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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Simon Sylvain) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Simon Sylvain)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 19
  • [1]2Nästa
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1.
  • Kattge, Jens, et al. (författare)
  • TRY plant trait database - enhanced coverage and open access
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Global Change Biology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1354-1013 .- 1365-2486. ; 26:1, s. 119-188
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Plant traits-the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants-determine how plants respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, and influence ecosystem properties and their benefits and detriments to people. Plant trait data thus represent the basis for a vast area of research spanning from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology, to biodiversity conservation, ecosystem and landscape management, restoration, biogeography and earth system modelling. Since its foundation in 2007, the TRY database of plant traits has grown continuously. It now provides unprecedented data coverage under an open access data policy and is the main plant trait database used by the research community worldwide. Increasingly, the TRY database also supports new frontiers of trait-based plant research, including the identification of data gaps and the subsequent mobilization or measurement of new data. To support this development, in this article we evaluate the extent of the trait data compiled in TRY and analyse emerging patterns of data coverage and representativeness. Best species coverage is achieved for categorical traits-almost complete coverage for 'plant growth form'. However, most traits relevant for ecology and vegetation modelling are characterized by continuous intraspecific variation and trait-environmental relationships. These traits have to be measured on individual plants in their respective environment. Despite unprecedented data coverage, we observe a humbling lack of completeness and representativeness of these continuous traits in many aspects. We, therefore, conclude that reducing data gaps and biases in the TRY database remains a key challenge and requires a coordinated approach to data mobilization and trait measurements. This can only be achieved in collaboration with other initiatives.
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2.
  • Henry, Isabelle, et al. (författare)
  • Multiple Paternity in Polyandrous Barn Owls (Tyto alba)
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 8:11, s. e80112-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In polyandrous species females produce successive clutches with several males. Female barn owls (Tyto alba) often desert their offspring and mate to produce a 2nd annual brood with a second male. We tested whether copulating during chick rearing at the 1st annual brood increases the male's likelihood to obtain paternity at the 2nd annual breeding attempt of his female mate in case she deserts their brood to produce a second brood with a different male. Using molecular paternity analyses we found that 2 out of 26 (8%) second annual broods of deserting females contained in total 6 extra-pair young out of 15 nestlings. These young were all sired by the male with whom the female had produced the 1st annual brood. In contrast, none of the 49 1st annual breeding attempts (219 offspring) and of the 20 2nd annual breeding attempts (93 offspring) of non-deserting females contained extra-pair young. We suggest that female desertion can select male counter-strategies to increase paternity and hence individual fitness. Alternatively, females may copulate with the 1st male to derive genetic benefits, since he is usually of higher quality than the 2nd male which is commonly a yearling individual.
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3.
  • Abolfathi, Bela, et al. (författare)
  • The fourteenth data release of the sloan digital sky survey : First spectroscopic data from the extended baryon oscillation spectroscopic survey and from the second phase of the apache point observatory galactic evolution experiment
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series. - : IOP Publishing. - 0067-0049. ; 235:2
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The fourth generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV) has been in operation since 2014 July. This paper describes the second data release from this phase, and the 14th from SDSS overall (making this Data Release Fourteen or DR14). This release makes the data taken by SDSS-IV in its first two years of operation (2014-2016 July) public. Like all previous SDSS releases, DR14 is cumulative, including the most recent reductions and calibrations of all data taken by SDSS since the first phase began operations in 2000. New in DR14 is the first public release of data from the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey; the first data from the second phase of the Apache Point Observatory (APO) Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE-2), including stellar parameter estimates from an innovative data-driven machine-learning algorithm known as "The Cannon"; and almost twice as many data cubes from the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO (MaNGA) survey as were in the previous release (N = 2812 in total). This paper describes the location and format of the publicly available data from the SDSS-IV surveys. We provide references to the important technical papers describing how these data have been taken (both targeting and observation details) and processed for scientific use. The SDSS web site (www.sdss.org) has been updated for this release and provides links to data downloads, as well as tutorials and examples of data use. SDSS-IV is planning to continue to collect astronomical data until 2020 and will be followed by SDSS-V.
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4.
  • Allum, Felix, et al. (författare)
  • Coulomb explosion imaging of CH3I and CH2CII photodissociation dynamics
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Chemical Physics. - 0021-9606 .- 1089-7690. ; 149:20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The photodissociation dynamics of CH3I and CH2CII at 272 nm were investigated by time-resolved Coulomb explosion imaging, with an intense non-resonant 815nmprobe pulse. Fragment ion momenta over a widem/z range were recorded simultaneously by coupling a velocity map imaging spectrometer with a pixel imaging mass spectrometry camera. For both molecules, delay-dependent pump-probe features were assigned to ultraviolet-induced carbon-iodine bond cleavage followed by Coulomb explosion. Multi-mass imaging also allowed the sequential cleavage of both carbon-halogen bonds in CH2ClI to be investigated. Furthermore, delay-dependent relative fragment momenta of a pair of ions were directly determined using recoil-frame covariance analysis. These results are complementary to conventional velocity map imaging experiments and demonstrate the application of time-resolved Coulomb explosion imaging to photoinduced real-time molecular motion.
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5.
  • Allum, Felix, et al. (författare)
  • Coulomb explosion imaging of CH3I and CH2ClI photodissociation dynamics
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Chemical Physics. - : American Institute of Physics (AIP). - 0021-9606. ; 149:20, s. 204313-204313
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The photodissociation dynamics of CH3I and CH2ClI at 272 nm were investigated by time-resolved Coulomb explosion imaging, with an intense non-resonant 815 nm probe pulse. Fragment ion momenta over a wide m/z range were recorded simultaneously by coupling a velocity map imaging spectrometer with a pixel imaging mass spectrometry camera. For both molecules, delay-dependent pump-probe features were assigned to ultraviolet-induced carbon-iodine bond cleavage followed by Coulomb explosion. Multi-mass imaging also allowed the sequential cleavage of both carbon-halogen bonds in CH2ClI to be investigated. Furthermore, delay-dependent relative fragment momenta of a pair of ions were directly determined using recoil-frame covariance analysis. These results are complementary to conventional velocity map imaging experiments and demonstrate the application of time-resolved Coulomb explosion imaging to photoinduced real-time molecular motion.
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6.
  • Birney, Ewan, et al. (författare)
  • Identification and analysis of functional elements in 1% of the human genome by the ENCODE pilot project
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 447:7146, s. 799-816
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the generation and analysis of functional data from multiple, diverse experiments performed on a targeted 1% of the human genome as part of the pilot phase of the ENCODE Project. These data have been further integrated and augmented by a number of evolutionary and computational analyses. Together, our results advance the collective knowledge about human genome function in several major areas. First, our studies provide convincing evidence that the genome is pervasively transcribed, such that the majority of its bases can be found in primary transcripts, including non-protein-coding transcripts, and those that extensively overlap one another. Second, systematic examination of transcriptional regulation has yielded new understanding about transcription start sites, including their relationship to specific regulatory sequences and features of chromatin accessibility and histone modification. Third, a more sophisticated view of chromatin structure has emerged, including its inter-relationship with DNA replication and transcriptional regulation. Finally, integration of these new sources of information, in particular with respect to mammalian evolution based on inter- and intra-species sequence comparisons, has yielded new mechanistic and evolutionary insights concerning the functional landscape of the human genome. Together, these studies are defining a path for pursuit of a more comprehensive characterization of human genome function.
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7.
  • Brauße, Felix, et al. (författare)
  • Time-resolved inner-shell photoelectron spectroscopy : From a bound molecule to an isolated atom
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Physical Review A. - : American Physical Society. - 2469-9926 .- 2469-9934. ; 97:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Due to its element and site specificity, inner-shell photoelectron spectroscopy is a widely used technique to probe the chemical structure of matter. Here, we show that time-resolved inner-shell photoelectron spectroscopy can be employed to observe ultrafast chemical reactions and the electronic response to the nuclear motion with high sensitivity. The ultraviolet dissociation of iodomethane (CH3I) is investigated by ionization above the iodine 4d edge, using time-resolved inner-shell photoelectron and photoion spectroscopy. The dynamics observed in the photoelectron spectra appear earlier and are faster than those seen in the iodine fragments. The experimental results are interpreted using crystal-field and spin-orbit configuration interaction calculations, and demonstrate that time-resolved inner-shell photoelectron spectroscopy is a powerful tool to directly track ultrafast structural and electronic transformations in gas-phase molecules.
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8.
  • Burri, Reto, et al. (författare)
  • The genetic basis of color-related local adaptation in a ring-like colonization around the Mediterranean
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Evolution. - 0014-3820 .- 1558-5646. ; 70:1, s. 140-153
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Uncovering the genetic basis of phenotypic variation and the population history under which it established is key to understand the trajectories along which local adaptation evolves. Here, we investigated the genetic basis and evolutionary history of a clinal plumage color polymorphism in European barn owls (Tyto alba). Our results suggest that barn owls colonized the Western Palearctic in a ring-like manner around the Mediterranean and meet in secondary contact in Greece. Rufous coloration appears to be linked to a recently evolved nonsynonymous-derived variant of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene, which according to quantitative genetic analyses evolved under local adaptation during or following the colonization of Central Europe. Admixture patterns and linkage disequilibrium between the neutral genetic background and color found exclusively within the secondary contact zone suggest limited introgression at secondary contact. These results from a system reminiscent of ring species provide a striking example of how local adaptation can evolve from derived genetic variation.
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9.
  • Burt, Michael, et al. (författare)
  • Coulomb-explosion imaging of concurrent CH2 BrI photodissociation dynamics
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Physical Review A. - : American Physical Society. - 2469-9926. ; 96:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The dynamics following laser-induced molecular photodissociation of gas-phase CH2BrI at 271.6 nm were investigated by time-resolved Coulomb-explosion imaging using intense near-IR femtosecond laser pulses. The observed delay-dependent photofragment momenta reveal that CH2BrI undergoes C-I cleavage, depositing 65.6% of the available energy into internal product states, and that absorption of a second UV photon breaks the C-Br bond of CH2Br. Simulations confirm that this mechanism is consistent with previous data recorded at 248 nm, demonstrating the sensitivity of Coulomb-explosion imaging as a real-time probe of chemical dynamics.
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10.
  • Burt, Michael, et al. (författare)
  • Coulomb-explosion imaging of concurrent CH2BrI photodissociation dynamics
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Physical Review A: covering atomic, molecular, and optical physics and quantum information. - 2469-9926 .- 2469-9934. ; 96:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The dynamics following laser-induced molecular photodissociation of gas-phase CH2BrI at 271.6 nm were investigated by time-resolved Coulomb-explosion imaging using intense near-IR femtosecond laser pulses. The observed delay-dependent photofragment momenta reveal that CH2BrI undergoes C-I cleavage, depositing 65.6% of the available energy into internal product states, and that absorption of a second UV photon breaks the C-Br bond of C(H)2Br. Simulations confirm that this mechanism is consistent with previous data recorded at 248 nm, demonstrating the sensitivity of Coulomb-explosion imaging as a real-time probe of chemical dynamics.
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