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Sökning: WFRF:(Sjöholm A.)

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  • [1]234567...8Nästa
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1.
  • Lestinsky, M., et al. (författare)
  • Physics book: CRYRING@ESR
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal: Special Topics. - 1951-6401 .- 1951-6355. ; 225:5, s. 797-882
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The exploration of the unique properties of stored and cooled beams of highly-charged ions as provided by heavy-ion storage rings has opened novel and fascinating research opportunities in the realm of atomic and nuclear physics research. Since the late 1980s, pioneering work has been performed at the CRYRING at Stockholm (Abrahamsson et al. 1993) and at the Test Storage Ring (TSR) at Heidelberg (Baumann et al. 1988). For the heaviest ions in the highest charge-states, a real quantum jump was achieved in the early 1990s by the commissioning of the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt (Franzke 1987) where challenging experiments on the electron dynamics in the strong field regime as well as nuclear physics studies on exotic nuclei and at the borderline to atomic physics were performed. Meanwhile also at Lanzhou a heavy-ion storage ring has been taken in operation, exploiting the unique research opportunities in particular for medium-heavy ions and exotic nuclei (Xia et al. 2002).
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3.
  • Niklasson, Bo, et al. (författare)
  • Prenatal viral exposure followed by adult stress produces glucose intolerance in a mouse model
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - 0012-186X .- 1432-0428. ; 49:9, s. 2192-2199
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis: It has been suggested that the uterine environment may influence metabolic disease occurring later in adult life, and that adult stress may promote disease outcome. Using a mouse model, we tested whether in utero exposure to Ljungan virus (LV) followed by adult exposure to stress produces diabetes. The influence of the timing of viral exposure over the course of pregnancy was also tested. Materials and methods: Pregnant CD-1 mice were exposed i.p. to LV on pregnancy days 4, 8, 12 or 17. Adult male mice from these pregnancies were stressed by being kept in shared cages. Stress only, LV exposure in utero only, and no-stress/no virus exposure groups were also followed. Outcome variables included bodyweight, epididymal fat weight, baseline glucose, glucose tolerance tests (60 and 120 min) and serum insulin. Results: We demonstrated that male mice developed a type 2-like diabetes, including obesity, as adults if infected during pregnancy with LV. Diabetes at the age of 11 weeks was more severe in mice whose mothers were infected earlier than in those whose mothers were infected later in pregnancy. Only animals infected in utero and kept under stress developed diabetes; infection or stress alone did not cause disease. Conclusions/interpretation: This work demonstrates that a type 2 diabetes-like disease can be virus-induced in a mouse model. Early in utero viral insults can set the stage for disease occurring during adult life, but the final manifestation of diabetes is dependent on the combination of early viral exposure and stress in adult life.
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4.
  • Åstrand, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Poststroke Physical Activity Levels No Higher in Rehabilitation than in the Acute Hospital.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases : the official journal of National Stroke Association. - 1532-8511. ; 25:4, s. 938-45
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Returning to physical activity is a common goal for stroke survivors undergoing rehabilitation, and higher levels of activity have been linked to better gait and greater independence in activities of daily living. Our aim was to determine if inpatient rehabilitation settings promoted higher levels of physical activity in stroke survivors than an acute stroke unit setting.
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5.
  • Ahlén Bergman, Emma, et al. (författare)
  • Increased CD4+ T cell lineage commitment determined by CpG methylation correlates with better prognosis in urinary bladder cancer patients
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Clinical Epigenetics. - : BMC. - 1868-7083. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Urinary bladder cancer is a common malignancy worldwide. Environmental factors and chronic inflammation are correlated with the disease risk. Diagnosis is performed by transurethral resection of the bladder, and patients with muscle invasive disease preferably proceed to radical cystectomy, with or without neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The anti-tumour immune responses, known to be initiated in the tumour and draining lymph nodes, may play a major role in future treatment strategies. Thus, increasing the knowledge of tumour-associated immunological processes is important. Activated CD4+ T cells differentiate into four main separate lineages: Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg, and they are recognized by their effector molecules IFN-γ, IL-13, IL-17A, and the transcription factor Foxp3, respectively. We have previously demonstrated signature CpG sites predictive for lineage commitment of these four major CD4+ T cell lineages. Here, we investigate the lineage commitment specifically in tumour, lymph nodes and blood and relate them to the disease stage and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.RESULTS: Blood, tumour and regional lymph nodes were obtained from patients at time of transurethral resection of the bladder and at radical cystectomy. Tumour-infiltrating CD4+ lymphocytes were significantly hypomethylated in all four investigated lineage loci compared to CD4+ lymphocytes in lymph nodes and blood (lymph nodes vs tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes: IFNG -4229 bp p < 0.0001, IL13 -11 bp p < 0.05, IL17A -122 bp p < 0.01 and FOXP3 -77 bp p > 0.05). Examination of individual lymph nodes displayed different methylation signatures, suggesting possible correlation with future survival. More advanced post-cystectomy tumour stages correlated significantly with increased methylation at the IFNG -4229 bp locus. Patients with complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy displayed significant hypomethylation in CD4+ T cells for all four investigated loci, most prominently in IFNG p < 0.0001. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy seemed to result in a relocation of Th1-committed CD4+ T cells from blood, presumably to the tumour, indicated by shifts in the methylation patterns, whereas no such shifts were seen for lineages corresponding to IL13, IL17A and FOXP3.CONCLUSION: Increased lineage commitment in CD4+ T cells, as determined by demethylation in predictive CpG sites, is associated with lower post-cystectomy tumour stage, complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and overall better outcome, suggesting epigenetic profiling of CD4+ T cell lineages as a useful readout for clinical staging.
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6.
  • Arkhammar, P., et al. (författare)
  • Protein kinase C modulates the insulin secretory process by maintaining a proper function of the beta-cell voltage-activated Ca2+ channels
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - : Baishideng Publishers. - 0021-9258 .- 1083-351X. ; 269:4, s. 2743-2749
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the present study an attempt was made to further elucidate the molecular mechanisms whereby protein kinase C (PKC) modulates the beta-cell stimulus-secretion coupling. Regulation of Ca2+ channel activity, [Ca2+]i, and insulin release were investigated in both normal pancreatic mouse beta-cells and in similar beta-cells deprived of PKC activity. [Ca2+]i was measured with the intracellular fluorescent Ca2+ indicator fura-2 and the Ca2+ channel activity was estimated by the whole cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique. To reveal the various isoenzymes of PKC present in the mouse beta-cell, proteins were separated by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Western blotting was performed. The production of inositol phosphates was measured by ion-exchange chromatography and insulin release was measured radioimmunologically. Acute stimulation with the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate resulted in suppression of both the carbamylcholine-induced increase in [Ca2+]i and production of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Under these conditions the increase in [Ca2+]i in response to glucose was similar to that found in control cells. When beta-cells were deprived of PKC, by exposure to 200 nM 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate for 24-48 h, there was an enhanced response to carbamylcholine. This response constituted increases in both the [Ca2+]i signal and production of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Interestingly, cells with down-regulated PKC activity responded more slowly to glucose stimulation, when comparing the initial increase in [Ca2+]i, than control cells. On the other hand, the maximal increase in [Ca2+]i was similar whether or not PKC was present. Moreover, PKC down-regulated cells exhibited a significant reduction of maximal whole cell Ca2+ currents, a finding that may explain the altered kinetics with regard to the [Ca2+]i increase in response to the sugar. Both the alpha and beta 1 forms of the PKC isoenzymes were present in the mouse beta-cell and were also subjected to PKC down-regulation. Hence, either of these isoenzymes or both may be involved in the modulation of phospholipase C and Ca2+ channel activity. Since insulin release under physiological conditions is critically dependent on Ca(2+)-influx through the voltage-gated L-type Ca2+ channels, the kinetics of hormone release was expected to demonstrate a similar delay as that of the [Ca2+]i increase. Although not as pronounced, such a delay was indeed also observed in the onset of insulin release. There was, however, no effect on the total amounts of hormone released. There was,h  owever, no effect on thet  otal amounts of hormone  released.  The present study con- firms that PKC has multiple roles and thereby interacta at different sites  in  the complex series of events consti- tuting  the #?-cell signal-transduction pathway. It is sug- gested that PKC  may  be tonically active and effective in  the maintenance of the phosphorylation state of the voltage-gated  L-type  Ca2+ channel, enabling an appro- priate function of this channel in the insulin secretory process.
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7.
  • Bengtsson, Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • Fungus covered insulator materials studied with laser-induced fluorescence and principal component analysis
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Applied Spectroscopy. - : Society for Applied Spectroscopy. - 1943-3530 .- 0003-7028. ; 59:8, s. 1037-1041
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A method combining laser-induced fluorescence and principal component analysis to detect and discriminate between algal and fungal growth on insulator materials has been studied. Eight fungal cultures and four insulator materials have been analyzed. Multivariate classifications were utilized to characterize the insulator material, and fungal growth could readily be distinguished from a clean surface. The results of the principal component analyses make it possible to distinguish between algae infected, fungi infected, and clean silicone rubber materials. The experiments were performed in the laboratory using a fiber-optic fluorosensor that consisted of a nitrogen laser and an optical multi-channel analyzer system.
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8.
  • Maack, Heidrun Petursdottir, et al. (författare)
  • Maternal body mass index moderates antenatal depression effects on infant birthweight
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2045-2322 .- 2045-2322. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Obesity and depression are two common medical problems that pregnant women present with in antenatal care. Overweight and obesity at the beginning of the pregnancy, and excessive weight gain during pregnancy, are independent explanatory variables for fetal birthweight and independent risk factors for giving birth to a large for gestational age (LGA) infant. However, the effect of co-morbid depression has received little attention. This study set out to investigate if maternal body mass index (BMI) in early pregnancy moderates antenatal depression effects on infant birthweight. 3965 pregnant women participated in this longitudinal cohort study, where cases (n = 178) had Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score >= 17 in gestational week 17 or 32, and remaining women (n = 3787) were used as controls. The influence of maternal BMI and antenatal depressive symptoms on standardized birthweight was evaluated by analysis of covariance, with adjustment for relevant confounders. Depressed women with BMI 25.0 kg/m(2) or more gave birth to infants with significantly greater standardized birthweight than non-depressed overweight women, whereas the opposite pattern was noted in normal weight women (BMI by antenatal depressive symptoms interaction; F(1,3839) = 6.32; p = 0.012. The increased birthweight in women with co-prevalent overweight and depressive symptoms was not explained by increased weight gain during the pregnancy. Maternal BMI at the beginning of pregnancy seems to influence the association between antenatal depressive symptoms and infant birthweight, but in opposite directions depending on whether the pregnant women is normal weight or overweight. Further studies are needed to confirm our finding.
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10.
  • Mukka, Sebastian, et al. (författare)
  • A cohort study comparing internal fixation for undisplaced versus hip arthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fracture in the elderly : a pilot study for a clinical trial
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Pilot and Feasibility Studies. - : Springer Nature. - 2055-5784. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: The literature regarding undisplaced femoral neck fractures (FNF) is sparse. The aim of this prospective feasibility study is to compare the clinical outcome after undisplaced FNF treated with internal fixation (IF) and displaced FNF treated with hip arthroplasty. We hypothesized that hip arthroplasty would give a lower incidence of reoperations.Methods: A total of 235 patients were included with a median age of 84 years (range 65-99). A consecutive series of 65 patients with undisplaced FNF were treated with IF, and 170 patients with displaced FNF were treated with either a total hip arthroplasty or a hemiarthroplasty. Follow-up interviews were conducted at 1 year using the Harris Hip Score (HHS), WOMAC, and pain numeric rating scale (PNRS). The minimum follow-up time was 22 months. There was no difference in baseline data between the groups.Results: Nineteen (8%) hips required reoperation at least once at a mean of 6 months (range 0-35). The rate of reoperation was higher in the IF group compared to the hip arthroplasty group (13.8% vs. 5.9%, 95% CI 0.9-6.4). The overall 1-year and 2-year mortality was 28% and 40%, respectively, with no difference between the groups. The most common reasons for reoperations in the IF group were non-union and avascular necrosis, and 6 patients were treated with hip or excision arthroplasty. In the arthroplasty group, the most common indications were deep infection and dislocation. We did not find any differences between the groups in terms of HHS, WOMAC, and PNRS.Conclusions: In this feasibility study, we found no differences in patient-reported outcomes between the groups although IF required a higher rate of reoperations. Further randomized trials are needed to establish the optimal treatment of undisplaced FNF in the elderly.Trial registration: ClinicalTrial.org, NCT03392285. Retrospectively registered on 5 February 2018.
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