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Sökning: WFRF:(Simrén Joel 1996)

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1.
  • Simrén, Joel, 1996, et al. (författare)
  • The diagnostic and prognostic capabilities of plasma biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's & dementia : the journal of the Alzheimer's Association. - 1552-5279.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study investigated the diagnostic and disease-monitoring potential of plasma biomarkers in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia and cognitively unimpaired (CU) individuals.Plasma was analyzed using Simoa assays from 99 CU, 107 MCI, and 103 AD dementia participants.Phosphorylated-tau181 (P-tau181), neurofilament light, amyloid-β (Aβ42/40), Total-tau and Glial fibrillary acidic protein were altered in AD dementia but P-tau181 significantly outperformed all biomarkers in differentiating AD dementia from CU (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.91). P-tau181 was increased in MCI converters compared to non-converters. Higher P-tau181 was associated with steeper cognitive decline and gray matter loss in temporal regions. Longitudinal change of P-tau181 was strongly associated with gray matter loss in the full sample and with Aβ measures in CU individuals.P-tau181 detected AD at MCI and dementia stages and was strongly associated with cognitive decline and gray matter loss. These findings highlight the potential value of plasma P-tau181 as a non-invasive and cost-effective diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in AD.
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2.
  • Needham, Edward J, et al. (författare)
  • Complex Autoantibody Responses Occur following Moderate to Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). - 1550-6606.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Most of the variation in outcome following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains unexplained by currently recognized prognostic factors. Neuroinflammation may account for some of this difference. We hypothesized that TBI generated variable autoantibody responses between individuals that would contribute to outcome. We developed a custom protein microarray to detect autoantibodies to both CNS and systemic Ags in serum from the acute-phase (the first 7 d), late (6-12 mo), and long-term (6-13 y) intervals after TBI in human patients. We identified two distinct patterns of immune response to TBI. The first was a broad response to the majority of Ags tested, predominantly IgM mediated in the acute phase, then IgG dominant at late and long-term time points. The second was responses to specific Ags, most frequently myelin-associated glycopeptide (MAG), which persisted for several months post-TBI but then subsequently resolved. Exploratory analyses suggested that patients with a greater acute IgM response experienced worse outcomes than predicted from current known risk factors, suggesting a direct or indirect role in worsening outcome. Furthermore, late persistence of anti-MAG IgM autoantibodies correlated with raised serum neurofilament light concentrations at these time points, suggesting an association with ongoing neurodegeneration over the first year postinjury. Our results show that autoantibody production occurs in some individuals following TBI, can persist for many years, and is associated with worse patient outcome. The complexity of responses means that conventional approaches based on measuring responses to single antigenic targets may be misleading.
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3.
  • Alawode, Deborah O T, et al. (författare)
  • Transitioning from cerebrospinal fluid to blood tests to facilitate diagnosis and disease monitoring in Alzheimer's disease.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of internal medicine. - 1365-2796.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alzheimer's disease (AD) is increasingly prevalent worldwide, and disease-modifying treatments may soon be at hand; hence now, more than ever, there is a need to develop techniques that allow earlier and more secure diagnosis. Current biomarker-based guidelines for AD diagnosis, which have replaced the historical symptom-based guidelines, rely heavily on neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sampling. Whilst these have greatly improved the diagnostic accuracy of AD pathophysiology, they are less practical for application in primary care, population-based and epidemiological settings, or where resources are limited. In contrast, blood is a more accessible and cost-effective source of biomarkers in AD. In this review paper, using the recently proposed amyloid, tau and neurodegeneration [AT(N)] criteria as a framework towards a biological definition of AD, we discuss recent advances in biofluid-based biomarkers, with a particular emphasis on those with potential to be translated into blood-based biomarkers. We provide an overview of the research conducted both in CSF and in blood to draw conclusions on biomarkers that show promise. Given the evidence collated in this review, plasma neurofilament light chain (N), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau; T) show particular potential for translation into clinical practice. However, p-tau requires more comparisons to be conducted between its various epitopes before conclusions can be made as to which one most robustly differentiates AD from non-AD dementias. Plasma amyloid beta (A) would prove invaluable as an early screening modality, but it requires very precise tests and robust pre-analytical protocols.
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4.
  • Ashton, Nicholas J., et al. (författare)
  • Effects of pre-analytical procedures on blood biomarkers for Alzheimer's pathophysiology, glial activation, and neurodegeneration.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's & dementia (Amsterdam, Netherlands). - 2352-8729. ; 13:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We tested how tube types (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid [EDTA], serum, lithium heparin [LiHep], and citrate) and freeze-thaw cycles affect levels of blood biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathophysiology, glial activation, and neuronal injury.Amyloid beta (Aβ)42, Aβ40, phosphorylated tau181 (p-tau181), glial fibrillary acidic protein, total tau (t-tau), neurofilament light, and phosphorylated neurofilament heavy protein were measured using single molecule arrays.LiHep demonstrated the highest mean value for all biomarkers. Tube types were highly correlated for most biomarkers (r > 0.95) but gave significantly different absolute concentrations. Weaker correlations between tube types were found for Aβ42/40 (r = 0.63-0.86) and serum t-tau (r = 0.46-0.64). Freeze-thaw cycles highly influenced levels of serum Aβ and t-tau (P < .0001), and minor decreases in EDTA Aβ40 and EDTA p-tau181 were found after freeze-thaw cycle 4 (P < .05).The same tube type should be used in research studies on blood biomarkers. Individual concentration cut-offs are needed for each tube type in all tested biomarkers despite being highly correlated. Serum should be avoided for Aβ42, Aβ40, and t-tau. Freeze-thaw cycles > 3 should be avoided for p-tau181.
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5.
  • Benussi, Alberto, et al. (författare)
  • Diagnostic and prognostic value of serum NfL and p-Tau181 in frontotemporal lobar degeneration.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry. - 1468-330X. ; 91:9, s. 960-967
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To assess the diagnostic and prognostic value of serum neurofilament light (NfL) and serum phospho-Tau181 (p-Tau181) in a large cohort of patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD).In this retrospective study, performed on 417 participants, we analysed serum NfL and p-Tau181 concentrations with an ultrasensitive single molecule array (Simoa) approach. We assessed the diagnostic values of serum biomarkers in the differential diagnosis between FTLD, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy ageing; their role as markers of disease severity assessing the correlation with clinical variables, cross-sectional brain imaging and neurophysiological data; their role as prognostic markers, considering their ability to predict survival probability in FTLD.We observed significantly higher levels of serum NfL in patients with FTLD syndromes, compared with healthy controls, and lower levels of p-Tau181 compared with patients with AD. Serum NfL concentrations showed a high accuracy in discriminating between FTLD and healthy controls (area under the curve (AUC): 0.86, p<0.001), while serum p-Tau181 showed high accuracy in differentiating FTLD from patients with AD (AUC: 0.93, p<0.001). In FTLD, serum NfL levels correlated with measures of cognitive function, disease severity and behavioural disturbances and were associated with frontotemporal atrophy and indirect measures of GABAergic deficit. Moreover, serum NfL concentrations were identified as the best predictors of survival probability.The assessment of serum NfL and p-Tau181 may provide a comprehensive view of FTLD, aiding in the differential diagnosis, in staging disease severity and in defining survival probability.
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6.
  • Chatterjee, Pratishtha, et al. (författare)
  • Diagnostic and prognostic plasma biomarkers for preclinical Alzheimer's disease.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's & dementia : the journal of the Alzheimer's Association. - 1552-5279.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study involved a parallel comparison of the diagnostic and longitudinal monitoring potential of plasma glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), total tau (t-tau), phosphorylated tau (p-tau181 and p-tau231), and neurofilament light (NFL) in preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD).Plasma proteins were measured using Simoa assays in cognitively unimpaired older adults (CU), with either absence (Aβ-) or presence (Aβ+) of brain amyloidosis.Plasma GFAP, t-tau, p-tau181, and p-tau231 concentrations were higher in Aβ+ CU compared with Aβ- CU cross-sectionally. GFAP had the highest effect size and area under the curve (AUC) in differentiating between Aβ+ and Aβ- CU; however, no statistically significant differences were observed between the AUCs of GFAP, p-tau181, and p-tau231, but all were significantly higher than the AUC of NFL, and the AUC of GFAP was higher than the AUC of t-tau. The combination of a base model (BM), comprising the AD risk factors, age, sex, and apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) ε4 status with GFAP was observed to have a higher AUC (>90%) compared with the combination of BM with any of the other proteins investigated in the current study. Longitudinal analyses showed increased GFAP and p-tau181 in Aβ+ CU and increased NFL in Aβ- CU, over a 12-month duration. GFAP, p-tau181, p-tau231, and NFL showed significant correlations with cognition, whereas no significant correlations were observed with hippocampal volume.These findings highlight the diagnostic and longitudinal monitoring potential of GFAP and p-tau for preclinical AD.
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7.
  • Edén, Arvid, 1975, et al. (författare)
  • Neurochemical biomarkers to study CNS effects of COVID-19: a narrative review and synthesis.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of neurochemistry. - 1471-4159.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neurological symptoms are frequently reported in patients suffering from COVID-19. Common CNS-related symptoms include anosmia, caused by viral interaction with either neurons or supporting cells in nasal olfactory tissues. Diffuse encephalopathy is the most common sign of CNS dysfunction, which likely results from the CNS consequences of the systemic inflammatory syndrome associated with severe COVID-19. Additionally, microvascular injuries and thromboembolic events likely contribute to the neurologic impact of acute COVID-19. These observations are supported by evidence of CNS immune activation in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and in autopsy tissue, along with detection of microvascular injuries in both pathological and neuroimaging studies. The frequent occurrence of thromboembolic events in patients with COVID-19 has generated different hypotheses, among which viral interaction with perivascular cells is particularly attractive, yet unproven. A distinguishing feature of CSF findings in SARS-CoV-2 infection is that clinical signs characteristic of neurotropic viral infections (CSF pleocytosis and blood brain barrier injury) are mild or absent. Moreover, virus detection in CSF is rare, and often of uncertain significance. In this review, we provide an overview of the neurological impact that occur in the acute phase of COVID-19, and the role of CSF biomarkers in the clinical management and research to better treat and understand the disease. In addition to aiding as diagnostic and prognostic tools during acute infection, the use of comprehensive and well characterized CSF and blood biomarkers will be vital in understanding the potential impact on the CNS in the rapidly increasing number of individuals recovering from COVID-19.
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8.
  • Gleerup, H. S., et al. (författare)
  • Saliva Neurofilament Light Chain Is Not a Diagnostic Biomarker for Neurodegeneration in a Mixed Memory Clinic Population
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. - 1663-4365. ; 13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neurodegeneration and axonal injury result in an increasing release of neurofilament light chain (NfL) into bodily fluids, including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood. Numerous studies have shown that NfL levels in CSF and blood are increased in neurodegenerative disorders and monitor neurodegeneration. Saliva is an easily accessible biofluid that could be utilized as a biofluid measurement of Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers. In this study, for the first time, salivary NfL was measured and compared to plasma NfL in a consecutive cohort of patients referred to cognitive assessments. In two mixed memory clinic cohorts, saliva samples were taken from 152 patients, AD (n = 49), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n = 47), non-AD (n = 56), and also 17 healthy controls. In addition, 135 also had a matching plasma sample. All saliva and plasma samples were analyzed for NfL, and the association between saliva and plasma NfL and CSF levels of total tau (t-tau), phosphorylated tau (p-tau), and beta amyloid 1-42 (A beta 42) were investigated. In total, 162/169 had quantifiable levels of salivary NfL by single molecule array (Simoa). No statistically significant differences were found in salivary NfL concentration across the diagnostic groups, but as expected, significant increases were found for plasma NfL in dementia cases (P < 0.0001). There was no association between saliva and plasma NfL levels. Furthermore, saliva NfL did not correlate with CSF A beta 42, p-tau, or tau concentrations. In conclusion, NfL is detectable in saliva but does not reflect neurodegeneration in the brain.
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9.
  • Huebschmann, Nathan A, et al. (författare)
  • Comparing Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) in Serum and Plasma Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Older Adults.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in neurology. - 1664-2295. ; 11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Identification and validation of blood-based biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is of critical importance. There have been calls for more research on mTBI in older adults. We compared blood-based protein marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) concentrations in serum and in plasma within the same cohort of older adults and assessed their ability to discriminate between individuals based on intracranial abnormalities and functional outcome following mTBI. Methods: A sample of 121 older adults [≥50 years old with head computed tomography (CT), n = 92] seeking medical care for a head injury [Glasgow Coma Scale scores of 14 (n = 6; 5.0%) or 15 (n = 115; 95.0%)] were enrolled from the emergency department (ED). The mean time between injury and blood sampling was 3.4 h (SD = 2.1; range = 0.5-11.7). Serum GFAP concentration was measured first using the Human Neurology 4-Plex Assay, while plasma GFAP concentration was later measured using the GFAP Discovery Kit, both on an HD-1 Single molecule array (Simoa) instrument. Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended was assessed 1 week after injury. Results: Both serum and plasma GFAP levels were significantly higher in those with abnormal CT scans compared to those with normal head CT scans (plasma: U = 1,198, p < 0.001; serum: U = 1,253, p < 0.001). The ability to discriminate those with and without intracranial abnormalities was comparable between serum (AUC = 0.814) and plasma (AUC = 0.778). In the total sample, GFAP concentrations were considerably higher in plasma than in serum (Wilcoxon signed-rank test z = 0.42, p < 0.001, r = 0.42). Serum and plasma GFAP levels were highly correlated in the total sample and within all subgroups (Spearman's rho range: 0.826-0.907). Both serum and plasma GFAP levels were significantly higher in those with poor compared to good functional outcome (serum: U = 1,625, p = 0.002; plasma: U = 1,539, p = 0.013). Neither plasma (AUC = 0.653) nor serum (AUC = 0.690) GFAP were adequate predictors of functional outcome 1 week after injury. Conclusions: Despite differences in concentration, serum and plasma GFAP levels were highly correlated and had similar discriminability between those with and without intracranial abnormalities on head CT following an mTBI. Neither serum nor plasma GFAP had adequate discriminability to identify patients who would have poor functional outcome.
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10.
  • Kanberg, Nelly, et al. (författare)
  • Neurochemical signs of astrocytic and neuronal injury in acute COVID-19 normalizes during long-term follow-up.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: EBioMedicine. - 2352-3964. ; 70
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neurologic manifestations are well-recognized features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the longitudinal association of biomarkers reflecting CNS impact and neurological symptoms is not known. We sought to determine whether plasma biomarkers of CNS injury were associated with neurologic sequelae after COVID-19.Patients with confirmed acute COVID-19 were studied prospectively. Neurological symptoms were recorded during the acute phase of the disease and at six months follow-up, and blood samples were collected longitudinally. Healthy age-matched individuals were included as controls. We analysed plasma concentrations of neurofilament light-chain (NfL), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAp), and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15).One hundred patients with mild (n = 24), moderate (n = 28), and severe (n = 48) COVID-19 were followed for a median (IQR) of 225 (187-262) days. In the acute phase, patients with severe COVID-19 had higher concentrations of NfL than all other groups (all p < 0·001), and higher GFAp than controls (p < 0·001). GFAp was also significantly increased in moderate disease (p < 0·05) compared with controls. NfL (r = 0·53, p < 0·001) and GFAp (r = 0·39, p < 0·001) correlated with GDF-15 during the acute phase. After six months, NfL and GFAp concentrations had normalized, with no persisting group differences. Despite this, 50 patients reported persistent neurological symptoms, most commonly fatigue (n = 40), "brain-fog" (n = 29), and changes in cognition (n = 25). We found no correlation between persistent neurological symptoms and CNS injury biomarkers in the acute phase.The normalization of CNS injury biomarkers in all individuals, regardless of previous disease severity or persisting neurological symptoms, indicates that post COVID-19 neurological sequelae are not accompanied by ongoing CNS injury.The Swedish State Support for Clinical Research, SciLifeLab Sweden, and the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation have provided funding for this project.
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