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  • Carlander, Christina, et al. (författare)
  • Suppressive antiretroviral therapy associates with effective treatment of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: ; 32:11, s. 1475-1484
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To assess if women living with HIV (WLWH) have poorer outcome after treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2, grade 3, adenocarcinoma in situ or cervical cancer (CIN2+) than HIV-negative women (HNW) and to identify predictors of CIN2+ treatment failure and recurrence in WLWH. Design: Population-based cohort study with follow-up between 1983 and 2015. Methods: The Swedish National HIV Registry, the Swedish Population Registry and the Swedish National Cervical Screening Registry were linked to identify all women in Stockholm and Gothenburg counties (Sweden) living with HIV and diagnosed with CIN2+ (n = 179) sometime between 1983 and 2014. For each WLWH, two HNW resident in the same counties and matched for country of birth, diagnosed with CIN2+, were chosen as controls. Treatment failure was defined as the presence of CIN2+ at initial follow-up. Recurrence was defined as the presence of CIN1+ subsequent to an initial normal follow-up. Results: WLWH were three times more likely to have treatment failure (odds ratio (OR) 3.7 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0-6.8]) and five times more likely to recur (hazard ratio 5.0 [95% CI 2.1-11.6]) than HNW. Suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) at time of treatment of CIN2+ was associated with reduced OR of treatment failure (OR 0.3 [95% CI 0.1-0.8]). Immunosuppression (CD4(+) cell count < 200 cells/mu l) associated strongly with treatment failure (OR compared with CD4 (+) cell count >= 500: 8.5 [95% CI 2.3-30.7]). Conclusion: Suppressive ART is associated with effective treatment of CIN2+. Early HIV diagnosis and ART are essential for successful CIN2+ treatment.
  • Elfstrom, K. M., et al. (författare)
  • Registry-based assessment of the status of cervical screening in Sweden
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Screening. - 0969-1413 .- 1475-5793. ; 23:4, s. 217-226
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives Comprehensive nationwide monitoring and evaluation of screening through registry-based review of key indicators is necessary for programme optimization, especially as new tests and strategies are introduced. We aimed to investigate and report on the use of these key indicators in the Swedish programme. Setting and methods Organized population-based cervical screening targeting women aged 23-50 and 51-60 every three and five years, respectively, is regionally implemented in Sweden. All cytological and histopathological test results and invitations are exported to the National Cervical Screening Registry. We describe the methods to obtain registry-based quality indicators by age, region, and calendar period. Results In 2013, there were 633,592 cervical smears in Sweden, of which 69% were organized smears resulting from an invitation. Screening test coverage for women aged 23-60 was 80% and similar for the previous decade, but varied greatly between and within counties over-time. Among women aged 23-25, test coverage increased dramatically during the previous six years, reaching 87% in 2013. The proportion of women with cytological high-grade cervical lesions found in cytology that had been followed-up with biopsy within one year was 97%. Major variations in cervical cancer incidence between counties were observed. Conclusions Registry-based analyses of key quality indicators provided the basis for prioritizing improvements of the organized cervical screening programme.
  • Semb, G, et al. (författare)
  • Erratum
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of plastic surgery and hand surgery. - 2000-6764. ; 141:1, s. E1-E4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Spjuth, Ola, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • E-Science technologies in a workflow for personalized medicine using cancer screening as a case study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: ; 24:5, s. 950-957
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: We provide an e-Science perspective on the workflow from risk factor discovery and classification of disease to evaluation of personalized intervention programs. As case studies, we use personalized prostate and breast cancer screenings.Materials and Methods: We describe an e-Science initiative in Sweden, e-Science for Cancer Prevention and Control (eCPC), which supports biomarker discovery and offers decision support for personalized intervention strategies. The generic eCPC contribution is a workflow with 4 nodes applied iteratively, and the concept of e-Science signifies systematic use of tools from the mathematical, statistical, data, and computer sciences.Results: The eCPC workflow is illustrated through 2 case studies. For prostate cancer, an in-house personalized screening tool, the Stockholm-3 model (S3M), is presented as an alternative to prostate-specific antigen testing alone. S3M is evaluated in a trial setting and plans for rollout in the population are discussed. For breast cancer, new biomarkers based on breast density and molecular profiles are developed and the US multicenter Women Informed to Screen Depending on Measures (WISDOM) trial is referred to for evaluation. While current eCPC data management uses a traditional data warehouse model, we discuss eCPC-developed features of a coherent data integration platform.Discussion and Conclusion: E-Science tools are a key part of an evidence-based process for personalized medicine. This paper provides a structured workflow from data and models to evaluation of new personalized intervention strategies. The importance of multidisciplinary collaboration is emphasized. Importantly, the generic concepts of the suggested eCPC workflow are transferrable to other disease domains, although each disease will require tailored solutions.
  • Dahlström, Lisen Arnheim, et al. (författare)
  • Prospective study of human papillomavirus and risk of cervical adenocarcinoma.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer. - : John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 1097-0215 .- 0020-7136. ; 127:8, s. 1923-1930
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are established as a major cause of cervical carcinoma. However, causality inference is dependent on prospective evidence showing that exposure predicts risk for future disease. Such evidence is available for squamous cell carcinoma, but not for cervical adenocarcinoma. We followed a population-based cohort of 994,120 women who participated in cytological screening in Sweden for a median of 6.7 years. Baseline smears from women who developed adenocarcinoma during follow-up (118 women with in situ disease and 164 with invasive disease) and their individually matched controls (1,434 smears) were analyzed for HPV using PCR. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) of future adenocarcinoma with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Being positive for HPV 16 in the first cytologically normal smear was associated with increased risks for both future adenocarcinoma in situ (OR: 11.0, 95% CI: 2.6-46.8) and invasive adenocarcinoma (OR: 16.0, 95% CI: 3.8-66.7), compared to being negative for HPV 16. Similarly, an HPV 18 positive smear was associated with increased risks for adenocarcinoma in situ (OR: 26.0, 95% CI: 3.5-192) and invasive adenocarcinoma (OR: 28.0, 95% CI: 3.8-206), compared to an HPV 18 negative smear. Being positive for HPV 16/18 in 2 subsequent smears was associated with an infinite risk of both in situ and invasive adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, infections with HPV 16 and 18 are detectable up to at least 14 years before diagnosis of cervical adenocarcinoma. Our data provide prospective evidence that the association of HPV 16/18 with cervical adenocarcinoma is strong and causal.
  • Lei, Jiayao, et al. (författare)
  • HPV vaccination and the risk of invasive cervical cancer
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - : Massachusetts Medical Society. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 383:14, s. 1340-1348
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND The efficacy and effectiveness of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in preventing high-grade cervical lesions have been shown. However, data to inform the relationship between quadrivalent HPV vaccination and the subsequent risk of invasive cervical cancer are lacking. METHODS We used nationwide Swedish demographic and health registers to follow an open population of 1,672,983 girls and women who were 10 to 30 years of age from 2006 through 2017. We assessed the association between HPV vaccination and the risk of invasive cervical cancer, controlling for age at follow-up, calendar year, county of residence, and parental characteristics, including education, household income, mother’s country of birth, and maternal disease history. RESULTS During the study period, we evaluated girls and women for cervical cancer until their 31st birthday. Cervical cancer was diagnosed in 19 women who had received the quadrivalent HPV vaccine and in 538 women who had not received the vaccine. The cumulative incidence of cervical cancer was 47 cases per 100,000 persons among women who had been vaccinated and 94 cases per 100,000 persons among those who had not been vaccinated. After adjustment for age at follow-up, the incidence rate ratio for the comparison of the vaccinated population with the unvaccinated population was 0.51 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32 to 0.82). After additional adjustment for other covariates, the incidence rate ratio was 0.37 (95% CI, 0.21 to 0.57). After adjustment for all covariates, the incidence rate ratio was 0.12 (95% CI, 0.00 to 0.34) among women who had been vaccinated before the age of 17 years and 0.47 (95% CI, 0.27 to 0.75) among women who had been vaccinated at the age of 17 to 30 years. CONCLUSIONS Among Swedish girls and women 10 to 30 years old, quadrivalent HPV vaccination was associated with a substantially reduced risk of invasive cervical cancer at the population level.
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