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Sökning: WFRF:(Song Mingyang)

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1.
  • Song, Mingyang, et al. (författare)
  • Antibiotic Use Associated With Risk of Colorectal Polyps in a Nationwide Study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. - : Elsevier. - 1542-3565 .- 1542-7714. ; 19:7, s. 1426-1435.e6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Use of antibiotics affects the composition of the microbiome and might affect development of colorectal polyps, which are precursors to colorectal cancer.METHODS: We performed a nested case-control study in Sweden of 45,744 patients with a colorectal polyp (cases) in the nationwide gastrointestinal ESPRESSO histopathology cohort, using unaffected full siblings as controls (n = 93,307). Polyps were classified by morphology SnoMed codes into conventional adenomas and serrated polyps. Through linkage to the Prescribed Drug Register, we assessed use and cumulative dispensations of antibiotic until 1 year prior to polyp diagnosis for cases and their sibling controls.RESULTS: During a median study period of 6.9 years, compared with non-users, users of antibiotics (including 28,884 cases [63.1%] and 53,222 sibling controls [57.0%]) had a higher risk of colorectal polyps (odds ratio [OR], 1.08; 95% CI, 1.04-1.13). Risk increased with higher number of dispensations (OR for >= 6 dispensations, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.25-1.43) (P-trend <.0001). We observed a stronger association with polyps for broad-spectrumantibiotics (OR comparing users to non-users, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.18-1.29) than for narrow-spectrum antibiotics (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01-1.10), and for tetracyclines and quinolones (OR, 1.21) than penicillin and other classes (ORs ranged from 1.04 to 1.16). The findings remained robust with several sensitivity analyses, including use of a 2-year lead-in period for antibiotic assessment and correction for misclassification in controls. Use of broad-spectrum antibiotics was more strongly associated with risk of serrated polyps (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.21-1.38) compared with risk of conventional adenomas (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.11-1.24). We found no differences in risk of colon vs rectal polyps with antibiotic use (P-heterogeneity >.10). We found stronger associations for younger (<50 years) vs older adults (>= 50 years) for users of quinolones, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, and cephalosporins (P-interaction <.001).CONCLUSIONS: In a nationwide case-control study in Sweden, after accounting for hereditary and early life environmental factors, antibiotic use was associated with increased risk of colorectal polyps. Our findings indicate a role for intestinal dysbiosis in early stages of colorectal carcinogenesis.
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2.
  • Song, Mingyang, et al. (författare)
  • Long-Term Incidence and Mortality of Colorectal Cancer After Endoscopic Biopsy With Normal Mucosa : A Swedish-Matched Cohort Study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Gastroenterology. - : Blackwell Publishing. - 0002-9270 .- 1572-0241. ; 116:2, s. 382-390
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: Endoscopic screening reduces colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality. Individuals with a negative result are recommended to undergo rescreening within a 10-year interval, but evidence supporting this advice is limited.METHODS: We performed a matched cohort study using prospectively collected data from 88,798 individuals in Sweden with normal mucosa at the first colorectal biopsy (aged ≥50 years) in the nationwide gastrointestinal epidemiology strengthened by histopathology reports (ESPRESSO) (1965-2016) and 424,150 matched reference individuals from the general population. Cox proportional hazards regression estimated multivariable hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of CRC incidence and mortality of incident CRCs up to 44 years of follow-up.RESULTS: In the normal biopsy and reference groups, respectively, the 20-year incidences of CRC were 3.03% and 4.53% and the 20-year mortalities of incident CRC were 0.89% and 1.54%. The multivariable hazard ratio comparing the normal biopsy and reference groups was 0.62 for CRC incidence (95% CI = 0.58-0.66, P < 0.001) and 0.56 for mortality of incident CRC (95% CI = 0.49-0.64, P < 0.001). When assessed by time interval after biopsy, lower CRC incidence and mortality were observed throughout the follow-up. The association seemed weaker for proximal colon cancer than for rectal and distal colon cancer.DISCUSSION: A normal colorectal biopsy was associated with lower CRC incidence and mortality for at least 20 years after the examination. Our findings confirm previous data and suggest that the screening intervals after a normal colonoscopy could be longer than the commonly recommended 10 years. It may be time to open the discussion for a revision of the international guidelines.
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3.
  • Song, Mingyang, et al. (författare)
  • Risk of colorectal cancer in first degree relatives of patients with colorectal polyps : nationwide case-control study in Sweden
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: BMJ. British Medical Journal. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 1756-1833. ; 373
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in first degree relatives (parents and full siblings) of patients with precursor lesions (polyps) for CRC.DESIGN: Case-control study.SETTING: Linkage to the multi-generation register and gastrointestinal ESPRESSO (Epidemiology Strengthened by histoPathology Reports in Sweden) histopathology cohort in Sweden.PARTICIPANTS: 68 060 patients with CRC and 333 753 matched controls.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Multivariable adjusted odds ratios of CRC according to the number of first degree relatives with a colorectal polyp and the histology of polyps and age at diagnosis in first degree relatives. Subgroup analysis was also performed according to age at CRC diagnosis and evaluated the joint association of family history of colorectal polyps and family history of CRC.RESULTS: After adjusting for family history of CRC and other covariates, having a first degree relative with a colorectal polyp (8.4% (5742/68 060) in cases and 5.7% (18 860/333 753) in controls) was associated with a higher risk of CRC (odds ratio 1.40, 95% confidence interval 1.35 to 1.45). The odds ratios ranged from 1.23 for those with hyperplastic polyps to 1.44 for those with tubulovillous adenomas. To better put this risk in perspective, the age specific absolute risk of colon and rectal cancers was estimated according to family history of polyps based on the 2018 national CRC incidence in Sweden. For example, the absolute risk of colon cancer in individuals aged 60-64 years with and without a family history of colorectal polyp was, respectively, 94.3 and 67.9 per 100 000 for men and 89.1 and 64.1 per 100 000 for women. The association between family history of polyps and CRC risk was strengthened by the increasing number of first degree relatives with polyps (≥2 first degree relatives: 1.70, 1.52 to 1.90, P<0.001 for trend) and decreasing age at polyp diagnosis (<50 years: 1.77, 1.57 to 1.99, P<0.001 for trend). A particularly strong association was found for early onset CRC diagnosed before age 50 years (≥2 first degree relatives: 3.34, 2.05 to 5.43, P=0.002 for heterogeneity by age of CRC diagnosis). In the joint analysis, the odds ratio of CRC for individuals with two or more first degree relatives with polyps but no CRC was 1.79 (1.52 to 2.10), with one first degree relative with CRC but no polyps was 1.70 (1.65 to 1.76), and with two or more first degree relatives with both polyps and CRC was 5.00 (3.77 to 6.63) (P<0.001 for interaction).CONCLUSIONS: After adjusting for family history of CRC, the siblings and children of patients with colorectal polyps are still at higher risk of CRC, particularly early onset CRC. Early screening for CRC might be considered for first degree relatives of patients with polyps.
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4.
  • Staller, K., et al. (författare)
  • Mortality risk in irritable bowel syndrome: Results from a nationwide prospective cohort study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Gastroenterology. - : Blackwell Publishing. - 0002-9270 .- 1572-0241. ; 115:5, s. 746-755
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: Mortality concern is a frequent driver of care seeking in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Data on mortality in IBS are scarce, and population-based studies have been limited in size. We examined mortality in IBS. METHODS: A nationwide, matched, population-based cohort study was conducted in Sweden. We identified 45,524 patients undergoing a colorectal biopsy at any of Sweden’s 28 pathology departments and with a diagnosis of IBS from 2002 to 2016 according to the National Patient Register, a nationwide registry of inpatient and outpatient specialty care. We compared the mortality risk between these individuals with IBS and age- and sex-matched reference individuals (n 5 217,316) from the general population and siblings (n 5 53,228). In separate analyses, we examined the role of mucosal appearance for mortality in IBS. Finally, we examined mortality in 41,427 patients with IBS not undergoing a colorectal biopsy. Cox regression estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for death. RESULTS: During follow-up, there were 3,290 deaths in individuals with IBS (9.4/1,000 person-years) compared with 13,255 deaths in reference individuals (7.9/1,000 person-years), resulting in an HR of 1.10 (95% confidence interval [CI] 5 1.05–1.14). After adjustment for confounders, IBS was not linked to mortality (HR 5 0.96; 95% CI 5 0.92–1.00). The risk estimates were neutral when patients with IBS were compared with their siblings. The underlying mucosal appearance on biopsy had only a marginal impact on mortality, and patients with IBS not undergoing a colorectal biopsy were at no increased risk of death (HR 5 1.02; 95% CI 5 0.99–1.06). DISCUSSION: IBS does not seem to confer an increased risk of death. Copyright © 2020 by The American College of Gastroenterology.
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5.
  • Archambault, Alexi N., et al. (författare)
  • Cumulative Burden of Colorectal Cancer Associated Genetic Variants Is More Strongly Associated With Early-Onset vs Late-Onset Cancer
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Gastroenterology. - : W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC. - 0016-5085 .- 1528-0012. ; 158:5, s. 1274-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC, in persons younger than 50 years old) is increasing in incidence; yet, in the absence of a family history of CRC, this population lacks harmonized recommendations for prevention. We aimed to determine whether a polygenic risk score (PRS) developed from 95 CRC-associated common genetic risk variants was associated with risk for early-onset CRC. METHODS: We studied risk for CRC associated with a weighted PRS in 12,197 participants younger than 50 years old vs 95,865 participants 50 years or older. PRS was calculated based on single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with CRC in a large-scale genome-wide association study as of January 2019. Participants were pooled from 3 large consortia that provided clinical and genotyping data: the Colon Cancer Family Registry, the Colorectal Transdisciplinary Study, and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and were all of genetically defined European descent. Findings were replicated in an independent cohort of 72,573 participants. RESULTS: Overall associations with CRC per standard deviation of PRS were significant for early-onset cancer, and were stronger compared with late-onset cancer (P for interaction = .01); when we compared the highest PRS quartile with the lowest, risk increased 3.7-fold for early-onset CRC (95% CI 3.28-4.24) vs 2.9-fold for late-onset CRC (95% CI 2.80-3.04). This association was strongest for participants without a first-degree family history of CRC (P for interaction = 5.61 x 10(-5)). When we compared the highest with the lowest quartiles in this group, risk increased 4.3-fold for early-onset CRC (95% CI 3.61-5.01) vs 2.9-fold for late-onset CRC (95% CI 2.70-3.00). Sensitivity analyses were consistent with these findings. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of associations with CRC per standard deviation of PRS, we found the cumulative burden of CRC-associated common genetic variants to associate with early-onset cancer, and to be more strongly associated with early-onset than late-onset cancer, particularly in the absence of CRC family history. Analyses of PRS, along with environmental and lifestyle risk factors, might identify younger individuals who would benefit from preventive measures.
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6.
  • Bozorg, Soran R., 1993-, et al. (författare)
  • Validation of serrated polyps (SPs) in Swedish pathology registers
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: BMC Gastroenterology. - : BMC. - 1471-230X .- 1471-230X. ; 20:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Little is known about the natural history of serrated polyps (SPs), partly due to the lack of large-scale epidemiologic data. In this study, we examined the validity of SP identification according to SNOMED (Systematised Nomenclature of Medicine) codes and free text from colorectal histopathology reports.Methods: Through the ESPRESSO (Epidemiology Strengthened by histoPathology Reports in Sweden) study, we retrieved data on SPs from all pathology departments in Sweden in 2015-2017 by using SNOMED codes and free-text search in colorectal histopathology reports. Randomly selected individuals with a histopathology report of SPs were validated against patient charts using a structured, retrospective review.Results: SPs were confirmed in 101/106 individuals with a histopathology report of SPs, yielding a positive predictive value (PPV) of 95% (95%CI = 89-98%). By year of diagnosis, the PPV was 89% (95%CI = 69-97%), 96% (95%CI = 81-99%) and 97% (95%CI = 89-99%) for individuals diagnosed before 2001 (n = 19), between 2001 and 2010 (n = 26) and after 2010 (n = 61), respectively. According to search method, the PPV for individuals identified by SNOMED codes was 100% (95%CI = 93-100%), and 93% (95%CI = 86-97%) using free-text search. Recorded location (colon vs. rectum) was correct in 94% of all SP histopathology reports (95%CI = 84-98%) identified by SNOMED codes. Individuals with SPs were classified into hyperplastic polyps (n = 34; 32%), traditional serrated adenomas (n = 3; 3%), sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps) (n = 70; 66%), unspecified SPs (n = 3, 3%), and false positive SPs (n = 5, 5%). For individuals identified by SNOMED codes, SSA/Ps were confirmed in 49/52 individuals, resulting in a PPV of 94% (95%CI: 84-98%). In total, 57% had >= 2 polyps (1: n = 44, 2-3: n = 33 and >= 4: n = 27). Some 46% of SPs (n = 71) originated from the proximal colon and 24% were >= 10 mm in size (n = 37). Heredity for colorectal cancer, intestinal polyposis syndromes, or both was reported in seven individuals (7%). Common comorbidities included diverticulosis (n = 45, 42%), colorectal cancer (n = 19, 18%), and inflammatory bowel disease (n = 10, 9%).Conclusion: Colorectal histopathology reports are a reliable data source to identify individuals with SPs.
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7.
  • Huyghe, Jeroen R, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic architectures of proximal and distal colorectal cancer are partly distinct
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Gut. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 0017-5749 .- 1468-3288.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: An understanding of the etiologic heterogeneity of colorectal cancer (CRC) is critical for improving precision prevention, including individualized screening recommendations and the discovery of novel drug targets and repurposable drug candidates for chemoprevention. Known differences in molecular characteristics and environmental risk factors among tumors arising in different locations of the colorectum suggest partly distinct mechanisms of carcinogenesis. The extent to which the contribution of inherited genetic risk factors for CRC differs by anatomical subsite of the primary tumor has not been examined.Design: To identify new anatomical subsite-specific risk loci, we performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses including data of 48 214 CRC cases and 64 159 controls of European ancestry. We characterised effect heterogeneity at CRC risk loci using multinomial modelling.Results: We identified 13 loci that reached genome-wide significance (p<5×10-8) and that were not reported by previous GWASs for overall CRC risk. Multiple lines of evidence support candidate genes at several of these loci. We detected substantial heterogeneity between anatomical subsites. Just over half (61) of 109 known and new risk variants showed no evidence for heterogeneity. In contrast, 22 variants showed association with distal CRC (including rectal cancer), but no evidence for association or an attenuated association with proximal CRC. For two loci, there was strong evidence for effects confined to proximal colon cancer.Conclusion: Genetic architectures of proximal and distal CRC are partly distinct. Studies of risk factors and mechanisms of carcinogenesis, and precision prevention strategies should take into consideration the anatomical subsite of the tumour.
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8.
  • Khankari, Nikhil K, et al. (författare)
  • Mendelian Randomization of Circulating Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Colorectal Cancer Risk.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 29:4, s. 860-870
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Results from epidemiologic studies examining polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and colorectal cancer risk are inconsistent. Mendelian randomization may strengthen causal inference from observational studies. Given their shared metabolic pathway, examining the combined effects of aspirin/NSAID use with PUFAs could help elucidate an association between PUFAs and colorectal cancer risk.METHODS: Information was leveraged from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) regarding PUFA-associated SNPs to create weighted genetic scores (wGS) representing genetically predicted circulating blood PUFAs for 11,016 non-Hispanic white colorectal cancer cases and 13,732 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO). Associations per SD increase in the wGS were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Interactions between PUFA wGSs and aspirin/NSAID use on colorectal cancer risk were also examined.RESULTS: Modest colorectal cancer risk reductions were observed per SD increase in circulating linoleic acid [ORLA = 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.93-0.98; P = 5.2 × 10-4] and α-linolenic acid (ORALA = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.92-0.97; P = 5.4 × 10-5), whereas modest increased risks were observed for arachidonic (ORAA = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.03-1.08; P = 3.3 × 10-5), eicosapentaenoic (OREPA = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.01-1.07; P = 2.5 × 10-3), and docosapentaenoic acids (ORDPA = 1.03; 95% CI = 1.01-1.06; P = 1.2 × 10-2). Each of these effects was stronger among aspirin/NSAID nonusers in the stratified analyses.CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that higher circulating shorter-chain PUFAs (i.e., LA and ALA) were associated with reduced colorectal cancer risk, whereas longer-chain PUFAs (i.e., AA, EPA, and DPA) were associated with an increased colorectal cancer risk.IMPACT: The interaction of PUFAs with aspirin/NSAID use indicates a shared colorectal cancer inflammatory pathway. Future research should continue to improve PUFA genetic instruments to elucidate the independent effects of PUFAs on colorectal cancer.
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9.
  • Kvaerner, A. S., et al. (författare)
  • The CRCbiome study: a large prospective cohort study examining the role of lifestyle and the gut microbiome in colorectal cancer screening participants
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Bmc Cancer. - 1471-2407. ; 21:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening reduces CRC incidence and mortality. However, current screening methods are either hampered by invasiveness or suboptimal performance, limiting their effectiveness as primary screening methods. To aid in the development of a non-invasive screening test with improved sensitivity and specificity, we have initiated a prospective biomarker study (CRCbiome), nested within a large randomized CRC screening trial in Norway. We aim to develop a microbiome-based classification algorithm to identify advanced colorectal lesions in screening participants testing positive for an immunochemical fecal occult blood test (FIT). We will also examine interactions with host factors, diet, lifestyle and prescription drugs. The prospective nature of the study also enables the analysis of changes in the gut microbiome following the removal of precancerous lesions. Methods: The CRCbiome study recruits participants enrolled in the Bowel Cancer Screening in Norway (BCSN) study, a randomized trial initiated in 2012 comparing once-only sigmoidoscopy to repeated biennial FIT, where women and men aged 50-74 years at study entry are invited to participate. Since 2017, participants randomized to FIT screening with a positive test result have been invited to join the CRCbiome study. Self-reported diet, lifestyle and demographic data are collected prior to colonoscopy after the positive FIT-test (baseline). Screening data, including colonoscopy findings are obtained from the BCSN database. Fecal samples for gut microbiome analyses are collected both before and 2 and 12 months after colonoscopy. Samples are analyzed using metagenome sequencing, with taxonomy profiles, and gene and pathway content as primary measures. CRCbiome data will also be linked to national registries to obtain information on prescription histories and cancer relevant outcomes occurring during the 10 year follow-up period. Discussion: The CRCbiome study will increase our understanding of how the gut microbiome, in combination with lifestyle and environmental factors, influences the early stages of colorectal carcinogenesis. This knowledge will be crucial to develop microbiome-based screening tools for CRC. By evaluating biomarker performance in a screening setting, using samples from the target population, the generalizability of the findings to future screening cohorts is likely to be high.
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10.
  • Lee, K. A., et al. (författare)
  • Cancer and Risk of COVID-19 Through a General Community Survey
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Oncologist. - : AlphaMed Press. - 1549-490X .- 1083-7159. ; 26:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Individuals with cancer may be at high risk for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and adverse outcomes. However, evidence from large population-based studies examining whether cancer and cancer-related therapy exacerbates the risk of COVID-19 infection is still limited. Data were collected from the COVID Symptom Study smartphone application since March 29 through May 8, 2020. Among 23,266 participants with cancer and 1,784,293 without cancer, we documented 10,404 reports of a positive COVID-19 test. Compared with participants without cancer, those living with cancer had a 60% increased risk of a positive COVID-19 test. Among patients with cancer, current treatment with chemotherapy or immunotherapy was associated with a 2.2-fold increased risk of a positive test. The association between cancer and COVID-19 infection was stronger among participants >65 years and males. Future studies are needed to identify subgroups by tumor types and treatment regimens who are particularly at risk for COVID-19 infection and adverse outcomes.
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