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Sökning: WFRF:(Sorensen Mette)

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1.
  • Graff, Mariaelisa, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide physical activity interactions in adiposity. A meta-analysis of 200,452 adults
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - Public library service. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 13:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Physical activity (PA) may modify the genetic effects that give rise to increased risk of obesity. To identify adiposity loci whose effects are modified by PA, we performed genome-wide interaction meta-analyses of BMI and BMI-adjusted waist circumference and waist-hip ratio from up to 200,452 adults of European (n = 180,423) or other ancestry (n = 20,029). We standardized PA by categorizing it into a dichotomous variable where, on average, 23% of participants were categorized as inactive and 77% as physically active. While we replicate the interaction with PA for the strongest known obesity-risk locus in the FTO gene, of which the effect is attenuated by similar to 30% in physically active individuals compared to inactive individuals, we do not identify additional loci that are sensitive to PA. In additional genome-wide meta-analyses adjusting for PA and interaction with PA, we identify 11 novel adiposity loci, suggesting that accounting for PA or other environmental factors that contribute to variation in adiposity may facilitate gene discovery.</p>
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2.
  • Hjortshoj, Cristel Sorensen, et al. (författare)
  • Epidemiological changes in Eisenmenger syndrome in the Nordic region in 1977-2012
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Heart. - 1355-6037 .- 1468-201X. ; 103:17, s. 1353-1358
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Improved diagnostic tools, timely closure of the shunt and a better understanding of the complexity of Eisenmenger syndrome (ES) have led to improved care and treatment in tertiary centres. These may have decreased the incidence of ES and improved survival of patients with ES, although evidence is still lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate temporal changes in incidence, prevalence and mortality in patients with ES for 35 years in the Nordic region.</p><p><strong>Methods:</strong> This was a retrospective population-based study including 714 patients with ES. Survival analysis was performed based on all-cause mortality and accounting for immortal time bias.</p><p><strong>Results:</strong> The incidence of ES decreased from 2.5/million inhabitants/year in 1977 to 0.2/million inhabitants/year in 2012. Correspondingly, prevalence decreased from 24.6 to 11.9/million inhabitants. The median survival was 38.4 years, with 20-year, 40-year and 60-year survival of 72.5%, 48.4%, and 21.3%, respectively. Complex lesions and Down syndrome were independently associated with worse survival (HR 2.2, p&lt;0.001 and HR 1.8, p&lt;0.001, respectively). Age at death increased from 27.7 years in the period from 1977 to 1992, to 46.3 years from July 2006 to 2012 (p&lt;0.001).</p><p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The incidence and prevalence of ES in the Nordic region have decreased markedly during the last decades. Furthermore, the median age at death increased throughout the study period, indicating prolonged life expectancy in the ES population. However, increasing age represents decreased incidence, rather than improved survival. Nonetheless, longevity with ES is still shorter than in the background population.</p>
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3.
  • Ostergaard, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Prolonged half-life and preserved enzymatic properties of factor IX selectively PEGylated on native N-glycans in the activation peptide
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Blood. - American Society of Hematology. - 1528-0020. ; 118:8, s. 2333-2341
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Current management of hemophilia B entails multiple weekly infusions of factor IX (FIX) to prevent bleeding episodes. In an attempt to make a longer acting recombinant FIX (rFIX), we have explored a new releasable protraction concept using the native N-glycans in the activation peptide as sites for attachment of polyethylene glycol (PEG). Release of the activation peptide by physiologic activators converted glycoPEGylated rFIX (N9-GP) to native rFIXa and proceeded with normal kinetics for FXIa, while the Km for activation by FVIIa-tissue factor (TF) was increased by 2-fold. Consistent with minimal perturbation of rFIX by the attached PEG, N9-GP retained 73%-100% specific activity in plasma and whole-blood-based assays and showed efficacy comparable with rFIX in stopping acute bleeds in hemophilia B mice. In animal models N9-GP exhibited up to 2-fold increased in vivo recovery and a markedly prolonged half-life in mini-pig (76 hours) and hemophilia B dog (113 hours) compared with rFIX (16 hours). The extended circulation time of N9-GP was reflected in prolonged correction of coagulation parameters in hemophilia B dog and duration of effect in hemophilia B mice. Collectively, these results suggest that N9-GP has the potential to offer efficacious prophylactic and acute treatment of hemophilia B patients at a reduced dosing frequency. (Blood. 2011; 118(8): 2333-2341)
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4.
  • Sondergaard, Mads T., et al. (författare)
  • Calmodulin mutations causing catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia confer opposing functional and biophysical molecular changes
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: The FEBS Journal. - Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 1742-464X. ; 282:4, s. 803-816
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Calmodulin (CaM) is the central mediator of intracellular Ca2+ signalling in cardiomyocytes, where it conveys the intricate Ca2+ transients to the proteins controlling cardiac contraction. We recently linked two separate mutations in CaM (N53I and N97S) to dominantly inherited catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), an arrhythmic disorder in which exercise or acute emotion can lead to syncope and sudden cardiac death. Given the ubiquitous presence of CaM in all eukaryote cells, it is particular intriguing that carriers of either mutation show no additional symptoms. Here, we investigated the effects of the CaM CPVT mutations in a zebrafish animal model. Three-day-old embryos injected with either CaM mRNA showed no detectable pathologies or developmental abnormalities. However, embryos injected with CPVT CaM mRNA displayed increased heart rate compared to wild-type CaM mRNA under -adrenergic stimulation, demonstrating a conserved dominant cardiac specific effect between zebrafish and human carriers of these mutations. Motivated by the highly similar physiological phenotypes, we compared the effects of the N53I and N97S mutations on the biophysical and functional properties of CaM. Surprisingly, the mutations have opposing effects on CaM C-lobe Ca2+ binding affinity and kinetics, and changes to the CaM N-lobe Ca2+ binding are minor and specific to the N53I mutation. Furthermore, both mutations induce differential perturbations to structure and stability towards unfolding. Our results suggest different molecular disease mechanisms for the CPVT (N53I and N97S mutations) and strongly support that cardiac contraction is the physiological process most sensitive to CaM integrity.
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5.
  • Beelen, Rob, et al. (författare)
  • Natural-Cause Mortality and Long-Term Exposure to Particle Components : An Analysis of 19 European Cohorts within the Multi-Center ESCAPE Project
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives. - 0091-6765 .- 1552-9924. ; 123:6, s. 525-533
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: Studies have shown associations between mortality and long-term exposure to particulate matter air pollution. Few cohort studies have estimated the effects of the elemental composition of particulate matter on mortality. Objectives: Our aim was to study the association between natural-cause mortality and long-term exposure to elemental components of particulate matter. Methods: Mortality and confounder data from 19 European cohort studies were used. Residential exposure to eight a priori-selected components of particulate matter ( PM) was characterized following a strictly standardized protocol. Annual average concentrations of copper, iron, potassium, nickel, sulfur, silicon, vanadium, and zinc within PM size fractions &lt;= 2.5 mu m (PM2.5) and &lt;= 10 mu m (PM10) were estimated using land-use regression models. Cohort-specific statistical analyses of the associations between mortality and air pollution were conducted using Cox proportional hazards models using a common protocol followed by meta-analysis. Results: The total study population consisted of 291,816 participants, of whom 25,466 died from a natural cause during follow-up (average time of follow-up, 14.3 years). Hazard ratios were positive for almost all elements and statistically significant for PM2.5 sulfur (1.14; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.23 per 200ng/m(3)). In a two-pollutant model, the association with PM2.5 sulfur was robust to adjustment for PM2.5 mass, whereas the association with PM2.5 mass was reduced. Conclusions: Long-term exposure to PM2.5 sulfur was associated with natural-cause mortality. This association was robust to adjustment for other pollutants and PM2.5.</p>
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6.
  • Bjerregaard, Bine Kjoller, et al. (författare)
  • Tobacco smoke and bladder cancer-in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136. ; 119:10, s. 2412-2416
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between smoking and the development of bladder cancer. The study population consisted of 429,906 persons participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 633 of whom developed bladder cancer during the follow-up period. An increased risk of bladder cancer was found for both current- (incidence rate ratio 3.96, 95% confidence interval: 3.07-5.09) and ex- (2.25, 1.74-2.91) smokers, compared to never-smokers. A positive association with intensity (per 5 cigarettes) was found among current-smokers (1.18, 1.09-1.28). Associations (per 5 years) were observed for duration (1.14, 1.08-1.21), later age at start (0.75, 0.66-0.85) and longer time since quitting (0.92, 0.86-0.98). Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) during childhood increased the risk of bladder cancer (1.38, 1.00-1.90), whereas for ETS exposure as adult no effect was detected. The present study confirms the strong association between smoking and bladder cancer. The indication of a higher risk of bladder cancer for those who start smoking at a young age and for those exposed to ETS during childhood adds to the body of evidence suggesting that children are more sensitive to carcinogens than adults. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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7.
  • Ekman, S., et al. (författare)
  • Treatment (Tx) patterns and overall survival (OS) in patients (pts) with NSCLC in Sweden : : A SCAN-LEAF study analysis from the I-O Optimise initiative
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Annals of Oncology. - Oxford University Press. - 0923-7534. ; 30:Suppl 2, s. 17-17
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: As part of I-O Optimise, a multinational research platform providing real-world insights into the management of lung cancers, the SCAN-LEAF study aims to describe the epidemiology, clinical care and outcomes for pts with NSCLC in Scandinavia. We report initial Tx and OS for pts with NSCLC prior to the availability of immunotherapies in Sweden. Methods: The analysis includes all adult pts diagnosed with NSCLC at Uppsala and Karolinska (Stockholm) University Hospitals from 2012 to 2015 (follow-up to Dec 2016). Electronic medical record data were extracted using Pygargus CXP software and linked with national registries. Bespoke rule-based algorithms were applied to describe Tx patterns; Kaplan–Meier methods were used to estimate OS. Results: 2779 pts were diagnosed with incident NSCLC (median age, 70 yrs [range: 22–96; 14.2% ≥80]; male, 48.5%; histology: non-squamous (NSQ), 70.9%, squamous (SQ), 17.7%, other, 11.4%; stage distribution: I, 19.3%; II, 7.7%; IIIA, 12.3%; IIIB, 7.2%; IV, 51.2%). Initial Tx (≤6 months from diagnosis) by stage and yr of diagnosis is shown in the table. Median OS (months) for NSQ and SQ pts: not reached and 52.8 in stage I, 43.2 and 23.6 in stage II, 26.7 and 20.4 in stage IIIA, 12.5 and 12.9 in stage IIIB, and 7.6 and 6.1 in stage IV, respectively. Among stage IIIB–IV pts, 60.7% (NSQ) and 53.5% (SQ) had ≥1 line of systemic anti-cancer therapy (SACT); median OS was 12.2 (NSQ) and 10.4 (SQ) months in pts on SACT, and 3.1 (NSQ) and 3.7 (SQ) months in pts not on SACT. Ongoing analyses will assess factors associated with SACT receipt in stage IIIB–IV pts. Conclusions: Swedish pts with NSCLC had a high burden of disease, with most diagnosed at stage IV and a median OS of 1 yr in late-stage pts receiving SACT. There is also scope for improved prognosis in pts diagnosed at early stages, particularly in SQ pts. Future analyses will assess the potential impact of recent improvements in diagnostics and therapeutics on Tx patterns and OS in Swedish NSCLC pts.
8.
  • Fuks, Kateryna B., et al. (författare)
  • Arterial Blood Pressure and Long-Term Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution : An Analysis in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives. - 0091-6765 .- 1552-9924. ; 122:9, s. 896-905
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to air pollution has been hypothesized to elevate arterial blood pressure (BP). The existing evidence is scarce and country specific. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the cross-sectional association of long-term traffic-related air pollution with BP and prevalent hyper-tension in European populations. METHODS: We analyzed 15 population-based cohorts, participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). We modeled residential exposure to particulate matter and nitrogen oxides with land use regression using a uniform protocol. We assessed traffic exposure with traffic indicator variables. We analyzed systolic and diastolic BP in participants medicated and nonmedicated with BP-lowering medication (BPLM) separately, adjusting for personal and area-level risk factors and environmental noise. Prevalent hyper-tension was defined as &gt;= 140 mmHg systolic BP, or &gt;= 90 mmHg diastolic BP, or intake of BPLM. We combined cohort-specific results using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: In the main meta-analysis of 113,926 participants, traffic load on major roads within 100 m of the residence was associated with increased systolic and diastolic BP in nonmedicated participants [0.35 mmHg (95% CI: 0.02, 0.68) and 0.22 mmHg (95% CI: 0.04, 0.40) per 4,000,000 vehicles x m/day, respectively]. The estimated odds ratio (OR) for prevalent hyper-tension was 1.05 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.11) per 4,000,000 vehicles x m/day. Modeled air pollutants and BP were not clearly associated. CONCLUSIONS: In this first comprehensive meta-analysis of European population-based cohorts, we observed a weak positive association of high residential traffic exposure with BP in nonmedicated participants, and an elevated OR for prevalent hyper-tension. The relationship of modeled air pollutants with BP was inconsistent.</p>
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9.
  • Fuks, Kateryna B., et al. (författare)
  • Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and traffic noise and incident hypertension in seven cohorts of the European study of cohorts for air pollution effects (ESCAPE)
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - 0195-668X .- 1522-9645. ; 38:13, s. 983-990
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Aims We investigated whether traffic-related air pollution and noise are associated with incident hypertension in European cohorts. Methods and results We included seven cohorts of the European study of cohorts for air pollution effects (ESCAPE). We modelled concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter &lt;= 2.5 mu m (PM2.5), &lt;= 10 mu m (PM10), &gt;2.5, and &lt;= 10 mu m (PMcoarse), soot (PM2.5 absorbance), and nitrogen oxides at the addresses of participants with land use regression. Residential exposure to traffic noise was modelled at the facade according to the EU Directive 2002/49/EC. We assessed hypertension as (i) self-reported and (ii) measured (systolic BP &gt;= 140mmHg or diastolic BP &gt;= 90mmHg or intake of BP lowering medication (BPLM). We used Poisson regression with robust variance estimation to analyse associations of traffic-related exposures with incidence of hypertension, controlling for relevant confounders, and combined the results from individual studies with random-effects meta-analysis. Among 41 072 participants free of self-reported hypertension at baseline, 6207 (15.1%) incident cases occurred within 5-9 years of follow-up. Incidence of self-reported hypertension was positively associated with PM2.5 (relative risk (RR) 1.22 [95%-confidence interval (CI): 1.08; 1.37] per 5 mu g/m(3)) and PM2.5 absorbance (RR 1.13 [95% CI: 1.02; 1.24] per 10(-5) m(-1)). These estimates decreased slightly upon adjustment for road traffic noise. Road traffic noise was weakly positively associated with the incidence of self-reported hypertension. Among 10 896 participants at risk, 3549 new cases of measured hypertension occurred. We found no clear associations with measured hypertension. Conclusion Long-term residential exposures to air pollution and noise are associated with increased incidence of self-reported hypertension.</p>
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10.
  • Graff, Mariaelisa, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide physical activity interactions in adiposity. A meta-analysis of 200,452 adults
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genet. - 1553-7404. ; 13:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Physical activity (PA) may modify the genetic effects that give rise to increased risk of obesity. To identify adiposity loci whose effects are modified by PA, we performed genome-wide interaction meta-analyses of BMI and BMI-adjusted waist circumference and waist-hip ratio from up to 200,452 adults of European (n = 180,423) or other ancestry (n = 20,029). We standardized PA by categorizing it into a dichotomous variable where, on average, 23% of participants were categorized as inactive and 77% as physically active. While we replicate the interaction with PA for the strongest known obesity-risk locus in the FTO gene, of which the effect is attenuated by ~30% in physically active individuals compared to inactive individuals, we do not identify additional loci that are sensitive to PA. In additional genome-wide meta-analyses adjusting for PA and interaction with PA, we identify 11 novel adiposity loci, suggesting that accounting for PA or other environmental factors that contribute to variation in adiposity may facilitate gene discovery.
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