (S)), oil burning/industry emissions (nickel (Ni), vanadium (V)), crustal material (silicon (Si)), and biomass burning (potassium (K)) to cohort participants' baseline residential address based on 100 m by 100 m grids from newly developed hybrid models combining air pollution monitoring, land use data, satellite observations, and dispersion model estimates. We applied stratified Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for potential confounders (age, sex, calendar year, marital status, smoking, body mass index, employment status, and neighborhood-level socio-economic status).Results: The pooled study population comprised 306,550 individuals with 3916 incident lung cancer events during 5,541,672 person-years of follow-up. We observed a positive association between exposure to all eight components and lung cancer incidence, with adjusted HRs of 1.10 (95% CI 1.05, 1.16) per 50 ng/m(3) PM2.5 K, 1.09 (95% CI 1.02, 1.15) per 1 ng/m3 PM2.5 Ni, 1.22 (95% CI 1.11, 1.35) per 200 ng/m(3) PM2.5 S, and 1.07 (95% CI 1.02, 1.12) per 200 ng/m(3) PM2.5 V. Effect estimates were largely unaffected by adjustment for nitrogen dioxide (NO2). After adjustment for PM2.5 mass, effect estimates of K, Ni, S, and V were slightly attenuated, whereas effect estimates of Cu, Si, Fe, and Zn became null or negative.Conclusions: Our results point towards an increased risk of lung cancer in connection with sources of combustion particles from oil and biomass burning and secondary inorganic aerosols rather than non-exhaust traffic emissions. Specific limit values or guidelines targeting these specific PM2.5 components may prove helpful in future lung cancer prevention strategies.
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2.
  • Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf, et al. (författare)
  • The association between asthma and allergic symptoms in children and phthalates in house dust : a nested case-control study
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives. - : National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). - 0091-6765 .- 1552-9924. ; 112:14, s. 1393-1397
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Global phthalate ester production has increased from very low levels at the end of World War II to approximately 3.5 million metric tons/year. The aim of the present study was to investigate potential associations between persistent allergic symptoms in children, which have increased markedly in developed countries over the past three decades, and the concentration of phthalates in dust collected from their homes. This investigation is a case-control study nested within a cohort of 10,852 children. From the cohort, we selected 198 cases with persistent allergic symptoms and 202 controls without allergic symptoms. A clinical and a technical team investigated each child and her or his environment. We found higher median concentrations of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) in dust among cases than among controls (0.15 vs. 0.12 mg/g dust). Analyzing the case group by symptoms showed that BBzP was associated with rhinitis (p = 0.001) and eczema (p = 0.001), whereas di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was associated with asthma (p = 0.022). Furthermore, dose-response relationships for these associations are supported by trend analyses. This study shows that phthalates, within the range of what is normally found in indoor environments, are associated with allergic symptoms in children. We believe that the different associations of symptoms for the three major phthalates-BBzP, DEHP, and di-n-butyl phthalate-can be explained by a combination of chemical physical properties and toxicologic potential. Given the phthalate exposures of children worldwide, the results from this study of Swedish children have global implications.
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3.
  • Budnik, Lygia Therese, et al. (författare)
  • Diagnosis, monitoring and prevention of exposure-related non-communicable diseases in the living and working environment : DiMoPEx-project is designed to determine the impacts of environmental exposure on human health
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1745-6673. ; 13:1
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The WHO has ranked environmental hazardous exposures in the living and working environment among the top risk factors for chronic disease mortality. Worldwide, about 40 million people die each year from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) including cancer, diabetes, and chronic cardiovascular, neurological and lung diseases. The exposure to ambient pollution in the living and working environment is exacerbated by individual susceptibilities and lifestyle-driven factors to produce complex and complicated NCD etiologies. Research addressing the links between environmental exposure and disease prevalence is key for prevention of the pandemic increase in NCD morbidity and mortality. However, the long latency, the chronic course of some diseases and the necessity to address cumulative exposures over very long periods does mean that it is often difficult to identify causal environmental exposures. EU-funded COST Action DiMoPEx is developing new concepts for a better understanding of health-environment (including gene-environment) interactions in the etiology of NCDs. The overarching idea is to teach and train scientists and physicians to learn how to include efficient and valid exposure assessments in their research and in their clinical practice in current and future cooperative projects. DiMoPEx partners have identified some of the emerging research needs, which include the lack of evidence-based exposure data and the need for human-equivalent animal models mirroring human lifespan and low-dose cumulative exposures. Utilizing an interdisciplinary approach incorporating seven working groups, DiMoPEx will focus on aspects of air pollution with particulate matter including dust and fibers and on exposure to low doses of solvents and sensitizing agents. Biomarkers of early exposure and their associated effects as indicators of disease-derived information will be tested and standardized within individual projects. Risks arising from some NCDs, like pneumoconioses, cancers and allergies, are predictable and preventable. Consequently, preventative action could lead to decreasing disease morbidity and mortality for many of the NCDs that are of major public concern. DiMoPEx plans to catalyze and stimulate interaction of scientists with policy-makers in attacking these exposure-related diseases.
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4.
  • Carlsen, Hanne Krage, et al. (författare)
  • Indicators of residential traffic exposure: Modelled NOX, traffic proximity, and self-reported exposure in RHINE III
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment. - : PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. - 1352-2310 .- 1873-2844. ; 167, s. 416-425
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Few studies have investigated associations between self-reported and modelled exposure to traffic pollution. The objective of this study was to examine correlations between self-reported traffic exposure and modelled (a) NOX and (b) traffic proximity in seven different northern European cities; Aarhus (Denmark), Bergen (Norway), Gothenburg, Umeå, and Uppsala (Sweden), Reykjavik (Iceland), and Tartu (Estonia). We analysed data from the RHINE III (Respiratory Health in Northern Europe, www.rhine.nu) cohorts of the seven study cities. Traffic proximity (distance to the nearest road with >10,000 vehicles per day) was calculated and vehicle exhaust (NOX) was modelled using dispersion models and land-use regression (LUR) data from 2011. Participants were asked a question about self-reported traffic intensity near bedroom window and another about traffic noise exposure at the residence. The data were analysed using rank correlation (Kendall's tau) and inter-rater agreement (Cohen's Kappa) between tertiles of modelled NOX and traffic proximity tertile and traffic proximity categories (0–150 metres (m), 150–200 m, >300 m) in each centre. Data on variables of interest were available for 50–99% of study participants per each cohort. Mean modelled NOX levels were between 6.5 and 16.0 μg/m3; median traffic intensity was between 303 and 10,750 m in each centre. In each centre, 7.7–18.7% of respondents reported exposure to high traffic intensity and 3.6–16.3% of respondents reported high exposure to traffic noise. Self-reported residential traffic exposure had low or no correlation with modelled exposure and traffic proximity in all centres, although results were statistically significant (tau = 0.057–0.305). Self-reported residential traffic noise correlated weakly (tau = 0.090–0.255), with modelled exposure in all centres except Reykjavik. Modelled NOX had the highest correlations between self-reported and modelled traffic exposure in five of seven centres, traffic noise exposure had the highest correlation with traffic proximity in tertiles in three centres. Self-reported exposure to high traffic intensity and traffic noise at each participant's residence had low or weak although statistically significant correlations with modelled vehicle exhaust pollution levels and traffic proximity. © 2017
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5.
  • Choi, H., et al. (författare)
  • Response to Rylander
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Indoor Air. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0905-6947 .- 1600-0668. ; 24:2, s. 223-224
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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6.
  • Clausen, Geo, et al. (författare)
  • Children's health and its association with indoor environments in Danish homes and daycare centres - methods
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Indoor Air. - 0905-6947 .- 1600-0668. ; 22:6, s. 467-475
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The principle objective of the Danish research program 'Indoor Environment and Children's Health' (IECH) was to explore associations between various exposures that children experience in their indoor environments (specifically their homes and daycare centers) and their well-being and health. The targeted health endpoints were allergy, asthma, and certain respiratory symptoms. The study was designed with two stages. In the first stage, a questionnaire survey was distributed to more than 17000 families with children between the ages of 1 and 5. The questionnaire focused on the children's health and the environments within the homes they inhabited and daycare facilities they attended. More than 11000 questionnaires were returned. In the second stage, a subsample of 500 children was selected for more detailed studies, including an extensive set of measurements in their homes and daycare centers and a clinical examination; all clinical examinations were carried out by the same physician. In this study, the methods used for data collection within the IECH research program are presented and discussed. Furthermore, initial findings are presented regarding descriptors of the study population and selected characteristics of the children's dwellings and daycare centers. Practical Implications: This study outlines methods that might be followed by future investigators conducting large-scale field studies of potential connections between various indoor environmental factors and selected health endpoints. Of particular note are (i) the two-stage design - a broad questionnaire-based survey followed by a more intensive set of measurements among a subset of participants who have been selected based on their responses to the questionnaire; (ii) the case-base approach utilized in the stage 2 in contrast to the more commonly used case-control approach; (iii) the inclusion of the children's daycare environment when conducting intensive sampling to more fully capture the children's total indoor exposure; and (iv) all clinical examinations conducted by the same physician. We recognize that future investigators are unlikely to fully duplicate the methods outlined in this study, but we hope that it provides a useful starting point in terms of factors that might be considered when designing such a study.
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7.
  • Demenais, Florence, et al. (författare)
  • Multiancestry association study identifies new asthma risk loci that colocalize with immune-cell enhancer marks
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 50:1, s. 42-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We examined common variation in asthma risk by conducting a meta-analysis of worldwide asthma genome-wide association studies (23,948 asthma cases, 118,538 controls) of individuals from ethnically diverse populations. We identified five new asthma loci, found two new associations at two known asthma loci, established asthma associations at two loci previously implicated in the comorbidity of asthma plus hay fever, and confirmed nine known loci. Investigation of pleiotropy showed large overlaps in genetic variants with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The enrichment in enhancer marks at asthma risk loci, especially in immune cells, suggested a major role of these loci in the regulation of immunologically related mechanisms.
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8.
  • Dratva, J., et al. (författare)
  • Validation of self-reported figural drawing scales against anthropometric measurements in adults
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Public Health Nutrition. - : Cambridge University Press. - 1368-9800 .- 1475-2727. ; 19:11, s. 1944-1951
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The aim of the present study was to validate figural drawing scales depicting extremely lean to extremely obese subjects to obtain proxies for BMI and waist circumference in postal surveys. Design: Reported figural scales and anthropometric data from a large population-based postal survey were validated with measured anthropometric data from the same individuals by means of receiver-operating characteristic curves and a BMI prediction model. Setting: Adult participants in a Scandinavian cohort study first recruited in 1990 and followed up twice since. Subjects: Individuals aged 38-66 years with complete data for BMI (n 1580) and waist circumference (n 1017). Results: Median BMI and waist circumference increased exponentially with increasing figural scales. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses showed a high predictive ability to identify individuals with BMI > 25.0 kg/m(2) in both sexes. The optimal figural scales for identifying overweight or obese individuals with a correct detection rate were 4 and 5 in women, and 5 and 6 in men, respectively. The prediction model explained 74% of the variance among women and 62% among men. Predicted BMI differed only marginally from objectively measured BMI. Conclusions: Figural drawing scales explained a large part of the anthropometric variance in this population and showed a high predictive ability for identifying overweight/obese subjects. These figural scales can be used with confidence as proxies of BMI and waist circumference in settings where objective measures are not feasible.
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9.
  • Elberling, Bo, et al. (författare)
  • Soil and Plant Community Characteristics and Dynamics at Zackenberg
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: High-arctic ecosystem dynamics in a changing climate - Ten years of monitoring and research at Zackenberg Research Station, Northeast Greenland (Advances in Ecological Research). - : Elsevier. - 0065-2504. - 9780123736659 ; 40, s. 223-248
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Arctic soils hold large amounts of nutrients in the weatherable minerals and the soil organic matter, which slowly decompose. The decomposition processes release nutrients to the plant-available nutrient pool as well as greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Changes in climatic conditions, for example, changes in the distribution of snow, water balance and the length of the growing season, are likely to affect the complex interactions between plants, abiotic and biotic soil processes as well as the composition of soil micro- and macro-fauna and thereby the overall decomposition rates. These interactions, in turn, will influence soil-plant functioning and vegetation composition in the short as well as in the long term. In this chapter, we report on soils and. plant communities and their distribution patterns in the valley Zackenbergdalen and focus on the detailed investigations within five dominating plant communities. These five communities are located along an ecological gradient in the landscape and are closely related to differences in water availability. They are therefore indirectly formed as a result of the distribution of landforms, redistribution of snow and drainage conditions. Each of the plant communities is closely related to specific nutrient levels and degree of soil development including soil element accumulation and translocation, for example, organic carbon. Results presented here show that different parts of the landscape have responded quite differently to the same overall climate changes the last 10 years and thus, most likely in the future too. Fens represent the wettest sites holding large reactive buried carbon stocks. A warmer climate will cause a permafrost degradation, which most likely will result in anoxic decomposition and increasing methane emissions. However, the net gas emissions at fen sites are sensitive to long-term changes in the water table level. Indeed, increasing maximum active layer depth at fen sites has been recorded together with a decreasing water level at Zackenberg. This is in line with the first signs of increasing extension of grasslands at the expense of fens. In contrast, the most exposed and dry areas have less soil carbon, and decomposition processes are periodically water limited. Here, an increase in air temperatures may increase active layer depth more than at fen sites, but water availability will be critical in determining nutrient cycling and plant production. Field manipulation experiments of increasing temperature, water supply and nutrient addition show that soil-plant interactions are sensitive to these variables. However, additional plant-specific investigations are needed before net effects of climate changes on different landscape and plant communities can be integrated in a landscape context and used to assess the net ecosystem effect of future climate scenarios.
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10.
  • Gislason, T., et al. (författare)
  • Self-reported exposure to traffic pollution in relation to daytime sleepiness and habitual snoring: a questionnaire study in seven North-European cities
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Sleep Medicine. - : Elsevier. - 1389-9457 .- 1878-5506. ; 24, s. 93-99
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective/background Little is known about associations between traffic exposure and sleep disturbances. We examined if self-reported exposure to traffic is associated with habitual snoring and daytime sleepiness in a general population. Methods In the RHINE III study, 12184 adults answered questions on sleep disturbances and traffic exposure. We analysed bedrooms near roads with traffic, bedrooms with traffic noise, and travelling regularly along busy roads as proxies for traffic exposures, using logistic regression. Adjustment factors were study centre, gender, age, smoking habits, educational level, body mass index, physical activity, obstructive sleep apnoea, and sleep duration. Results One in ten lived near a busy road, 6% slept in a bedroom with traffic noise, and 11% travelled regularly along busy roads. Habitual snoring affected 25% and daytime sleepiness 21%. More men reported snoring and more women reported daytime sleepiness. Having a bedroom with traffic noise was associated with snoring (adjusted OR 1.29, [95% CI 1.12, 1.48]). For daytime sleepiness, on the other hand, bedroom with traffic noise and high exposure to traffic pollution have significant risk factors (adjusted ORs 1.46 [1.11, 1.92] and 1.65 [1.11, 2.45]). Results were consistent across study centres. Conclusions Daytime sleepiness is associated with traffic pollution and traffic noise, while habitual snoring is only associated with traffic noise. Self-reported traffic exposure should be taken into account when diagnosing and planning treatment for patients with sleep disturbances, because reducing noise and pollution exposure in the bedroom may have a beneficial effect. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
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