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Sökning: WFRF:(Singh Manish)

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1.
  • Lindahl, Johanna, et al. (författare)
  • Risk Factors for <em>Brucella</em> Seroprevalence in Peri-Urban Dairy Farms in Five Indian Cities.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Tropical medicine and infectious disease. - 2414-6366. ; 4:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Brucellosis is endemic among dairy animals in India, contributing to production losses and posing a health risk to people, especially farmers and others in close contact with dairy animals or their products. Growing urban populations demand increased milk supplies, resulting in intensifying dairy production at the peri-urban fringe. Peri-urban dairying is under-studied but has implications for disease transmission, both positive and negative. In this cross-sectional study, five Indian cities were selected to represent different geographies and urbanization extent. Around each, we randomly selected 34 peri-urban villages, and in each village three smallholder dairy farms (defined as having a maximum of 10 dairy animals) were randomly selected. The farmers were interviewed, and milk samples were taken from up to three animals. These were tested using a commercial ELISA for antibodies against <em>Brucella abortus</em>, and factors associated with herd seroprevalence were identified. In all, 164 out of 1163 cows (14.1%, 95% CI 12.2-16.2%) were seropositive for <em>Brucella</em>. In total, 91 out of 510 farms (17.8%, 95% CI 14.6-21.4%) had at least one positive animal, and out of these, just seven farmers stated that they had vaccinated against brucellosis. In four cities, the farm-level seroprevalence ranged between 1.4-5.2%, while the fifth city had a seroprevalence of 72.5%. This city had larger, zero-grazing herds, used artificial insemination to a much higher degree, replaced their animals by purchasing from their neighbors, were less likely to contact a veterinarian in case of sick animals, and were also judged to be less clean. Within the high-prevalence city, farms were at higher risk of being infected if they had a young owner and if they were judged less clean. In the low-prevalence cities, no risk factors could be identified. In conclusion, this study has identified that a city can have a high burden of infected animals in the peri-urban areas, but that seroprevalence is strongly influenced by the husbandry system. Increased intensification can be associated with increased risk, and thus the practices associated with this, such as artificial insemination, are also associated with increased risk. These results may be important to identify high-risk areas for prioritizing interventions and for policy decisions influencing the structure and development of the dairy industry.</p>
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2.
  • Abbas, Ghazanfar, et al. (författare)
  • Study of CuNiZnGdCe-Nanocomposite Anode for Low Temperature SOFC
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Letters. - 1941-4900. ; 4:4, s. 389-393
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Composite electrodes of Cu0.16Ni0.27Zn0.37Ce0.16Gd0.04 (CNZGC) oxides have been successfully synthesized by solid state reaction method as anode material for low temperature solid oxide fuel cell (LTSOFC). These electrodes are characterized by XRD followed by sintering at various time periods and temperatures. Particle size of optimized composition was calculated 40-85 nm and sintered at 800 degrees C for 4 hours. Electrical conductivity of 4.14 S/cm was obtained at a temperature of 550 degrees C by the 4-prob DC method. The activation energy was calculated 4 x 10(-2) eV at 550 degrees C. Hydrogen was used as fuel and air as oxidant at anode and cathode sides respectively. I-V/I-P curves were obtained in the temperature range of 400-550 degrees C. The maximum power density was achieved for 570 mW/cm(2) at 550 degrees C.</p>
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3.
  • Chauhan, Abhimanyu Singh, et al. (författare)
  • Community, system and policy level drivers of bovine tuberculosis in smallholder periurban dairy farms in India a qualitative enquiry
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: BMC Public Health. - 1471-2458 .- 1471-2458. ; 19
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>Background</strong></p><p>Rapid urbanization has led to expansion of peri-urban fringes, where intensive, industry-style livestock rearing has led to emerging vulnerabilities at the human-animal-environment interface. This study was undertaken to understand the health system and farm-level factors that influenced the risk of transmission of bovine Tuberculosis (bTB) in animals and humans in peri-urban smallholder dairy farms of India.</p><p><strong>Methods</strong></p><p>Thematic guides were developing through literature review and expert consultation. In-depth interviews were conducted till attainment of saturation. Identification of core themes was followed by etiological enquiry and generation of a conceptual model.</p><p><strong>Results</strong></p><p>Veterinarians were consulted as a last resort after home-remedies and quacks had failed. Damage control measures, especially with respect to- selling or abandoning sick animals, added to the risk of disease transmission. Although civic authorities believed in the adequacy of a functioning laboratory network, end users were aggrieved at the lack of services. Despite the presence of extension services, knowledge and awareness was limited, promoting risky behaviour. The absence of cogent policies in dealing with bTB was a significant barrier. Stakeholders did not consider bTB to be a major concern. It is possible that they underestimate the problem.</p><p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p><p>The current study helps to identify gaps which need to be addressed through collaborative research, and OneHealth interventions to build community awareness.</p>
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4.
  • Chauhan, Abhimanyu Singh, et al. (författare)
  • The social biography of antibiotic use in smallholder dairy farms in India
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control. - BIOMED CENTRAL LTD. - 2047-2994 .- 2047-2994. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has been identified as one of the major threats to global health, food security and development today. While there has been considerable attention about the use and misuse of antibiotics amongst human populations in both research and policy environments, there is no definitive estimate of the extent of misuse of antibiotics in the veterinary sector and its contribution to AMR in humans. In this study, we explored the drivers of irrational usage of verterinary antibiotics in the dairy farming sector in peri-urban India.</p><p>Methods and materials: The study was conducted in the peri-urban belts of Ludhiana, Guwahati and Bangalore. A total of 54 interviews (formal and non-formal) were carried out across these three sites. Theme guides were developed to explore different drivers of veterinary antimicrobial use. Data was audio recorded and transcribed. Analysis of the coded data set was carried out using AtlasTi. Version 7. Themes emerged inductively from the set of codes.</p><p>Results: Findings were presented based on concept of 'levels of analyses'. Emergent themes were categorised as individual, health systems, and policy level drivers. Low level of knowledge related to antibiotics among farmers, active informal service providers, direct marketing of drugs to the farmers and easily available antibiotics, dispensed without appropriate prescriptions contributed to easy access to antibiotics, and were identified to be the possible drivers contributing to the non-prescribed and self-administered use of antibiotics in the dairy farms.</p><p>Conclusions: Smallholding dairy farmers operated within very small margins of profits. The paucity of formal veterinary services at the community level, coupled with easy availability of antibiotics and the need to ensure profits and minimise losses, promoted non-prescribed antibiotic consumption. It is essential that these local drivers of irrational antibiotic use are understood in order to develop interventions and policies that seek to reduce antibiotic misuse.</p>
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5.
  • Ghail, Richard C., et al. (författare)
  • EnVision : taking the pulse of our twin planet
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Experimental astronomy (Print). - 0922-6435 .- 1572-9508. ; 33:2-3, s. 337-363
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>EnVision is an ambitious but low-risk response to ESA's call for a medium-size mission opportunity for a launch in 2022. Venus is the planet most similar to Earth in mass, bulk properties and orbital distance, but has evolved to become extremely hostile to life. EnVision's 5-year mission objectives are to determine the nature of and rate of change caused by geological and atmospheric processes, to distinguish between competing theories about its evolution and to help predict the habitability of extrasolar planets. Three instrument suites will address specific surface, atmosphere and ionosphere science goals. The Surface Science Suite consists of a 2.2 m(2) radar antenna with Interferometer, Radiometer and Altimeter operating modes, supported by a complementary IR surface emissivity mapper and an advanced accelerometer for orbit control and gravity mapping. This suite will determine topographic changes caused by volcanic, tectonic and atmospheric processes at rates as low as 1 mm a (-aEuro parts per thousand 1). The Atmosphere Science Suite consists of a Doppler LIDAR for cloud top altitude, wind speed and mesospheric structure mapping, complemented by IR and UV spectrometers and a spectrophotopolarimeter, all designed to map the dynamic features and compositions of the clouds and middle atmosphere to identify the effects of volcanic and solar processes. The Ionosphere Science Suite uses a double Langmiur probe and vector magnetometer to understand the behaviour and long-term evolution of the ionosphere and induced magnetosphere. The suite also includes an interplanetary particle analyser to determine the delivery rate of water and other components to the atmosphere.</p>
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6.
  • Jayne, David R W, et al. (författare)
  • Glomerulonephritides.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association. - Oxford University Press. - 1460-2385. ; 29 Suppl 3, s. 27-29
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)
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7.
  • Jing, Yifu, et al. (författare)
  • Synthesis and electrochemical performances of linicuzn oxides as anode and cathode catalyst for low temperature solid oxide fuel cell
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. - 1533-4880 .- 1533-4899. ; 12:6, s. 5102-5105
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Low temperature solid oxide fuel cell (LTSOFC, 300-600 °C) is developed with advantages compared to conventional SOFC (800-1000 °C). The electrodes with good catalytic activity, high electronic and ionic conductivity are required to achieve high power output. In this work, a LiNiCuZn oxides as anode and cathode catalyst is prepared by slurry method. The structure and morphology of the prepared LiNiCuZn oxides are characterized by X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The LiNiCuZn oxides prepared by slurry method are nano Li 0.28Ni 0.72O, ZnO and CuO compound. The nano-crystallites are congregated to form ball-shape particles with diameter of 800-1000 nm. The LiNiCuZn oxides electrodes exhibits high ion conductivity and low polarization resistance to hydrogen oxidation reaction and oxygen reduction reaction at low temperature. The LTSOFC using the LiNiCuZn oxides electrodes demonstrates good cell performance of 1000 mW cm -2 when it operates at 470 °C. It is considered that nano-composite would be an effective way to develop catalyst for LTSOFC.</p>
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8.
  • Kakkar, Manish, et al. (författare)
  • Antimicrobial resistance in South East Asia time to ask the right questions
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Global Health Action. - 1654-9716 .- 1654-9880. ; 11:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has emerged as a major public health concern, around which the international leadership has come together to form strategic partnerships and action plans. The main driving force behind the emergence of AMR is selection pressure created due to consumption of antibiotics. Consumption of antibiotics in human as well as animal sectors are driven by a complex interplay of determinants, many of which are typical to the local settings. Several sensitive and essential realities are tied with antibiotic consumption - food security, livelihoods, poverty alleviation, healthcare access and national economies, to name a few. That makes one-size-fits-all policies, framed with the developed country context in mind, inappropriate for developing countries. Many countries in the South East Asian Region have some policy structures in place to deal with AMR, but most of them lack detailed implementation plans or monitoring structures. In this current debates piece, the authors argue that the principles driving the AMR agenda in the South East Asian countries need to be dealt with using locally relevant policy structures. Strategies, which have successfully reduced the burden of AMR in the developed countries, should be evaluated in the developing country contexts instead of ad hoc implementation. The Global Action Plan on AMR encourages member states to develop locally relevant National Action Plans on AMR. This policy position should be leveraged to develop and deploy locally relevant strategies, which are based on a situation analysis of the local systems, and are likely to meet the needs of the individual member states.</p>
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9.
  • Kumar, Manish, et al. (författare)
  • Arsenic enrichment in groundwater in the middle Gangetic Plain of Ghazipur District in Uttar Pradesh, India
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geochemical Exploration. - 0375-6742 .- 1879-1689. ; 105:3, s. 83-94
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Groundwater with high geogenic arsenic (As) is extensively present in the Holocene alluvial aquifers of Ghazipur District in the middle Gangetic Plain, India. A shift in the climatic conditions, weathering of carbonate and silicate minerals, surface water interactions, ion exchange, redox processes, and anthropogenic activities are responsible for high concentrations of cations, anions and As in the groundwater. The spatial and temporal variations for As concentrations were greater in the pre-monsoon (6.4-259.5 mu g/L) when compared to the post-monsoon period (5.1-205.5 mu g/L). The As enrichment was encountered in the sampling sites that were close to the Ganges River (i.e. south and southeast part of Ghazipur district). The depth profile of As revealed that low concentrations of NO3- are associated with high concentration of As and that As depleted with increasing depth. The poor relationship between As and Fe indicates the As release into the groundwater, depends on several processes such as mineral weathering, O-2 consumption, and NO3- reduction and is de-coupled from Fe cycling. Correlation matrix and factor analysis were used to identify various factors influencing the gradual As enrichment in the middle Gangetic Plain. Groundwater is generally supersaturated with respect to calcite and dolomite in post-monsoon period, but not in pre-monsoon period. Saturation in both periods is reached for crystalline Fe phases such as goethite, but not with respect to poorly crystalline Fe phases and any As-bearing phase. The results indicate release of arsenic in redox processes in dry period and dilution of arsenic concentration by recharge during monsoon. Increased concentrations of bicarbonate after monsoon are caused by intense flushing of unsaturated zone, where CO2 is formed by decomposition of organic matter and reactions with carbonate minerals in solid phase. The present study is vital considering the fact that groundwater is an exclusive source of drinking water in the region which not only makes situation alarming but also calls for the immediate attention.</p>
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10.
  • Liu, Liang, et al. (författare)
  • The composite electrolyte with an insulation Sm2O3 and semiconductor NiO for advanced fuel cells
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: International journal of hydrogen energy. - Elsevier. - 0360-3199 .- 1879-3487. ; 43:28, s. 12739-12747
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Novel Sm2O3-NiO composite was prepared as the functional electrolyte for the first time. The total electrical conductivity of Sm2O3-NiO is 0.38 S cm(-1) in H-2/air condition at 550 degrees C. High performance, e.g. 718 mW cm(-2), was achieved using Sm2O3-NiO composite as an electrolyte of solid oxide fuel cells operated at 550 degrees C. The electrical properties and electrochemical performance are strongly depended on Sm2O3 and NiO constituent phase of the compositions. Notably, surprisingly high ionic conductivity and fuel cell performance are achieved using the composite system constituting with insulating Sm2O3 and intrinsic p-type conductive NiO with a low conductivity of 4 x 10(-3) S cm(-1). The interfacial ionic conduction between two phases is a dominating factor giving rise to significantly enhanced proton conduction. Fuel cell performance and further ionic conduction mechanisms are under investigation.</p>
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