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Sökning: WFRF:(Spezzano S.)

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1.
  • Taquet, V, et al. (författare)
  • Seeds of Life in Space (SOLIS) VI. Chemical evolution of sulfuretted species along the outflows driven by the low-mass protostellar binary NGC1333-IRAS4A
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 637
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Low-mass protostars drive powerful molecular outflows that can be observed with millimetre and submillimetre telescopes. Various sulfuretted species are known to be bright in shocks and could be used to infer the physical and chemical conditions throughout the observed outflows. Aims. The evolution of sulfur chemistry is studied along the outflows driven by the NGC1333-IRAS4A protobinary system located in the Perseus cloud to constrain the physical and chemical processes at work in shocks. Methods. We observed various transitions from OCS, CS, SO, and SO2 towards NGC1333-IRAS4A in the 1.3, 2, and 3mm bands using the IRAM NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array and we interpreted the observations through the use of the Paris-Durham shock model. Results. The targeted species clearly show different spatial emission along the two outflows driven by IRAS4A. OCS is brighter on small and large scales along the south outflow driven by IRAS4A1, whereas SO2 is detected rather along the outflow driven by IRAS4A2 that is extended along the north east-south west direction. SO is detected at extremely high radial velocity up to +25 km s 1 relative to the source velocity, clearly allowing us to distinguish the two outflows on small scales. Column density ratio maps estimated from a rotational diagram analysis allowed us to confirm a clear gradient of the OCS/SO2 column density ratio between the IRAS4A1 and IRAS4A2 outflows. Analysis assuming non Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium of four SO2 transitions towards several SiO emission peaks suggests that the observed gas should be associated with densities higher than 105 cm 3 and relatively warm (T > 100 K) temperatures in most cases. Conclusions. The observed chemical differentiation between the two outflows of the IRAS4A system could be explained by a different chemical history. The outflow driven by IRAS4A1 is likely younger and more enriched in species initially formed in interstellar ices, such as OCS, and recently sputtered into the shock gas. In contrast, the longer and likely older outflow triggered by IRAS4A2 is more enriched in species that have a gas phase origin, such as SO2.
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2.
  • Bulut, N., et al. (författare)
  • Gas phase Elemental abundances in Molecular cloudS (GEMS): III. Unlocking the CS chemistry: The CS+O reaction
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 646
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Carbon monosulphide (CS) is among the most abundant gas-phase S-bearing molecules in cold dark molecular clouds. It is easily observable with several transitions in the millimeter wavelength range, and has been widely used as a tracer of the gas density in the interstellar medium in our Galaxy and external galaxies. However, chemical models fail to account for the observed CS abundances when assuming the cosmic value for the elemental abundance of sulfur. Aims. The CS+O → CO + S reaction has been proposed as a relevant CS destruction mechanism at low temperatures, and could explain the discrepancy between models and observations. Its reaction rate has been experimentally measured at temperatures of 150-400 K, but the extrapolation to lower temperatures is doubtful. Our goal is to calculate the CS+O reaction rate at temperatures <150 K which are prevailing in the interstellar medium. Methods. We performed ab initio calculations to obtain the three lowest potential energy surfaces (PES) of the CS+O system. These PESs are used to study the reaction dynamics, using several methods (classical, quantum, and semiclassical) to eventually calculate the CS + O thermal reaction rates. In order to check the accuracy of our calculations, we compare the results of our theoretical calculations for T ~ 150-400 K with those obtained in the laboratory. Results. Our detailed theoretical study on the CS+O reaction, which is in agreement with the experimental data obtained at 150-400 K, demonstrates the reliability of our approach. After a careful analysis at lower temperatures, we find that the rate constant at 10 K is negligible, below 10-15 cm s-1, which is consistent with the extrapolation of experimental data using the Arrhenius expression. Conclusions. We use the updated chemical network to model the sulfur chemistry in Taurus Molecular Cloud 1 (TMC 1) based on molecular abundances determined from Gas phase Elemental abundances in Molecular CloudS (GEMS) project observations. In our model, we take into account the expected decrease of the cosmic ray ionization rate, ζH2, along the cloud. The abundance of CS is still overestimated when assuming the cosmic value for the sulfur abundance.
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