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Sökning: WFRF:(Spak Fredrik 1948)

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  • Spak, Fredrik, 1948, et al. (författare)
  • [The Gothenburg study of women and alcohol: problems during childhood and adolescence important risk factors]
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Lakartidningen. - 0023-7205. ; 98:10, s. 1109-14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This is a part of longitudinal study concerning women and alcohol in Gothenburg. The aim was to find out more about risk factors for alcohol dependence and abuse (ADA) among women in the general population, as well as social conditions and life style among these women. Several indicators of dissatisfactory childhood conditions, and particularly sexual abuse before age 13, were related to ADA in adulthood. Early substance abuse, such as having been intoxicated before age 15 and having used narcotics before 18, was strongly related to future ADA. Our findings point to the need of paying attention to mental health problems in childhood and youth, and to prevent early use of alcohol and drugs.
  • Spak, Lena, 1949, et al. (författare)
  • Factors in childhood and youth predicting alcohol dependence and abuse in Swedish women: Findings from a general population study
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Alcohol and Alcoholism. - 0735-0414. ; 32:3, s. 267-274
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim was to assess risk factors during childhood and youth for alcohol dependence/abuse (ADA) in a population-based study of Swedish women. A total of 316 women were interviewed after stratified random sampling in the general population and a screening questionnaire. The interviews focused on social, psychological and behaviour characteristics as well as on early substance use patterns. Alcohol diagnoses were made according to DSM-III-R and CIDI-SAM. Experiences of sexual abuse before the age of 13 years, a history of psychological or psychiatric problems, early deviant behaviour and an episode of alcohol intoxication before the age of 15 years were significantly associated with ADA in a logistic model. General indicators of low social class were not associated with increased risk of ADA in a multivariate analysis. Sexual abuse in childhood was the strongest predictor of ADA. This association has potential public health importance, and should be addressed in future studies on women and alcohol. PMID: 9199727 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
  • Spak, Lena, 1949, et al. (författare)
  • Sexual abuse and alcoholism in a female population
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Addiction. - 0965-2140. ; 93:9, s. 1365-1373
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS: (1) To study the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse before the age of 18 years (CSA) and life-time sexual abuse (LSA) in a Swedish female, general population, (2) to analyse associations between CSA and life-time alcohol dependence or abuse (ADA), and (3) to identify possible confounding factors. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: The study was conducted in two phases. Phase 1: an alcohol problem screening questionnaire was sent to 3130 women aged 25-65. The answers were scored. Phase 2: based on the questionnaire scores, a randomly selected stratified sample of 479 women was invited for an interview. Of these, 316 women participated in a structured face-to-face interview. SETTING: A sector of Göteborg city with 100,000 inhabitants. MEASUREMENTS: The interviews focused on substance use and on social, psychological and behavioural characteristics, including experiences of sexual abuse. Clinical psychiatric diagnoses were made according to DSM-III-R. Bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. FINDINGS: The prevalence of CSA and LSA was 9.8% and 13.9%, respectively. CSA increased the risk for life-time ADA and anxiety, but not for depression. When potential confounding factors (e.g. early background factors, depression and anxiety) were adjusted for, CSA under 13 years of age still predicted ADA in multivariate analyses, but CSA under 18 years of age did not. CONCLUSIONS: LSA, and especially CSA under 13 years of age, are factors that should be considered in treatment of women with ADA and in psychiatric treatment of women. PMID: 9926542 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
  • Andersson, Christina, 1955, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of drug use in three cohorts of young Swedish women
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Kettil Bruun Society, Annual Meeting Riverside CA, USA, 20050530-03.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The study presents prevalence of drug use among 1123 women aged 20 and 25 years in Göteborg, Sweden. The aim of the study was to measure prevalence of illegal and legal drug use in three cross-sectional cohorts interviewed in 1990, 1995 and 2000 as well as to describe the development of drug use within the same period. Prevalence was calculated for illicit and licit drug use in total and for three different patterns of drug use; narcotics only, medications only or a combination of the use of these substances. Also presented is the frequency of drug use. Further was analysed trends in changes of the use of nine specified drugs. Results: Both life-time and 12-months use of illicit drugs was significantly higher for 20-year-old women in 2000 (from 20.2% to 33.4% and from 9.5% to 22.3% respectively). The use of licit drugs was highest (but not significant) among 25-year-old women in 1990. Cannabis was the most prevalent drug used with a significant increase in life-time use for 20-year-old women from 17,4% to 28,8%. Both age-groups reported significant increases in the use of heroin, 25-year-old women in use of psychedelica and 20-year-old women in use of other drugs. Conclusions: The prevalence rates found were higher than compared to contemporary studies in Sweden. Further was found a significant trend for using both illegal and legal drugs among the youngest cohort, and a tendency for more regular use of drugs in both age-groups in 2000.
  • Andersson, Christina, 1955, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalens av användning/missbruk av legala och illegala droger i tre kohorter unga, svenska kvinnor
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Riksstämman, Göteborg 2004.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Bakgrund: Efter en minskning under 1980-talet visar ett flertal studier både inom och utanför Europa på en ökning av droganvändandet från 1990-talet och framåt. Detta gäller framför allt bland yngre personer och cannabis är den mest förekommande drog i alla rapporteringar. Totalt för Sverige svarade 16% bland ungdomar (19-24 år) år 2000 att man prövat narkotika. Metod: Data från en longitudinell befolkningsundersökning, “Kvinnor och alkohol i Göteborg”. Denna presentation avser tvärsnittsstudier av droganvändande hos tre kohorter 20 och 25 åriga unga kvinnor intervjuade mellan 1990 och 2000. Resultatet redovisas både som prevalenstal i jämförelse mellan de tre intervjuomgångarna och som trendanalys av förändringen i användandet av enskilda drogtyper. Resultat: Andelen 20-åriga kvinnor som enbart använt illegala droger ökade från 14,7 till 17,7% mellan åren 1995 och 2000. Vad gäller gruppen som använde både illegala droger och beroendeframkallande mediciner (BM) ökade denna bland 20-åriga kvinnor från 5,5 1995 till 15,7% 2000. Däremot var gruppen som enbart använde BM högst hos 25-åringar år 1990, därefter sågs sjunkande siffror 1995 och 2000. Livstidsprevalensen för cannabis ökade hos 20-åringar från 17,4 till 28,8%. Övriga specifika illegala droger gav prevalenstal mellan 0,5 och 5,4% med en signifikant ökning för heroin i båda åldersgrupperna år 2000. Sammanfattning: Användandet av illegala droger ökade under 90-talet, framförallt hos 20-åriga kvinnor. Det syntes en svag tendens till att även 25-åringar år 2000 fortsatte använda droger i högre grad än tidigare. Likaså syntes en tendens till att användandet blivit mer frekvent i båda åldersgrupperna år 2000. Gruppen av 20-åriga kvinnor som enbart använde BM minskade i omfattning år 2000 medan en signifikant ökning syntes för gruppen som använde både illegala droger och BM.
  • Eriksson, Maria Christina, 1981, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term effects of Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for depression in primary care - the PRIM-NET controlled trial.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian journal of primary health care. - 1502-7724. ; 35:2, s. 126-136
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) is recommended as an efficient treatment alternative for depression in primary care. However, only few previous studies have been conducted at primary care centers (PCCs). We evaluated long-term effects of ICBT treatment for depression compared to treatment as usual (TAU) in primary care settings.Randomized controlled trial.Patients were enrolled at16 PCCs in south-west Sweden.Patients attending PCCs and diagnosed with depression (n = 90).Patients were assessed by a primary care psychologist/psychotherapist and randomized to ICBT or TAU. The ICBT included an ICBT program consisting of seven modules and weekly therapist e-mail or telephone support during the 3-month treatment period.Questionnaires on depressive symptoms (BDI-II), quality of life (EQ-5D) and psychological distress (GHQ-12) were administered at baseline, with follow-ups at 3, 6 and 12 months. Antidepressants and sedatives use, sick leave and PCC contacts were registered.Intra-individual change in depressive symptoms did not differ between the ICBT group and the TAU group during the treatment period or across the follow-up periods. At 3-month follow-up, significantly fewer patients in ICBT were on antidepressants. However, the difference leveled out at later follow-ups. There were no differences between the groups concerning psychological distress, sick leave or quality of life, except for a larger improvement in quality of life in the TAU group during the 0- to 6-month period.ICBT with weekly minimal therapist support in primary care can be equally effective as TAU among depressed patients also over a 12-month period.The trial was registered in the Swedish Registry, researchweb.org, ID number 30511.
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