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Sökning: WFRF:(Sparso Thomas H.)

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1.
  • Dupuis, Josee, et al. (författare)
  • New genetic loci implicated in fasting glucose homeostasis and their impact on type 2 diabetes risk
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 42:2, s. 32-105
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Levels of circulating glucose are tightly regulated. To identify new loci influencing glycemic traits, we performed meta-analyses of 21 genome-wide association studies informative for fasting glucose, fasting insulin and indices of beta-cell function (HOMA-B) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in up to 46,186 nondiabetic participants. Follow-up of 25 loci in up to 76,558 additional subjects identified 16 loci associated with fasting glucose and HOMA-B and two loci associated with fasting insulin and HOMA-IR. These include nine loci newly associated with fasting glucose (in or near ADCY5, MADD, ADRA2A, CRY2, FADS1, GLIS3, SLC2A2, PROX1 and C2CD4B) and one influencing fasting insulin and HOMA-IR (near IGF1). We also demonstrated association of ADCY5, PROX1, GCK, GCKR and DGKB-TMEM195 with type 2 diabetes. Within these loci, likely biological candidate genes influence signal transduction, cell proliferation, development, glucose-sensing and circadian regulation. Our results demonstrate that genetic studies of glycemic traits can identify type 2 diabetes risk loci, as well as loci containing gene variants that are associated with a modest elevation in glucose levels but are not associated with overt diabetes.
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2.
  • Saxena, Richa, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic variation in GIPR influences the glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose challenge
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 42:2, s. 75-142
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Glucose levels 2 h after an oral glucose challenge are a clinical measure of glucose tolerance used in the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. We report a meta-analysis of nine genome-wide association studies (n = 15,234 nondiabetic individuals) and a follow-up of 29 independent loci (n = 6,958-30,620). We identify variants at the GIPR locus associated with 2- h glucose level (rs10423928, beta (s.e.m.) = 0.09 (0.01) mmol/l per A allele, P = 2.0 x 10(-15)). The GIPR A-allele carriers also showed decreased insulin secretion (n = 22,492; insulinogenic index, P = 1.0 x 10(-17); ratio of insulin to glucose area under the curve, P = 1.3 x 10(-16)) and diminished incretin effect (n = 804; P = 4.3 x 10(-4)). We also identified variants at ADCY5 (rs2877716, P = 4.2 x 10(-16)), VPS13C (rs17271305, P = 4.1 x 10(-8)), GCKR (rs1260326, P = 7.1 x 10(-11)) and TCF7L2 (rs7903146, P = 4.2 x 10(-10)) associated with 2-h glucose. Of the three newly implicated loci (GIPR, ADCY5 and VPS13C), only ADCY5 was found to be associated with type 2 diabetes in collaborating studies (n = 35,869 cases, 89,798 controls, OR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.09-1.15, P = 4.8 x 10(-18)).
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3.
  • Gaulton, Kyle J, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic fine mapping and genomic annotation defines causal mechanisms at type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 47:12, s. 1415-1415
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We performed fine mapping of 39 established type 2 diabetes (T2D) loci in 27,206 cases and 57,574 controls of European ancestry. We identified 49 distinct association signals at these loci, including five mapping in or near KCNQ1. 'Credible sets' of the variants most likely to drive each distinct signal mapped predominantly to noncoding sequence, implying that association with T2D is mediated through gene regulation. Credible set variants were enriched for overlap with FOXA2 chromatin immunoprecipitation binding sites in human islet and liver cells, including at MTNR1B, where fine mapping implicated rs10830963 as driving T2D association. We confirmed that the T2D risk allele for this SNP increases FOXA2-bound enhancer activity in islet- and liver-derived cells. We observed allele-specific differences in NEUROD1 binding in islet-derived cells, consistent with evidence that the T2D risk allele increases islet MTNR1B expression. Our study demonstrates how integration of genetic and genomic information can define molecular mechanisms through which variants underlying association signals exert their effects on disease.
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4.
  • Winkler, Thomas W., et al. (författare)
  • The Influence of Age and Sex on Genetic Associations with Adult Body Size and Shape A Large-Scale Genome-Wide Interaction Study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 11:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 genetic variants contributing to BMI, a measure of body size, or waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), a measure of body shape. Body size and shape change as people grow older and these changes differ substantially between men and women. To systematically screen for age-and/or sex-specific effects of genetic variants on BMI and WHRadjBMI, we performed meta-analyses of 114 studies (up to 320,485 individuals of European descent) with genome-wide chip and/or Metabochip data by the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT) Consortium. Each study tested the association of up to similar to 2.8M SNPs with BMI and WHRadjBMI in four strata (men &lt;= 50y, men &gt; 50y, women &lt;= 50y, women &gt; 50y) and summary statistics were combined in stratum-specific meta-analyses. We then screened for variants that showed age-specific effects (G x AGE), sex-specific effects (G x SEX) or age-specific effects that differed between men and women (G x AGE x SEX). For BMI, we identified 15 loci (11 previously established for main effects, four novel) that showed significant (FDR&lt; 5%) age-specific effects, of which 11 had larger effects in younger (&lt; 50y) than in older adults (&gt;= 50y). No sex-dependent effects were identified for BMI. For WHRadjBMI, we identified 44 loci (27 previously established for main effects, 17 novel) with sex-specific effects, of which 28 showed larger effects in women than in men, five showed larger effects in men than in women, and 11 showed opposite effects between sexes. No age-dependent effects were identified for WHRadjBMI. This is the first genome-wide interaction meta-analysis to report convincing evidence of age-dependent genetic effects on BMI. In addition, we confirm the sex-specificity of genetic effects on WHRadjBMI. These results may providefurther insights into the biology that underlies weight change with age or the sexually dimorphism of body shape.</p>
5.
  • Kato, Norihiro, et al. (författare)
  • Trans-ancestry genome-wide association study identifies 12 genetic loci influencing blood pressure and implicates a role for DNA methylation
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 47:11, s. 1282-1293
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>We carried out a trans-ancestry genome-wide association and replication study of blood pressure phenotypes among up to 320,251 individuals of East Asian, European and South Asian ancestry. We find genetic variants at 12 new loci to be associated with blood pressure (<em>P</em> = 3.9 × 10<sup>−11</sup> to 5.0 × 10<sup>−21</sup>). The sentinel blood pressure SNPs are enriched for association with DNA methylation at multiple nearby CpG sites, suggesting that, at some of the loci identified, DNA methylation may lie on the regulatory pathway linking sequence variation to blood pressure. The sentinel SNPs at the 12 new loci point to genes involved in vascular smooth muscle (<em>IGFBP3</em>, <em>KCNK3</em>, <em>PDE3A</em> and <em>PRDM6</em>) and renal (<em>ARHGAP24</em>, <em>OSR1</em>, <em>SLC22A7</em> and <em>TBX2</em>) function. The new and known genetic variants predict increased left ventricular mass, circulating levels of NT-proBNP, and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality (<em>P</em> = 0.04 to 8.6 × 10<sup>−6</sup>). Our results provide new evidence for the role of DNA methylation in blood pressure regulation.</p>
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6.
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7.
  • Voight, Benjamin F., et al. (författare)
  • Twelve type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci identified through large-scale association analysis
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 42:7, s. 579-589
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>By combining genome-wide association data from 8,130 individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and 38,987 controls of European descent and following up previously unidentified meta-analysis signals in a further 34,412 cases and 59,925 controls, we identified 12 new T2D association signals with combined P &lt; 5 x 10(-8). These include a second independent signal at the KCNQ1 locus; the first report, to our knowledge, of an X-chromosomal association (near DUSP9); and a further instance of overlap between loci implicated in monogenic and multifactorial forms of diabetes (at HNF1A). The identified loci affect both beta-cell function and insulin action, and, overall, T2D association signals show evidence of enrichment for genes involved in cell cycle regulation. We also show that a high proportion of T2D susceptibility loci harbor independent association signals influencing apparently unrelated complex traits.</p>
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8.
  • Voight, Benjamin F., et al. (författare)
  • Twelve type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci identified through large-scale association analysis
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 42:7, s. 155-579
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • By combining genome-wide association data from 8,130 individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and 38,987 controls of European descent and following up previously unidentified meta-analysis signals in a further 34,412 cases and 59,925 controls, we identified 12 new T2D association signals with combined P < 5 x 10(-8). These include a second independent signal at the KCNQ1 locus; the first report, to our knowledge, of an X-chromosomal association (near DUSP9); and a further instance of overlap between loci implicated in monogenic and multifactorial forms of diabetes (at HNF1A). The identified loci affect both beta-cell function and insulin action, and, overall, T2D association signals show evidence of enrichment for genes involved in cell cycle regulation. We also show that a high proportion of T2D susceptibility loci harbor independent association signals influencing apparently unrelated complex traits.
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9.
  • Scott, Robert A., et al. (författare)
  • An Expanded Genome-Wide Association Study of Type 2 Diabetes in Europeans
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 66:11, s. 2888-2902
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>To characterize type 2 diabetes (T2D)-associated variation across the allele frequency spectrum, we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data from 26,676 T2D case and 132,532 control subjects of European ancestry after imputation using the 1000 Genomes multiethnic reference panel. Promising association signals were followed up in additional data sets (of 14,545 or 7,397 T2D case and 38,994 or 71,604 control subjects). We identified 13 novel T2D-associated loci (P &lt; 5 x 10(-8)), including variants near the GLP2R, GIP, and HLA-DQA1 genes. Our analysis brought the total number of independent T2D associations to 128 distinct signals at 113 loci. Despite substantially increased sample size and more complete coverage of low-frequency variation, all novel associations were driven by common single nucleotide variants. Credible sets of potentially causal variants were generally larger than those based on imputation with earlier reference panels, consistent with resolution of causal signals to common risk haplotypes. Stratification of T2D-associated loci based on T2D-related quantitative trait associations revealed tissue-specific enrichment of regulatory annotations in pancreatic islet enhancers for loci influencing insulin secretion and in adipocytes, monocytes, and hepatocytes for insulin action-associated loci. These findings highlight the predominant role played by common variants of modest effect and the diversity of biological mechanisms influencing T2D pathophysiology.</p>
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10.
  • Scott, Robert A., et al. (författare)
  • An Expanded Genome-Wide Association Study of Type 2 Diabetes in Europeans
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - American Diabetes Association. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 66:11, s. 2888-2902
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>To characterize type 2 diabetes (T2D)-associated variation across the allele frequency spectrum, we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data from 26,676 T2D case and 132,532 control subjects of European ancestry after imputation using the 1000 Genomes multiethnic reference panel. Promising association signals were followed up in additional data sets (of 14,545 or 7,397 T2D case and 38,994 or 71,604 control subjects). We identified 13 novel T2D-associated loci (P &lt; 5 x 10(-8)), including variants near the GLP2R, GIP, and HLA-DQA1 genes. Our analysis brought the total number of independent T2D associations to 128 distinct signals at 113 loci. Despite substantially increased sample size and more complete coverage of low-frequency variation, all novel associations were driven by common single nucleotide variants. Credible sets of potentially causal variants were generally larger than those based on imputation with earlier reference panels, consistent with resolution of causal signals to common risk haplotypes. Stratification of T2D-associated loci based on T2D-related quantitative trait associations revealed tissue-specific enrichment of regulatory annotations in pancreatic islet enhancers for loci influencing insulin secretion and in adipocytes, monocytes, and hepatocytes for insulin action-associated loci. These findings highlight the predominant role played by common variants of modest effect and the diversity of biological mechanisms influencing T2D pathophysiology.</p>
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