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Sökning: WFRF:(Sparding T)

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1.
  • Abé, C, et al. (författare)
  • Bipolar disorder type I and II show distinct relationships between cortical thickness and executive function.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. - 1600-0447. ; 138:4, s. 325-335
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Frontal cortical abnormalities and executive function impairment co-occur in bipolar disorder. Recent studies have shown that bipolar subtypes differ in the degree of structural and functional impairments. The relationships between cognitive performance and cortical integrity have not been clarified and might differ across patients with bipolar disorder type I, II, and healthy subjects.Using a vertex-wise whole-brain analysis, we investigated how cortical integrity, as measured by cortical thickness, correlates with executive performance in patients with bipolar disorder type I, II, and controls (N = 160).We found focal associations between executive function and cortical thickness in the medial prefrontal cortex in bipolar II patients and controls, but not in bipolar I disorder. In bipolar II patients, we observed additional correlations in lateral prefrontal and occipital regions.Our findings suggest that bipolar disorder patients show altered structure-function relationships, and importantly that those relationships may differ between bipolar subtypes. The findings are line with studies suggesting subtype-specific neurobiological and cognitive profiles. This study contributes to a better understanding of brain structure-function relationships in bipolar disorder and gives important insights into the neuropathophysiology of diagnostic subtypes.
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2.
  • Drakopoulos, Julia, et al. (författare)
  • Executive functioning but not IQ or illness severity predicts occupational status in bipolar disorder
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders. - 2194-7511. ; 8:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Bipolar disorder is associated with significant functional deficits including occupational functioning. Despite the high rates of unemployment and sick leave in the patient population, only a limited number of studies have examined factors associated with occupational functioning in bipolar disorder. The aim of the study was to investigate the relative importance of demographic, clinical, and neuropsychological factors on occupational dysfunction in bipolar disorder. Methods A sample of 120 partially or fully remitted bipolar disorder I and II patients were included in the study. Patients were stratified into an active and an inactive group based on the number of hours per week working or studying. Active (n = 86) and inactive (n = 34) patients were compared with respect to demographic factors, clinical characteristics, medication, measures of psychosocial functioning, and cognitive functioning (i.e., IQ and executive functions). No other cognitive domains were examined. Results Univariate analyses revealed better overall cognitive function in active patients in terms of IQ and executive functioning. However, only executive functioning accounted for a significant amount of the variance in occupational status when other significant predictors were taken into account. Conclusions Executive functioning was a more powerful predictor of occupational status in bipolar disorder patients than IQ and other clinical factors, including illness severity.
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3.
  • Joas, Erik, 1983, et al. (författare)
  • Psychoeducation for bipolar disorder and risk of recurrence and hospitalization - a within-individual analysis using registry data.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Psychological medicine. - 1469-8978. ; 50:6, s. 1043-1049
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The efficacy of psychoeducation for bipolar disorder has been demonstrated in clinical trials, but it is not known if the results translate into effectiveness in routine clinical practice. The aim was to determine the effectiveness of psychoeducation for bipolar disorder in a routine clinical setting.We identified 2819 patients with at least three registrations in the Swedish Quality Assurance Register for Bipolar Disorder. Among those, 402 had not been exposed to psychoeducation at the first visit, but received psychoeducation during any of the following registrations. Using within-individual analyses, the risk of recurrence after having received psychoeducation was compared with the risk prior to psychoeducation.In adjusted within-individuals comparisons, periods after psychoeducation was associated with decreased risks of any recurrence [odds ratio (OR) 0.57, 95% CI 0.42-0.78], (hypo-)manic or mixed episodes (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.39-0.76), depressive episodes (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.47-0.86), and inpatient care (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.33-0.86) relative to periods prior to psychoeducation. There was no association with rates of involuntary sectioning or suicide attempts.The results suggest that psychoeducation for bipolar disorder reduces the risk of mood episodes and inpatient care also when implemented in routine clinical practice.
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4.
  • Salarvan, Sara, et al. (författare)
  • Neuropsychological profiles of adult bipolar disorder patients with and without comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: International journal of bipolar disorders. - 2194-7511. ; 7:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common in bipolar disorder and associated with worse outcomes. Cognitive testing might be a tool to identify this group. Here we compare the neuropsychological profiles of bipolar disorder patients with (BD + cADHD) and without (BD - cADHD) childhood attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.Adult patients with BD  -  cADHD (n = 66), BD + cADHD (n = 32), and healthy controls (n = 112) were tested using a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. Patients underwent rigorous diagnostic assessments for bipolar disorder and ADHD, as well as a parental interview to establish childhood ADHD.The neuropsychological profiles of the groups were similar, except that the BD + cADHD group performed significantly worse on working memory. Working memory did not differ between those in the BD + cADHD group who only had a history of childhood ADHD and those that still met criteria for ADHD in adulthood.Cognitive testing had limited power to differentiate between bipolar disorder adults with and without childhood ADHD. The BD + cADHD subgroup cannot explain the significant cognitive heterogeneity seen in bipolar disorder patients.
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5.
  • Smedler, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Reporting trigger factors for (hypo)manic episodes in bipolar disorder: association with personality and prognosis.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. - 1600-0447. ; 141:6, s. 534-540
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To investigate external factors that trigger manic and hypomanic relapses and how this is associated with personality and clinical outcome measured as number of affective episodes over a seven-year period.This is a prospective cohort study of 204 meticulously characterized Swedish bipolar disorder patients. Personality was evaluated at baseline using the Swedish universities Scales of Personality in 170 patients, and 90 patients were followed up after approximately seven years in order to evaluate clinical outcomes.We found that 44% of the patients reported trigger factors, including sleep disturbance, work or family related issues, medication, and illicit drug use. There were no significant differences in any of the personality traits when comparing the 74 patients that reported triggers with the 90 patients that did not. At seven-year follow-up, there was no difference between the groups in number of affective episodes (depressive, hypomanic, manic or mixed), involuntary commitments, suicide attempts, or self-harm incidents since baseline.Around 40% of the patients reported external triggers for manic and hypomanic episodes. However, this was neither associated with personality traits nor number of affective episodes at seven-year follow-up.Around 40% of all bipolar disorder patients reported trigger factors for manic or hypomanic episodes. Reporting trigger factors was not associated with personality Reporting trigger factors was not associated with outcomes over a seven-year period. Limitations Patients had on average long duration of illness and may be less sensitive to external stressors than persons with recent onset. Trigger factors were identified retrospectively, and may thus be prone to recall bias. The number of affective episodes might be a too crude outcome measure as most subjects had not suffered any affective episodes at follow-up.
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6.
  • Sparding, Timea, et al. (författare)
  • Classification of cognitive performance in bipolar disorder.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Cognitive neuropsychiatry. - 1464-0619. ; 22:5, s. 407-421
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To understand the etiology of cognitive impairment associated with bipolar disorder, we need to clarify potential heterogeneity in cognitive functioning. To this end, we used multivariate techniques to study if the correlation structure of cognitive abilities differs between persons with bipolar disorder and controls.Clinically stable patients with bipolar disorder (type I: n = 64; type II: n = 44) and healthy controls (n = 86) were assessed with a wide range of cognitive tests measuring executive function, speed, memory, and verbal skills. Data were analysed with multivariate techniques.A distinct subgroup (∼30%) could be identified that performed significantly poorer on tests concerning memory function. This cognitive phenotype subgroup did not differ from the majority of bipolar disorder patients with respect to other demographic or clinical characteristics.Whereas the majority of patients performed similar to controls, a subgroup of patients with bipolar disorder differed substantially from healthy controls in the correlation pattern of low-level cognitive abilities. This suggests that cognitive impairment is not a general trait in bipolar disorder but characteristic of a cognitive subgroup. This has important clinical implications for cognitive rehabilitation and remediation.
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7.
  • Sparding, Timea, et al. (författare)
  • Cognitive Functioning in Clinically Stable Patients with Bipolar Disorder I and II
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Plos One. - 1932-6203. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives Bipolar disorder is accompanied by cognitive impairments, which persists during euthymic phases. The purpose of the present study was to identify those neuropsychological tests that most reliably tell euthymic bipolar patients and controls apart, and to clarify the extent to which these cognitive impairments are clinically significant as judged from neuropsychological norms. Patients with bipolar disorder (type I: n = 64; type II: n = 44) and controls (n = 86) were examined with a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery yielding 47 measures of executive functioning, speed, memory, and verbal skills. Multivariate analysis was used to build a model of cognitive performance with the ability to expose underlying trends in data and to reveal cognitive differences between patients and controls. Patients with bipolar disorder and controls were partially separated by one predictive component of cognitive performance. Additionally, the relative relevance of each cognitive measure for such separation was decided. Cognitive tests measuring set shifting, inhibition, fluency, and searching (e.g., Trail Making Test, Color-Word) had strongest discriminating ability and most reliably detected cognitive impairments in the patient group. Both bipolar disorder type I and type II were associated with cognitive impairment that for a sizeable minority is significant in a clinical neuropsychological sense. We demonstrate a combination of neuropsychological tests that reliably detect cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder.
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8.
  • Sparding, Timea, et al. (författare)
  • Personality traits in bipolar disorder and influence on outcome.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: BMC psychiatry. - 1471-244X. ; 17:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim was to investigate the personality profile of bipolar disorder I and II, and healthy controls, and to study whether personality influences the course of bipolar disorder.One hundred ten patients with bipolar disorder I, 85 patients with bipolar disorder II, and 86 healthy individuals had their personality profile assessed using the Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP), an instrument developed to explore personality-related vulnerabilities and correlates of psychiatric disorders. Patients were followed prospectively for 2 years. To assess the impact of Neuroticism, Aggressiveness, and Disinhibition on illness course, we performed logistic regressions with the outcome variables mood episodes (depressive, hypo/manic, mixed), suicide attempts, violence, and the number of sick leave days.Bipolar disorder I and II demonstrated higher global measures of Neuroticism, Aggressiveness, and Disinhibition as compared with healthy controls. A third of the patients scored ≥1 SD above the population-based normative mean on the global neuroticism measure. The two subtypes of bipolar disorder were, however, undistinguishable on all of the personality traits. In the unadjusted model, higher neuroticism at baseline predicted future depressive episodes and suicide attempts/violent behavior, but this association disappeared when adjusting for baseline depressive symptoms as assessed with MADRS.A significant minority of the patients scored ≥1 SD above the population mean on the global measures of Neuroticism, Aggressiveness and Disinhibition; scores this high are usually evident clinically. Yet, the personality profile does not seem to have prognostic value over a 2-year period.
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9.
  • Clements, C. C., et al. (författare)
  • DAS-IICognitive Profiles Are Not Diagnostically Meaningful For Autism: AROCAnalysis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Autism Research. - 1939-3792.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intelligence assessment is an integral part of a comprehensive autism evaluation. Many past studies have described a cognitive profile of autistic individuals characterized by higher nonverbal than verbal IQ scores. The diagnostic utility of this profile, however, remains unknown. We leveraged receiver operating characteristic methods to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) of three different IQ profiles in a large sample of children who have an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis (N= 1,228, Simons Simplex Collection) who completed the Differential Ability Scales-Second Edition (DAS-II), School Age compared to the normative sample provided by the DAS-II publisher (N= 2,200). The frequently discussed nonverbal > verbal IQ profile performed near chance at distinguishing ASD from normative individuals (AUC: 0.54, 95% CI [0.52-0.56]), and performed significantly worse for females than males (AUC: females: 0.46 [0.41-0.52]; males: 0.55 [0.53-0.58]). All cognitive profiles showed AUC < 0.56. We conclude that while significant differences between verbal and nonverbal IQ scores exist at the group level, these differences are small in an absolute sense and not meaningful at an individual level. We do not recommend using cognitive profiles to aid in autism diagnostic decision-making. Lay Summary Some researchers and clinicians have reported an "autistic cognitive profile" of higher nonverbal intelligence than verbal intelligence. In an analysis of over 1,000 autistic children, we found that thegroup'saverage nonverbal intelligence is usually higher than their verbal intelligence. However, this pattern should not be used by clinicians to make anindividualdiagnosis of autism because our results show it is not helpful nor accurate.
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10.
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