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  • Tham, E., et al. (författare)
  • Clinical testing for mutations in the MEN1 gene in Sweden : A report on 200 unrelated cases
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - 0021-972X .- 1945-7197. ; 92:9, s. 3389-3395
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is a tumor syndrome of the parathyroid, endocrine pancreas, and anterior pituitary caused by mutations in the MEN1 gene on 11q13. Objective: The goal of this study was to determine the MEN1 mutation spectrum and detection rate among Swedish patients and identify which patient categories should be tested for MEN1 mutations. Design/Setting/Patients: DNA sequences and referral forms from patients referred to the Department of Clinical Genetics at Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden, for clinical MEN1 mutation screening were analyzed. The mutation status of 371 patients (including 200 probands) was ascertained, and the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay was evaluated for the detection of large deletions. Main Outcome Measure: The main outcome measure was MEN1 genotypes. Results: Forty-eight of 200 index cases (24%) shared 40 different mutations (18 novel). A total of 69% of all mutations resulted in a truncated protein. Two large deletions were detected by MLPA. A total of 94% of all MEN1 families had a mutation in the coding region of the MEN1 gene. A total of 6% of sporadic cases had MEN1 mutations. There was no correlation between severe disease and mutation type or location. Conclusions: A total of 4% of all mutations were large deletions, and MLPA is now included in our standard MEN1 mutation screening. Individuals with at least one typical endocrine tumour and at least one of the following: 1) a first-degree relative with a major endocrine tumor, 2) an age of onset less than 30 yr, and/or 3) multiple pancreatic tumors/parathyroid hyperplasia were most likely to harbor a mutation, thus these patients should be screened for MEN1 mutations. Copyright © 2007 by The Endocrine Society.
  • Carling, Tobias, et al. (författare)
  • Hyperparathyroidism of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 : candidate gene and parathyroid calcium sensing protein expression
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Surgery. - 0039-6060 .- 1532-7361. ; 118:6, s. 924-931
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:Hyperparathyroidism affects most patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1). This study investigates expression of the candidate MEN1 gene phospholipase C beta 3 (PLC beta 3) and expression and function of a putative calcium sensing protein (CAS) in hyperparathyroidism of MEN 1.METHODS:In 31 parathyroid glands from 17 patients with MEN 1, CAS distribution was studied immunohistochemically and parallel sections were explored for PLC beta 3 mRNA expression by in situ hybridization. Enzymatically dispersed parathyroid cells were analyzed for cytoplasmic calcium concentrations [Ca2+]i and parathyroid hormone (PTH) release.RESULTS:All glands exhibited a heterogeneously reduced CAS immunoreactivity, especially meager in nodularly assembled parathyroid cells. Calcium regulated [Ca2+]i and PTH release tended to be more deranged in the glands possessing the lowest immunostaining. Parathyroid PLC beta 3 invariably was homogeneously expressed, and this included even MEN 1 patients with reduced PLC beta 3 expression in endocrine pancreatic tumors.CONCLUSIONS:The findings support variable calcium insensitivity of [Ca2+]i and PTH release in hyperparathyroidism of MEN 1, apparently coupled to heterogeneously reduced CAS expression. For clarification of the role of PLC beta 3 in MEN 1 parathyroid tumorigenesis further study of this protein is required.
  • Ekeblad, S., et al. (författare)
  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumors express the orexigen ghrelin
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Endocrine-related cancer. - 1351-0088 .- 1479-6821. ; 13:3, s. 963-70
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Expression of the neuroendocrine marker synaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2) has been reported in a few cases of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). The goal of the present study was to assess the relevance of this finding and identify a possible hormone production in these tumors. We chose to study the orexigen ghrelin and its receptor, since these patients are seldom cachexic, even in advanced disease stages. We investigated ghrelin expression by means of immunohistochemistry on frozen or paraffin-embedded sections from 22 GISTs from a well-characterized patient material. Expression of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, the ghrelin receptor, was investigated in a subset of lesions. In six tumors, mRNA levels of ghrelin, the ghrelin receptor, and SV2 were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. Totally 17 out of 22 tumors showed immunoreactivity for ghrelin. Five out of ten tumors were immunoreactive for the ghrelin receptor, and all of these co-expressed ghrelin. All tumors expressed ghrelin, ghrelin receptor, and SV2 mRNA. GISTs frequently express SV2, ghrelin, and its receptor, indicating the presence of autocrine/paracrine loops.
  • Ekeblad, Sara, et al. (författare)
  • Temozolomide as monotherapy is effective in treatment of advanced malignant neuroendocrine tumors
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cancer Research. - 1078-0432 .- 1557-3265. ; 13:10, s. 2986-2991
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: A retrospective analysis of the toxicity and efficacy of temozolomide in advanced neuroendocrine tumors. Experimental Design: Thirty-six patients with advanced stages of neuroendocrine tumor (1 gastric, 7 thymic and 13 bronchial carcinoids, 12 pancreatic endocrine tumors, 1 paraganglioma, 1 neuroendocrine foregut, and 1 neuroendocrine cecal cancer) were treated with temozolomide (200 mg/m2) for 5 days every 4 weeks. Patients had previously received a mean of 2.4 antitumoral medical regimens. Tumor response was evaluated radiologically according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors every 3 months on an intent-to-treat basis. The circulating tumor marker plasma chromogranin A was also assessed. The expression of 06-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase, an enzyme implicated in chemotherapy resistance, was studied by immunohistochemistry (n = 23) and compared with response to temozolomide. Results: Median overall time to progression was 7 months (95% confidence interval, 3-10). Radiologic response was seen in 14% of patients and stable disease in 53%. Side effects were mainly hematologic; 14% experienced grade 3 or 4 thrombocytopenia (National Cancer Institute toxicity criteria). Ten patients had tumors with 06-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase immunoreactivity in <10% of nuclei, whereas four patients showed radiologic responses. Conclusions: Temozolomide as monotherapy had acceptable toxicity and antitumoral effects in a small series of patients with advanced malignant neuroendocrine tumors and four of these showed radiologic responses.
  • Eriksson, John, et al. (författare)
  • Surgery and radiofrequency ablation for treatment of liver metastases from midgut and foregut carcinoids and endocrine pancreatic tumors
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: World Journal of Surgery. - 0364-2313 .- 1432-2323. ; 32:5, s. 930-938
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:Many neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) have a tendency to metastasize to the liver. In case of limited number of metastases, liver surgery or radiofrequency ablation (RFA) may result in apparently total clearance of metastases. However, it is not clear whether such therapy will provide symptom reduction or increased survival.METHODS: Seventy-three patients with foregut (n=6) or midgut carcinoids (n=37) or endocrine pancreatic tumors (n=28), and two patients with NETs without discernable origin were studied. Symptoms were evaluated using a Symptom Severity Score. Liver surgery was performed in 42 operations and RFA on 205 lesions.RESULTS:Apparently total clearance of liver metastases was attained in 1 of 6 patients with foregut carcinoids, 15 of 37 with midgut carcinoids, and 13 of 28 with EPT. Symptom improvement was noted in 12 of 17 (70.6%) patients with carcinoid syndrome, and 75% also reduced their 5-HIAA and P-CgA by at least 50%. Patients with nonfunctioning EPT generally had no improvement of symptoms after surgical/RFA liver treatment, but eight patients had functioning EPT, and four of these reduced their biochemical markers by at least 50%. NETs with higher Ki67 index tended to recur more often. Complications occurred in 9 of 45 open surgery procedures, and in 8 of 203 RFA procedures.CONCLUSIONS:Treatment of liver metastases is successful in midgut carcinoid patients with limited liver metastases. Patients with foregut carcinoid and EPTs recur more often, possibly related to higher Ki67 index, and treatment of liver lesions less often reduces symptoms. Liver resections and RFA may be safely performed, and RFA is associated with few complications.
  • Fassnacht, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Combination chemotherapy in advanced adrenocortical carcinoma
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 366:23, s. 2189-2197
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare cancer that has a poor response to cytotoxic treatment.METHODS:We randomly assigned 304 patients with advanced adrenocortical carcinoma to receive mitotane plus either a combination of etoposide (100 mg per square meter of body-surface area on days 2 to 4), doxorubicin (40 mg per square meter on day 1), and cisplatin (40 mg per square meter on days 3 and 4) (EDP) every 4 weeks or streptozocin (streptozotocin) (1 g on days 1 to 5 in cycle 1; 2 g on day 1 in subsequent cycles) every 3 weeks. Patients with disease progression received the alternative regimen as second-line therapy. The primary end point was overall survival.RESULTS:For first-line therapy, patients in the EDP-mitotane group had a significantly higher response rate than those in the streptozocin-mitotane group (23.2% vs. 9.2%, P<0.001) and longer median progression-free survival (5.0 months vs. 2.1 months; hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43 to 0.69; P<0.001); there was no significant between-group difference in overall survival (14.8 months and 12.0 months, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.61 to 1.02; P=0.07). Among the 185 patients who received the alternative regimen as second-line therapy, the median duration of progression-free survival was 5.6 months in the EDP-mitotane group and 2.2 months in the streptozocin-mitotane group. Patients who did not receive the alternative second-line therapy had better overall survival with first-line EDP plus mitotane (17.1 month) than with streptozocin plus mitotane (4.7 months). Rates of serious adverse events did not differ significantly between treatments.CONCLUSIONS:Rates of response and progression-free survival were significantly better with EDP plus mitotane than with streptozocin plus mitotane as first-line therapy, with similar rates of toxic events, although there was no significant difference in overall survival.
  • Granberg, Dan, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical symptoms, hormone profiles, treatment, and prognosis in patients with gastric carcinoids
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Gut. - 0017-5749 .- 1468-3288. ; 43:2, s. 223-228
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Type 1 gastric carcinoids are associated with hypergastrinaemia and chronic atrophic gastritis, type 2 occur in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 combined with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, and type 3 lack any relation to hypergastrinaemia. Type 1 tumours are usually benign whereas type 3 are highly malignant. AIMS: To identify possible tumour markers in patients with gastric carcinoids. PATIENTS/METHOD: Nine patients with type 1, one with type 2, and five with type 3 were evaluated with regard to symptoms, hormone profile, and prognosis. RESULTS: Plasma chromogranin A was increased in all patients but was higher (p < 0.01) in those with type 3 than those with type 1 carcinoids. All patients with type 3 carcinoids died from metastatic disease, but none of the type 1 patients died as a result of their tumours. One type 1 patient with a solitary liver metastasis received interferon alpha and octreotide treatment. Nine months later, the metastasis was no longer detectable. She is still alive eight years after diagnosis, without recurrent disease. This represents the only reported case of foregut carcinoid with an unresectable liver metastasis that seems to be have been cured by biotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma chromogranin A appears to be a valuable tumour marker for all types of gastric carcinoid. Combination therapy with interferon alpha and octreotide may be beneficial in patients with metastasising type 1 gastric carcinoids.
  • Granberg, Dan, et al. (författare)
  • Decreased survival in patients with CD44-negative typical bronchial carcinoid tumors
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 84:5, s. 484-488
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Tumor tissues from 43 patients with typical bronchial carcinoids have been immunostained with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the standard form (CD44s) and the splice variants v4, v5, v6, v7, v7-8, v9 and v10 of the adhesion molecule CD44. The staining results were correlated with clinical data. Ten patients (23%) had regional lymph node metastases at diagnosis. Distant metastases have occurred in 12% of the patients; 9% died during the observation period of median 65 months (14-325). Positive staining for CD44s was correlated with decreased risk for distant metastases and disease related death. All patients with distant metastases were v6-negative. Patients with CD44v7-8-positive tumors had decreased risk for distant metastases, but the differences in mortality did not reach statistical significance. CD44v9 correlated significantly with decreased risk for distant metastases and death. The remaining CD44 variants (v4, v5 and v10) did not correlate significantly with clinical outcome. Our results confirm earlier observations that typical bronchial carcinoids are potentially malignant. However, positive staining for CD44s, v7-8 and v9 seems to be associated with a more favorable outcome, and may be taken into consideration in prognostic evaluation.
  • Granberg, Dan, et al. (författare)
  • Experience in treatment of metastatic pulmonary carcinoid tumors
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Annals of Oncology. - 0923-7534 .- 1569-8041. ; 12:10, s. 1383-1391
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The only cure for patients with pulmonary carcinoids is surgery. In the present paper, we report the results of medical treatment of patients with metastatic tumors, their circulating hormone markers, and immunohistochemical profile of the tumors. PATIENTS AND METHODS/RESULTS: The response to systemic antitumoral treatment was studied in 31 patients with metastatic pulmonary carcinoids. Median survival from treatment start was 25 months. Alpha-interferon treatment has resulted in stable disease in 4 of 27 patients (median duration 15 months), while 23 patients showed progressive disease. Somatostatin analogues given as single drug treatment resulted in progressive disease. Streptozotocin and 5-fluorouracil resulted in progressive disease in seven of seven patients. Stable disease was obtained for 8 and 10 months respectively in two of two patients treated with streptozotocin + doxorubicin. Two of eight patients treated with cisplatinum + etoposide showed a significant decrease in tumor size lasting six and eight months respectively, and one displayed stable disease for seven months. Elevation of plasma chromogranin A was seen in 93%. CONCLUSIONS: The results of systemic antitumoral treatment of pulmonary carcinoids with distant metastases are generally discouraging. Chemotherapy with cisplatinum + etoposide, or doxorubicin combined with streptozotocin or paclitaxel may be of value. Alpha-interferon and octreotide offer efficient symptomatic relief, but stabilizes tumor growth in merely 15% of the cases. Plasma chromogranin A is the most frequently elevated tumor marker.
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