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1.
  • Wentzensen, Nicolas, et al. (författare)
  • Ovarian Cancer Risk Factors by Histologic Subtype : An Analysis From the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Oncology. - : AMER SOC CLINICAL ONCOLOGY. - 0732-183X .- 1527-7755. ; 34:24, s. 2888-2898
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: An understanding of the etiologic heterogeneity of ovarian cancer is important for improving prevention, early detection, and therapeutic approaches. We evaluated 14 hormonal, reproductive, and lifestyle factors by histologic subtype in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium (OC3).Patients and Methods: Among 1.3 million women from 21 studies, 5,584 invasive epithelial ovarian cancers were identified (3,378 serous, 606 endometrioid, 331 mucinous, 269 clear cell, 1,000 other). By using competing-risks Cox proportional hazards regression stratified by study and birth year and adjusted for age, parity, and oral contraceptive use, we assessed associations for all invasive cancers by histology. Heterogeneity was evaluated by likelihood ratio test.Results: Most risk factors exhibited significant heterogeneity by histology. Higher parity was most strongly associated with endometrioid (relative risk [RR] per birth, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.83) and clear cell (RR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.76) carcinomas (P value for heterogeneity [P-het] < .001). Similarly, age at menopause, endometriosis, and tubal ligation were only associated with endometrioid and clear cell tumors (P-het ≤ .01). Family history of breast cancer (P-het = .008) had modest heterogeneity. Smoking was associated with an increased risk of mucinous (RR per 20 pack-years, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.46) but a decreased risk of clear cell (RR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.94) tumors (P-het = .004). Unsupervised clustering by risk factors separated endometrioid, clear cell, and low-grade serous carcinomas from high-grade serous and mucinous carcinomas.Conclusion: The heterogeneous associations of risk factors with ovarian cancer subtypes emphasize the importance of conducting etiologic studies by ovarian cancer subtypes. Most established risk factors were more strongly associated with nonserous carcinomas, which demonstrate challenges for risk prediction of serous cancers, the most fatal subtype.
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  • Niklasson, Bo, et al. (författare)
  • Prenatal viral exposure followed by adult stress produces glucose intolerance in a mouse model
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - 0012-186X .- 1432-0428. ; 49:9, s. 2192-2199
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis: It has been suggested that the uterine environment may influence metabolic disease occurring later in adult life, and that adult stress may promote disease outcome. Using a mouse model, we tested whether in utero exposure to Ljungan virus (LV) followed by adult exposure to stress produces diabetes. The influence of the timing of viral exposure over the course of pregnancy was also tested. Materials and methods: Pregnant CD-1 mice were exposed i.p. to LV on pregnancy days 4, 8, 12 or 17. Adult male mice from these pregnancies were stressed by being kept in shared cages. Stress only, LV exposure in utero only, and no-stress/no virus exposure groups were also followed. Outcome variables included bodyweight, epididymal fat weight, baseline glucose, glucose tolerance tests (60 and 120 min) and serum insulin. Results: We demonstrated that male mice developed a type 2-like diabetes, including obesity, as adults if infected during pregnancy with LV. Diabetes at the age of 11 weeks was more severe in mice whose mothers were infected earlier than in those whose mothers were infected later in pregnancy. Only animals infected in utero and kept under stress developed diabetes; infection or stress alone did not cause disease. Conclusions/interpretation: This work demonstrates that a type 2 diabetes-like disease can be virus-induced in a mouse model. Early in utero viral insults can set the stage for disease occurring during adult life, but the final manifestation of diabetes is dependent on the combination of early viral exposure and stress in adult life.
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  • Åstrand, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Poststroke Physical Activity Levels No Higher in Rehabilitation than in the Acute Hospital.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases : the official journal of National Stroke Association. - 1532-8511. ; 25:4, s. 938-45
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Returning to physical activity is a common goal for stroke survivors undergoing rehabilitation, and higher levels of activity have been linked to better gait and greater independence in activities of daily living. Our aim was to determine if inpatient rehabilitation settings promoted higher levels of physical activity in stroke survivors than an acute stroke unit setting.
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