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Sökning: WFRF:(Silman Alan)

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1.
  • Kanis, John A, et al. (författare)
  • A meta-analysis of milk intake and fracture risk: low utility for case finding.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Osteoporosis international. - : Springer. - 0937-941X .- 1433-2965. ; 16:7, s. 799-804
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A low intake of calcium is widely considered to be a risk factor for future fracture. The aim of this study was to quantify this risk on an international basis and to explore the effect of age, gender and bone mineral density (BMD) on this risk. We studied 39,563 men and women (69% female) from six prospectively studied cohorts comprising EVOS/EPOS, CaMos, DOES, the Rotterdam study, the Sheffield study and a cohort from Gothenburg. Cohorts were followed for 152,000 person-years. The effect of calcium intake as judged by the intake of milk on the risk of any fracture, any osteoporotic fracture and hip fracture alone was examined using a Poisson model for each sex from each cohort. Covariates examined were age and BMD. The results of the different studies were merged by using the weighted beta-coefficients. A low intake of calcium (less than 1 glass of milk daily) was not associated with a significantly increased risk of any fracture, osteoporotic fracture or hip fracture. There was no difference in risk ratio between men and women. When both sexes were combined there was a small but non-significant increase in the risk of osteoporotic and of hip fracture. There was also a small increase in the risk of an osteoporotic fracture with age which was significant at the age of 80 years (RR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.02-1.30) and above. The association was no longer significant after adjustment for BMD. No significant relationship was observed by age for low milk intake and hip fracture risk. We conclude that a self-reported low intake of milk is not associated with any marked increase in fracture risk and that the use of this risk indicator is of little or no value in case-finding strategies.
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2.
  • Kanis, John A, et al. (författare)
  • A meta-analysis of prior corticosteroid use and fracture risk.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of bone and mineral research. - : AMBMR. - 0884-0431 .- 1523-4681. ; 19:6, s. 893-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The relationship between use of corticosteroids and fracture risk was estimated in a meta-analysis of data from seven cohort studies of approximately 42,000 men and women. Current and past use of corticosteroids was an important predictor of fracture risk that was independent of prior fracture and BMD. INTRODUCTION: The aims of this study were to validate that corticosteroid use is a significant risk factor for fracture in an international setting and to explore the effects of age and sex on this risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 42,500 men and women from seven prospectively studied cohorts followed for 176,000 patient-years. The cohorts comprised the EPOS/EVOS study, CaMos, the Rotterdam Study, Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study (DOES), and prospective cohorts at Sheffield, Rochester, and Gothenburg. The effect of ever use of corticosteroids, BMD, age, and sex on all fracture, osteoporotic fracture, and hip fracture risk alone was examined using Poisson regression in each cohort and for each sex. The results of the different studies were merged from the weighted beta coefficients. RESULTS: Previous corticosteroid use was associated with a significantly increased risk of any fracture, osteoporotic fracture, and hip fracture when adjusted for BMD. Relative risk of any fracture ranged from 1.98 at the age of 50 years to 1.66 at the age of 85 years. For osteoporotic fracture, the range of relative risk was 2.63-1.71, and for hip fracture 4.42-2.48. The estimate of relative risk was higher at younger ages, but not significantly so. No significant difference in risk was seen between men and women. The risk was marginally and not significantly upwardly adjusted when BMD was excluded from the model. The risk was independent of prior fracture. In the three cohorts that documented current corticosteroid use, BMD was significantly reduced at the femoral neck, but fracture risk was still only partly explained by BMD. CONCLUSION: We conclude that prior and current exposure to corticosteroids confers an increased risk of fracture that is of substantial importance beyond that explained by the measurement of BMD. Its identification on an international basis validates the use of this risk factor in case-finding strategies.
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3.
  • Herrick, A. L., et al. (författare)
  • Patterns and predictors of skin score change in early diffuse systemic sclerosis from the European Scleroderma Observational Study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. - : British Medical Association. - 0003-4967. ; 77:4, s. 563-570
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives Our aim was to use the opportunity provided by the European Scleroderma Observational Study to (1) identify and describe those patients with early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (dcSSc) with progressive skin thickness, and (2) derive prediction models for progression over 12 months, to inform future randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Methods The modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS) was recorded every 3 months in 326 patients. 'Progressors' were defined as those experiencing a 5-unit and 25% increase in mRSS score over 12 months (±3 months). Logistic models were fitted to predict progression and, using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, were compared on the basis of the area under curve (AUC), accuracy and positive predictive value (PPV). Results 66 patients (22.5%) progressed, 227 (77.5%) did not (33 could not have their status assessed due to insufficient data). Progressors had shorter disease duration (median 8.1 vs 12.6 months, P=0.001) and lower mRSS (median 19 vs 21 units, P=0.030) than non-progressors. Skin score was highest, and peaked earliest, in the anti-RNA polymerase III (Pol3+) subgroup (n=50). A first predictive model (including mRSS, duration of skin thickening and their interaction) had an accuracy of 60.9%, AUC of 0.666 and PPV of 33.8%. By adding a variable for Pol3 positivity, the model reached an accuracy of 71%, AUC of 0.711 and PPV of 41%. Conclusions Two prediction models for progressive skin thickening were derived, for use both in clinical practice and for cohort enrichment in RCTs. These models will inform recruitment into the many clinical trials of dcSSc projected for the coming years. Trial registration number NCT02339441. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
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4.
  • Johnell, Olof, et al. (författare)
  • Predictive value of BMD for hip and other fractures.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of bone and mineral research. - : AMBMR. - 0884-0431 .- 1523-4681. ; 20:7, s. 1185-94
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The relationship between BMD and fracture risk was estimated in a meta-analysis of data from 12 cohort studies of approximately 39,000 men and women. Low hip BMD was an important predictor of fracture risk. The prediction of hip fracture with hip BMD also depended on age and z score. INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to quantify the relationship between BMD and fracture risk and examine the effect of age, sex, time since measurement, and initial BMD value. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 9891 men and 29,082 women from 12 cohorts comprising EVOS/EPOS, EPIDOS, OFELY, CaMos, Rochester, Sheffield, Rotterdam, Kuopio, DOES, Hiroshima, and 2 cohorts from Gothenburg. Cohorts were followed for up to 16.3 years and a total of 168,366 person-years. The effect of BMD on fracture risk was examined using a Poisson model in each cohort and each sex separately. Results of the different studies were then merged using weighted coefficients. RESULTS: BMD measurement at the femoral neck with DXA was a strong predictor of hip fractures both in men and women with a similar predictive ability. At the age of 65 years, risk ratio increased by 2.94 (95% CI = 2.02-4.27) in men and by 2.88 (95% CI = 2.31-3.59) in women for each SD decrease in BMD. However, the effect was dependent on age, with a significantly higher gradient of risk at age 50 years than at age 80 years. Although the gradient of hip fracture risk decreased with age, the absolute risk still rose markedly with age. For any fracture and for any osteoporotic fracture, the gradient of risk was lower than for hip fractures. At the age of 65 years, the risk of osteoporotic fractures increased in men by 1.41 per SD decrease in BMD (95% CI = 1.33-1.51) and in women by 1.38 per SD (95% CI = 1.28-1.48). In contrast with hip fracture risk, the gradient of risk increased with age. For the prediction of any osteoporotic fracture (and any fracture), there was a higher gradient of risk the lower the BMD. At a z score of -4 SD, the risk gradient was 2.10 per SD (95% CI = 1.63-2.71) and at a z score of -1 SD, the risk was 1.73 per SD (95% CI = 1.59-1.89) in men and women combined. A similar but less pronounced and nonsignificant effect was observed for hip fractures. Data for ultrasound and peripheral measurements were available from three cohorts. The predictive ability of these devices was somewhat less than that of DXA measurements at the femoral neck by age, sex, and BMD value. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that BMD is a risk factor for fracture of substantial importance and is similar in both sexes. Its validation on an international basis permits its use in case finding strategies. Its use should, however, take account of the variations in predictive value with age and BMD.
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5.
  • Armbrecht, Gabriele, et al. (författare)
  • Degenerative inter-vertebral disc disease osteochondrosis intervertebralis in Europe : Prevalence, geographic variation and radiological correlates in men and women aged 50 and over
  • Ingår i: Rheumatology. - : Oxford University Press. - 1462-0324. ; 56:7, s. 1189-1199
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives. To assess the prevalences across Europe of radiological indices of degenerative inter-vertebral disc disease (DDD); and to quantify their associations with, age, sex, physical anthropometry, areal BMD (aBMD) and change in aBMD with time. Methods. In the population-based European Prospective Osteoporosis Study, 27 age-stratified samples of men and women from across the continent aged 50+ years had standardized lateral radiographs of the lumbar and thoracic spine to evaluate the severity of DDD, using the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) scale. Measurements of anterior, mid-body and posterior vertebral heights on all assessed vertebrae from T4 to L4 were used to generate indices of end-plate curvature. Results. Images from 10 132 participants (56% female, mean age 63.9 years) passed quality checks. Overall, 47% of men and women had DDD grade 3 or more in the lumbar spine and 36% in both thoracic and lumbar spine. Risk ratios for DDD grades 3 and 4, adjusted for age and anthropometric determinants, varied across a three-fold range between centres, yet prevalences were highly correlated in men and women. DDD was associated with flattened, non-ovoid inter-vertebral disc spaces. KL grade 4 and loss of inter-vertebral disc space were associated with higher spine aBMD. Conclusion. KL grades 3 and 4 are often used clinically to categorize radiological DDD. Highly variable European prevalences of radiologically defined DDD grades 3+ along with the large effects of age may have growing and geographically unequal health and economic impacts as the population ages. These data encourage further studies of potential genetic and environmental causes.
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6.
  • Boonen, Steven, et al. (författare)
  • Influence of bone remodelling rate on quantitative ultrasound parameters at the calcaneus and DXA BMDa of the hip and spine in middle-aged and elderly European men: the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS)
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Endocrinology. - : Society of the European Journal of Endocrinology. - 1479-683X. ; 165:6, s. 977-986
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To assess the influence of sex hormones on markers of bone turnover and to explore the association between these markers and bone health in middle-aged and elderly European men. Design: A cross-sectional population-based survey. Methods: Men aged 40-79 years were recruited from population registers in eight European centres. Subjects completed a postal questionnaire which included questions concerning lifestyle and were invited to undergo quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the calcaneus and to provide a fasting blood sample from which the bone markers serum N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP) and crosslinks (beta C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide (beta-cTX)), total testosterone, total oestradiol (E-2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) were measured. Dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the hip and lumbar spine was performed in two centres. Results: A total of 3120, mean age 59.9 years (S.D. = 11.0) were included. After adjustment for centre, age, height, weight, lifestyle factors, season and other hormones, total and free E-2 were negatively associated with beta-cTX but not P1NP while SHBG, IGF1 and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were positively associated with both beta-cTX and P1NP. Total or free testosterone was not independently associated with either bone marker. After the same adjustments, higher levels of both bone markers were significantly associated with lower QUS parameters and lower DXA-assessed bone density at the total hip and lumbar spine. Conclusions: E-2, SHBG, IGF1 and PTH contribute significantly to the regulation/rate of bone turnover in middle-aged and older European men. Higher rates of bone remodelling are negatively associated with male bone health.
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7.
  • Cook, Michael J., et al. (författare)
  • Frailty and bone health in European men
  • Ingår i: Age and Ageing. - : Oxford University Press. - 0002-0729. ; 46:4, s. 635-641
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: frailty is associated with an increased risk of fragility fractures. Less is known, however, about the association between frailty and bone health.Methods: men aged 40-79 years were recruited from population registers in eight European centres for participation in the European Male Aging Study. Subjects completed a comprehensive assessment which included quantitative ultrasound (QUS) scan of the heel (Hologic-SAHARA) and in two centres, dual-energy bone densitometry (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, DXA). Frailty was defined based on an adaptation of Fried's phenotype criteria and a frailty index (FI) was constructed. The association between frailty and the QUS and DXA parameters was determined using linear regression, with adjustments for age, body mass index and centre.Results: in total, 3,231 subjects contributed data to the analysis. Using the Fried categorisation of frailty, pre-frail and frail men had significantly lower speed of sound (SOS), broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and quantitative ultrasound index (QUI) compared to robust men (P< 0.05). Similar results were seen using the FI after categorisation into 'high', 'medium' and 'low' levels of frailty. Using the Fried categorisation, frail men had lower femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) compared to robust men (P < 0.05), but not lower lumbar spine BMD. Using the FI categorisation, a 'high' level of frailty (FI > 0.35) was associated with lower lumbar spine BMD (P < 0.05) when compared to those with low (FI < 0.2), but not lower femoral neck BMD. When analysed as a continuous variable, higher FI was linked with lower SOS, BUA and QUI (P < 0.05).Conclusions: optimisation of bone health as well as prevention of falls should be considered as strategies to reduce fractures in frail older people.
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8.
  • Corona, Giovanni, et al. (författare)
  • Age-Related Changes in General and Sexual Health in Middle-Aged and Older Men: Results from the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS)
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Sexual Medicine. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1743-6109. ; 7:4, s. 1362-1380
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction. Limited information is available concerning the general and sexual health status of European men. Aim. To investigate the age-related changes in general and sexual health in middle-aged and older men from different countries of the European Union. Methods. This is a cross-sectional multicenter survey performed on a sample of 3,369 community-dwelling men aged 40-79 years old (mean 60 +/- 11 years). Subjects were randomly selected from eight European centers including centers from nontransitional (Florence [Italy], Leuven [Belgium], Malmo [Sweden], Manchester [United Kingdom], Santiago de Compostela [Spain]) and transitional countries (Lodz [Poland], Szeged [Hungary], Tartu [Estonia]). Main Outcome Measures. Different parameters were evaluated including the Beck's Depression Inventory for the quantification of depressive symptoms, the Short Form-36 Health Survey for the assessment of the quality of life (QoL), the International Prostate Symptom Score for the evaluation of lower urinary tract symptoms, and the European Male Ageing Study sexual function questionnaire for the study of sexual function. Results. More than 50% of subjects reported the presence of one or more common morbidities. Overall, hypertension (29%), obesity (24%), and heart diseases (16%) were the most prevalent conditions. Around 30% of men reported erectile dysfunction (ED) and 6% reported severe orgasmic impairment, both of which were closely associated with age and concomitant morbidities. Only 38% of men reporting ED were concerned about it. Furthermore, concern about ED increased with age, peaking in the 50-59 years age band, but decreased thereafter. Men in transitional countries reported a higher prevalence of morbidities and impairment of sexual function as well as a lower QoL. Conclusion. Sexual health declined while concomitant morbidities increased in European men as a function of age. The burden of general and sexual health is higher in transitional countries, emphasizing the need to develop more effective strategies to promote healthy aging for men in these countries. Corona G, Lee DM, Forti G, O'Connor DB, Maggi M, O'Neill TW, Pendleton N, Bartfai G, Boonen S, Casanueva FF, Finn JD, Giwercman A, Han TS, Huhtaniemi IT, Kula K, Lean MEJ, Punab M, Silman AJ, Vanderschueren D, Wu FCW, and EMAS Study Group. Age-related changes in general and sexual health in middle-aged and older men: Results from the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS). J Sex Med 2010;7:1362-1380.
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9.
  • Han, Thang S., et al. (författare)
  • Impaired quality of life and sexual function in overweight and obese men: the European Male Ageing Study
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Endocrinology. - : Society of the European Journal of Endocrinology. - 1479-683X. ; 164:6, s. 1003-1011
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Few published data link overweight and obesity with measures of quality of life (QoL) including sexual health in men. Objective: To assess the association of overweight/obesity with impairment of physical and psychological QoL and sexual functions in men. Design and setting: Cross-sectional, multicentre survey of 3369 community-dwelling men aged 40-79 (mean +/- S.D., 60 +/- 11) years randomly selected from eight European centres. Outcomes: Adiposity was assessed by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), QoL and functional impairments by physical and psychological function domains of the Short Form-36 questionnaire, Beck's Depression Inventory and the European Male Ageing Study sexual function questionnaire. Results: Complete data on sexual activities and erectile function were available in 2734 (92%) and 3193 (95%) of the participants respectively. From the population studied, 814 men were obese (BMI >= 30 kg/m(2)) and 1171 had WC >= 102 cm, 25% of all men were unable to do vigorous activity and 2-13% reported depressive symptoms. Symptoms of sexual dysfunction ranged between 22% (low sexual desire) and 40% (infrequent morning erections) of the participants. Among obese men with both BMI >= 30 kg/m(2) and WC >= 102 cm, at least one symptom of impaired physical, psychological and sexual function was reported by 41, 43 and 73% of the participants respectively. Compared with the reference group of non-obese men (BMI < 30 kg/m(2) and WC < 102cm), men with BMI >= 30 kg/m(2) and WC >= 102 cm more frequently reported at least one symptom of impaired physical function (odds ratio (OR)=2.67; confidence interval (CI): 2.07-3.45, P < 0.001), impaired psychological function (OR=1.48; CI: 1.14-1.90, P < 0.01) and impaired sexual function (OR=1.45; CI: 1.14-1.85, P < 0.01). These functional impairments were also more prevalent in men who had WC >= 102 cm even with BMI < 30 kg/m(2), but those with BMI >= 30 kg/m(2) and WC < 102 cm generally did not suffer from increased impaired physical or sexual health. Men with high BMI and WC were at even greater likelihood of having a composite of two or more or three or more symptoms compared with those with normal BMI and WC. Conclusions: Men with high WC, including those who are 'non-obese' with BMI < 30 kg/m(2), have poor QoL with symptoms of impaired physical, psychological and sexual functions. Health promotion to improve QoL should focus on prevention of obesity and central fat accumulation.
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10.
  • Herrick, Ariane L, et al. (författare)
  • Treatment outcome in early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis : The European Scleroderma Observational Study (ESOS)
  • Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. - : British Medical Association. - 0003-4967 .- 1468-2060. ; 76:7, s. 1207-1218
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: The rarity of early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (dcSSc) makes randomised controlled trials very difficult. We aimed to use an observational approach to compare effectiveness of currently used treatment approaches. Methods: This was a prospective, observational cohort study of early dcSSc (within three years of onset of skin thickening). Clinicians selected one of four protocols for each patient: methotrexate, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), cyclophosphamide or 'no immunosuppressant'. Patients were assessed three-monthly for up to 24 months. The primary outcome was the change in modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS). Confounding by indication at baseline was accounted for using inverse probability of treatment (IPT) weights. As a secondary outcome, an IPT-weighted Cox model was used to test for differences in survival. Results Of 326 patients recruited from 50 centres, 65 were prescribed methotrexate, 118 MMF, 87 cyclophosphamide and 56 no immunosuppressant. 276 (84.7%) patients completed 12 and 234 (71.7%) 24 months follow-up (or reached last visit date). There were statistically significant reductions in mRSS at 12 months in all groups: -4.0 (-5.2 to -2.7) units for methotrexate, -4.1 (-5.3 to -2.9) for MMF, -3.3 (-4.9 to -1.7) for cyclophosphamide and -2.2 (-4.0 to -0.3) for no immunosuppressant (p value for between-group differences=0.346). There were no statistically significant differences in survival between protocols before (p=0.389) or after weighting (p=0.440), but survival was poorest in the no immunosuppressant group (84.0%) at 24 months. Conclusions: These findings may support using immunosuppressants for early dcSSc but suggest that overall benefit is modest over 12 months and that better treatments are needed.
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