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Sökning: WFRF:(Sparén Pär)

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1.
  • Dahlström, Lisen Arnheim, et al. (författare)
  • Prospective study of human papillomavirus and risk of cervical adenocarcinoma.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer. - : John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 1097-0215 .- 0020-7136. ; 127:8, s. 1923-1930
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are established as a major cause of cervical carcinoma. However, causality inference is dependent on prospective evidence showing that exposure predicts risk for future disease. Such evidence is available for squamous cell carcinoma, but not for cervical adenocarcinoma. We followed a population-based cohort of 994,120 women who participated in cytological screening in Sweden for a median of 6.7 years. Baseline smears from women who developed adenocarcinoma during follow-up (118 women with in situ disease and 164 with invasive disease) and their individually matched controls (1,434 smears) were analyzed for HPV using PCR. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) of future adenocarcinoma with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Being positive for HPV 16 in the first cytologically normal smear was associated with increased risks for both future adenocarcinoma in situ (OR: 11.0, 95% CI: 2.6-46.8) and invasive adenocarcinoma (OR: 16.0, 95% CI: 3.8-66.7), compared to being negative for HPV 16. Similarly, an HPV 18 positive smear was associated with increased risks for adenocarcinoma in situ (OR: 26.0, 95% CI: 3.5-192) and invasive adenocarcinoma (OR: 28.0, 95% CI: 3.8-206), compared to an HPV 18 negative smear. Being positive for HPV 16/18 in 2 subsequent smears was associated with an infinite risk of both in situ and invasive adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, infections with HPV 16 and 18 are detectable up to at least 14 years before diagnosis of cervical adenocarcinoma. Our data provide prospective evidence that the association of HPV 16/18 with cervical adenocarcinoma is strong and causal.
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2.
  • Spjuth, Ola, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • E-Science technologies in a workflow for personalized medicine using cancer screening as a case study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: ; 24:5, s. 950-957
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: We provide an e-Science perspective on the workflow from risk factor discovery and classification of disease to evaluation of personalized intervention programs. As case studies, we use personalized prostate and breast cancer screenings.Materials and Methods: We describe an e-Science initiative in Sweden, e-Science for Cancer Prevention and Control (eCPC), which supports biomarker discovery and offers decision support for personalized intervention strategies. The generic eCPC contribution is a workflow with 4 nodes applied iteratively, and the concept of e-Science signifies systematic use of tools from the mathematical, statistical, data, and computer sciences.Results: The eCPC workflow is illustrated through 2 case studies. For prostate cancer, an in-house personalized screening tool, the Stockholm-3 model (S3M), is presented as an alternative to prostate-specific antigen testing alone. S3M is evaluated in a trial setting and plans for rollout in the population are discussed. For breast cancer, new biomarkers based on breast density and molecular profiles are developed and the US multicenter Women Informed to Screen Depending on Measures (WISDOM) trial is referred to for evaluation. While current eCPC data management uses a traditional data warehouse model, we discuss eCPC-developed features of a coherent data integration platform.Discussion and Conclusion: E-Science tools are a key part of an evidence-based process for personalized medicine. This paper provides a structured workflow from data and models to evaluation of new personalized intervention strategies. The importance of multidisciplinary collaboration is emphasized. Importantly, the generic concepts of the suggested eCPC workflow are transferrable to other disease domains, although each disease will require tailored solutions.
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3.
  • Andrae, Bengt, et al. (författare)
  • Screening-preventable cervical cancer risks : evidence from a nationwide audit in Sweden.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: J Natl Cancer Inst. - : Oxford University Press. - 1460-2105 .- 0027-8874. ; 100:9, s. 622-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The effectiveness of cervical cancer screening programs differs widely in different populations. The reasons for these differences are unclear. Routine and comprehensive audits have been proposed as an ethically required component of screening. We performed a nationwide audit of the effectiveness of the Swedish cervical cancer screening program.Methods: We identified all invasive cervical cancer cases that were diagnosed in Sweden from January 1, 1999, through December 31, 2001, and had been reported to the Swedish Cancer Registry (n = 1230 cases). We verified the diagnoses by histopathologic rereview and matched each case subject to five (population-based) age-matched control subjects who were identified from the National Population Register. The Pap smear screening histories for case and control subjects were reviewed for a 6-year period using the National Cervical Cancer Screening Register, which contains data on essentially all relevant cytological and histological diagnoses in Sweden. Odds ratios (ORs), and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs), of cervical cancer according to screening history were calculated in conditional logistic regression models. All statistical tests were two-sided.Results: Women who had not had a Pap smear within the recommended screening interval had higher risk of cervical cancer than women who had been screened (OR = 2.52, 95% CI = 2.19 to 2.91). This risk was similarly increased for all age groups (Phomogeneity = .96). The risk for nonsquamous cell cervical cancers (OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.20 to 2.11) was also increased. Women who had not had a Pap smear within the recommended screening interval had a particularly high risk of advanced cancers (OR = 4.82, 95% CI = 3.61 to 6.44). Among women who had been screened within the recommended interval, those with abnormal Pap smears had a higher risk of cervical cancer than those with normal smears (OR = 7.55, 95% CI = 5.88 to 9.69) and constituted 11.5% of all women with cervical cancer.Conclusions: Nonadherence to screening intervals was the major reason for cervical cancer morbidity. The screening program was equally effective for women of all ages and was also effective against nonsquamous cancers.
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4.
  • Carlander, Christina, et al. (författare)
  • Suppressive antiretroviral therapy associates with effective treatment of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: ; 32:11, s. 1475-1484
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To assess if women living with HIV (WLWH) have poorer outcome after treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2, grade 3, adenocarcinoma in situ or cervical cancer (CIN2+) than HIV-negative women (HNW) and to identify predictors of CIN2+ treatment failure and recurrence in WLWH. Design: Population-based cohort study with follow-up between 1983 and 2015. Methods: The Swedish National HIV Registry, the Swedish Population Registry and the Swedish National Cervical Screening Registry were linked to identify all women in Stockholm and Gothenburg counties (Sweden) living with HIV and diagnosed with CIN2+ (n = 179) sometime between 1983 and 2014. For each WLWH, two HNW resident in the same counties and matched for country of birth, diagnosed with CIN2+, were chosen as controls. Treatment failure was defined as the presence of CIN2+ at initial follow-up. Recurrence was defined as the presence of CIN1+ subsequent to an initial normal follow-up. Results: WLWH were three times more likely to have treatment failure (odds ratio (OR) 3.7 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0-6.8]) and five times more likely to recur (hazard ratio 5.0 [95% CI 2.1-11.6]) than HNW. Suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) at time of treatment of CIN2+ was associated with reduced OR of treatment failure (OR 0.3 [95% CI 0.1-0.8]). Immunosuppression (CD4(+) cell count < 200 cells/mu l) associated strongly with treatment failure (OR compared with CD4 (+) cell count >= 500: 8.5 [95% CI 2.3-30.7]). Conclusion: Suppressive ART is associated with effective treatment of CIN2+. Early HIV diagnosis and ART are essential for successful CIN2+ treatment.
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5.
  • Fang, Fang, et al. (författare)
  • Hospitalization for osteoarthritis and prostate cancer specific mortality among Swedish men with prostate cancer
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology. - Oxon, United Kingdom : Elsevier. - 1877-7821 .- 1877-783X. ; 34:5, s. 644-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: To examine the potential role of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) use on prostate cancer (PCa) specific mortality.Methods: We studied the association between hospitalization for osteoarthritis prior to PCa diagnosis, as a surrogate for heavy use of NSAIDs, and PCa specific mortality in a large population of PCa patients in Sweden in 1980-2004.Results: Hospitalization for osteoarthritis before PCa diagnosis was associated to a lower PCa specific mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88-0.96), but not to the risk of death from other causes (HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.99-1.08). The association was stronger among younger patients and patients diagnosed in earlier calendar years.Conclusions: Our data demonstrate a modestly decreased PCa specific mortality among PCa patients with hospitalization for osteoarthritis prior to PCa diagnosis, compared to those without such experience. This finding lends support to the hypothesis that NSAIDs use may influence PCa progression.
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6.
  • Fang, Fang, et al. (författare)
  • Suicide among patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Brain. - Oxford, United Kingdom : Oxford University Press. - 0006-8950 .- 1460-2156. ; 131:10, s. 2729-33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Studies on the suicide risk among patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in countries without legalized euthanasia or assisted suicide are important additions to data on the wish to die of these patients. We conducted a population-based cohort study in Sweden between 1965 and 2004, which comprised of 6,642 patients with incident ALS identified from the Swedish Inpatient Register. We calculated the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) of suicide among the patients using the suicide rates of the general Swedish population as a reference. In total, 21 patients committed suicide during follow-up, compared to the predicted 3.6 suicides. Thus, we noted an almost 6-fold increased risk for suicide among ALS patients [SMR 5.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.6-8.8]. Patients who committed suicide were, on average, around 7 years younger at the time of their first period of hospitalization than patients who did not commit suicide. The highest relative risk for suicide was observed within the first year after the patient's first period of hospitalization (SMR 11.2, 95% CI 5.8-19.6). After that, the relative risks decreased with time after hospitalization (P-value for trend = 0.006), but remained elevated 3 years later. The relative risks of suicide among ALS patients did not show a clear trend over time in contrast to the decreasing trend of relative risks for suicide among patients with cancer during the same period. Patients with ALS are at excess risk of suicide in Sweden and the relative risk is higher during the earlier stage of the disease.
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7.
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8.
  • Lei, Jiayao, et al. (författare)
  • HPV vaccination and the risk of invasive cervical cancer
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - : Massachusetts Medical Society. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 383:14, s. 1340-1348
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND The efficacy and effectiveness of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in preventing high-grade cervical lesions have been shown. However, data to inform the relationship between quadrivalent HPV vaccination and the subsequent risk of invasive cervical cancer are lacking. METHODS We used nationwide Swedish demographic and health registers to follow an open population of 1,672,983 girls and women who were 10 to 30 years of age from 2006 through 2017. We assessed the association between HPV vaccination and the risk of invasive cervical cancer, controlling for age at follow-up, calendar year, county of residence, and parental characteristics, including education, household income, mother’s country of birth, and maternal disease history. RESULTS During the study period, we evaluated girls and women for cervical cancer until their 31st birthday. Cervical cancer was diagnosed in 19 women who had received the quadrivalent HPV vaccine and in 538 women who had not received the vaccine. The cumulative incidence of cervical cancer was 47 cases per 100,000 persons among women who had been vaccinated and 94 cases per 100,000 persons among those who had not been vaccinated. After adjustment for age at follow-up, the incidence rate ratio for the comparison of the vaccinated population with the unvaccinated population was 0.51 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32 to 0.82). After additional adjustment for other covariates, the incidence rate ratio was 0.37 (95% CI, 0.21 to 0.57). After adjustment for all covariates, the incidence rate ratio was 0.12 (95% CI, 0.00 to 0.34) among women who had been vaccinated before the age of 17 years and 0.47 (95% CI, 0.27 to 0.75) among women who had been vaccinated at the age of 17 to 30 years. CONCLUSIONS Among Swedish girls and women 10 to 30 years old, quadrivalent HPV vaccination was associated with a substantially reduced risk of invasive cervical cancer at the population level.
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9.
  • Malki, Ninoa, et al. (författare)
  • Temporal Trends in Incidence of Myocardial Infarction and Ischemic Stroke by Socioeconomic Position in Sweden 1987-2010
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 9:8, s. e105279-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: We analyzed temporal trends in the incidence of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke in Sweden by socioeconomic position and investigated whether social inequalities in incidence of these diseases changed over time. Materials and Methods: We studied a cohort of almost three million Swedish residents born between 1932 and 1960 followed from 1987 until 2010. Incident cases of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke were identified in the Swedish National Inpatient Register and Cause of Death Register. Socioeconomic position was retrieved from the Population and Housing Censuses. Incidence rates of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke and incidence rate ratios comparing levels of socioeconomic position were estimated using flexible parametric survival models adjusted for calendar year, attained age, sex, and birth country. Results: The overall incidences of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke decreased over time among men, but were stable over time among women. With regard to ischemic stroke incidence, socioeconomic inequality increased over time in the age group 55 to 59: the incidence rate ratios for low manual compared to high non-manual increased from 1.3 (95% CI: 1.2-1.4) in 1997 to 1.5 (1.4-1.7) in 2010 among men, and from 1.4 (1.3-1.6) in 1997 to 2.1 (1.8-2.5) in 2010 among women. The socioeconomic inequality in incidence of myocardial infarction was stable over time for both men and women. Conclusion: There was a decrease in myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke incidence over time among men but no significant change for women. Our study highlights existing, and in some cases increasing, social inequalities in the incidence of cardiovascular diseases.
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10.
  • Rehn, Moa, et al. (författare)
  • Highest Vaccine Uptake after School-Based Delivery - A County-Level Evaluation of the Implementation Strategies for HPV Catch-Up Vaccination in Sweden
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 11:3, s. 0149857-0149857
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The Swedish school-based vaccination programme offers HPV vaccine to girls born ≥1999 in 5-6th grade. In 2012, all counties introduced free-of-charge catch-up vaccination campaigns targeting girls born 1993-1998. Varying vaccine uptake in the catch-up group by December 2012 suggested that some implementation strategies were more successful than others. In order to inform future vaccination campaigns, we assessed the impact of different implementation strategies on the county-level catch-up vaccine uptake.METHODS: We conducted an ecological study including all Swedish counties (n = 21), asking regional health offices about the information channels they used and where vaccination of the catch-up target group took place in their counties. The uptake of ≥1 dose by 30 September 2014 was estimated using data from the voluntary national vaccination register. We investigated associations between counties' catch-up vaccine uptake, information channels and vaccination settings by calculating incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), using negative binomial regression models.RESULTS: County level catch-up vaccine uptake varied between 49-84%. All counties offered vaccination through primary health care settings. Apart from this eight (34%) also offered the vaccine in some of their schools, four (19%) in all their schools, and two (10%) in other health care centres. The information channels most frequently used were: information at the national on-line health care consulting web-page (100%), letter/invitations (90%), and advertisement (81%). Counties offering vaccination to girls in all schools and counties offering vaccination in some of their schools, reached higher vaccine uptake compared to counties not offering vaccination in any of their schools (all schools adjusted IRR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.5, some schools adjusted IRR: 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1-1.3).CONCLUSION: Counties offering HPV vaccination to catch-up groups in schools reached the highest vaccine uptake. No information channel explained differences in county-level vaccine uptake. Our findings suggest that catch-up vaccination outside the national vaccination program can reach a high uptake at the population level if it is implemented primarily with an organized delivery (e.g. in schools).
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