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  • Alfermann, Dorothee, et al. (författare)
  • Career transitions and career termination
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Handbook of sport psychology. - 3. - Hoboken, N.J. : John Wiley & Sons. - 978-0-471-73811-4 - 0-471-73811-5 ; s. 712-733
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The purpose of this chapter is to comprehensively overview this research area and expand the perspectives provided in the two earlier editions of this Handbook. In this chapter, we first define and explain the key concepts of athletic career, career transition, and career termination. In subsequent sections, we discuss the theoretical background, the empirical research, and intervention approaches as they are concerned with career transitions and termination. We close the chapter with suggestions for future research in the career transition area.</p>
  • Alfermann, D., et al. (författare)
  • Reactions to sport career termination : A cross-national comparison of German, Lithuanian, and Russian athletes
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Psychology of Sport And Exercise. - Amsterdam : Elsevier. - 1469-0292 .- 1878-5476. ; 5:1, s. 61-75
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Objectives: To assess the cognitive, emotional, and behavioural consequences of sport career termination of national and international level athletes in three nations.</p><p>Design and methods: Athletes of Germany (<em>n</em>=88), Lithuania (<em>n</em>=65), and Russia (<em>n</em>=101) were asked to describe in retrospect their reactions to career termination. The Athletic Retirement Questionnaire developed by the first two authors and presented in three corresponding languages was used. Planning of retirement and national identity served as independent variables. Dependent variables were reasons and circumstances for career termination, participants’ emotional reactions, coping reactions, athletic identity during and after sport career, and adjustment to life after career termination.</p><p>Results: Analyses of variance revealed significant main effects of retirement planning and national identity on most dependent variables. Planning of retirement contributed to significantly better cognitive, emotional, and behavioural adaptation. In addition, high athletic identity contributed to less positive reactions to retirement and to more problems in the adaptation process. The emotional reactions of Russian and Lithuanian athletes were similar, but differed from the German athletes who, in general, showed more positive and lesser negative emotions after retirement. Though accepting the reality of retirement was the most often used coping strategy among all participants, Lithuanian athletes showed more denial and Russian athletes more distraction strategies after retirement than the other nations.</p><p>Discussion: The results are discussed with regard to athletes’ readiness for career transition in different social and cultural environments. Recommendations are given on how to help athletes to prepare for and to cope with career termination. © 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p>
  • Alfermann, Dorothee, et al. (författare)
  • Sport psychology in Europe – Women’s perspective
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Abstracts of the ISSP 13<sup>th</sup> World Congress of Sport Psychology : July 21-26, 2013, Beijing Sport University, Beijing, China. - Beijing. ; s. 55-55
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Compared to other disciplines of psychology, sport and exercise psychology is a very young field. Sport psychology associations were founded in a variety of countries (particularly in Europe and North America) in the 1960es and later, after the first World Congress of Sport Psychology had taken place in Rome in 1965. Despite the fact that even in those ages quite a few women were studying psychology and afterwards starting a scientific career, females in sport psychology were extremely underrepresented. One of the reasons could lie in the fact that sport, much more than psychology, was a stereotypically male field, with only a few opportunities available to women. Making a career in sport psychology was then a double contradiction for women. First, making a career in general contradicted the typical female role, and second, making a career in sport meant an untypical field for women.</p><p>The presentation will be structured as a dialogue between the two presenters – female sport psychologists working in the field for more than 30 years. Both were born and started their careers during the period of the Cold War: Dorothee Alfermann in the Federal Republic of Germany, and Natalia Stambulova in the Soviet Union. Both countries do not exist on the European map any more reflecting dramatic political, social and economic changes in Europe during the last two decades. All the changes in the European context put their impacts on the development of sport and exercise psychology in Europe including overall organizational development, as well as female careers and their contributions to European Federation of Sport Psychology (FEPSAC), other international sport psychology organizations (e.g., ISSP, AASP) and international sport psychology events (e.g., Congresses). The dialogue will be structured around the following three themes: (a) the presenters’ own careers analyzed from the point of gender issues (e.g., female professional role models and mentors), (b) history of European sport and exercise psychology, foundation of FEPSAC and contribution of its first President Ema Geron (1969-1973), and (c) female sport psychology professionals’ role in today’s European sport psychology and their contributions to FEPSAC, ISSP, AASP, national sport psychology associations, the editorial board of <em>Psychology of Sport and Exercise</em>, the European Forum of Applied Sport Psychologists, the European Master’s Studies in Sport and Exercise Psychology (EMSSEP), and the recent European Master’s (Mundus) Program in Sport and Exercise Psychology (EMPSEP).</p>
  • Battochio, Randy C., et al. (författare)
  • Career barriers in the National Hockey League : An inductive thematic analysis of first-hand data from Canadian professional ice hockey players
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Sport Psychology. - Rome : Edizioni Luigi Pozzi s.r.l.. - 0047-0767. ; 50:5, s. 448-468
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The objectives of the study were: (a) to examine the Canadian National Hockey League (NHL) players’ internal and external barriers associated with the demands at each NHL career stage and status together with across-career barriers, and (b) to feature the Canadian NHL players’ barriers in the empirical career model. Five rookies, five veterans, and 13 retirees agreed to participate in conversational interviews before their transcripts underwent an interpretive thematic analysis (Braun &amp; Clarke, 2012). Prospects face draft year pressure and team camp anxiety. Rookies and sophomores deal with insecurity with teammates and roster spot uncertainty. Prime veterans have to manage ruminating over missed chances while seasoned veterans struggled with social connections. Across career stages and statuses, NHL players deal with career threatening injuries and conflicts with head coach. After discussing how these results contribute to the empirical career model of Canadian NHL players and also extend the career transition and maladaptation literatures, delimitations and future directions are proposed for sport psychology researchers. </p>
  • Battochio, Randy C., et al. (författare)
  • Coping strategies and resources in the National Hockey League : An inductive thematic analysis with Canadian professional ice-hockey players
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Conference Abstracts : 32nd Annual Conference AASP2017, Orlando, FL, October 18-21. - Indianapolis : Association for Applied Sport Psychology. - 978-0-9855310-6-5 ; s. 17-18
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Canadian ice-hockey players must overcome numerous stressors throughout their National Hockey  League (NHL) careers. Though sport psychology researchers have conducted preliminary studies, theoretical restrictions, small participant numbers, and the use of a structured interview guide have limited breadth of knowledge. Our authors constructed a comprehensive empirical career model by eliciting 23 Canadian NHL players. The intent in the presentation is to feature the stressors, barriers, coping strategies and resources utilised at each status and career stage. Five rookies, five veterans, and 13 retirees agreed to participate in conversational interviews before their transcripts underwent an interpretive thematic analysis (Braun &amp; Clarke, 2012). Prospects seeking to gain entry into the NHL needed (a) realistic expectations of draft pressures, (b) training camp expectations, (c) identify the team’s needs, and (d) if demoted, readjust their expectations. Rookies developing  as NHL p layers needed a high compete level when called-up while sophomores developed by (a) knowing their opponents, (b) generating role player production, and (c) made friendships. Veterans seeking to be All-Stars coped by (a) practicing scoring and creating scoring chances, and (b) showing Stanley Cup determination. Seasoned veterans extended their careers by preserving their physique. The authors will discuss the practical applications for sport psychology consultants tasked with ensuring that professional ice-hockey players move effectively through career transitions including entering the NHL, developing as an NHL players, reaching the NHL elite, and maintaining NHL play involvement. The authors will also speak about teammates, coaches, and support staff hoping to be effective resources to their players’ career progression. © 2017 by the Association for Applied Sport Psychology </p>
  • Battochio, Randy C., et al. (författare)
  • Stages and demands in the careers of Canadian National Hockey League players
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Sports Sciences. - Abingdon, Oxon : Routledge. - 0264-0414 .- 1466-447X. ; 34:3, s. 278-288
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Researchers have identified some demands of Canadian National Hockey League (NHL) players, yet there is little direction for players hoping to reach the lucrative league. The objectives of this study were to identify the stages, statuses and demands in Canadian NHL players’ careers and propose an empirical career model of Canadian NHL players. In total, 5 rookies, 5 veterans and 13 retirees had their interviews undergo an interpretive thematic analysis. Prospects face the NHL combine, training camp and minor league assignment. While developing into NHL players, rookies deal with NHL call-ups, team competition and formative production while sophomores seemed preoccupied by the opposition. Prime veterans become All-Stars by garnering point production and challenging for the Stanley Cup while seasoned veterans remain relevant through training camps. A discussion about the model’s viability is followed by applications for sport psychology researchers and practitioners. © 2015 Taylor &amp; Francis</p>
  • Battochio, Randy, et al. (författare)
  • Coping resources and strategies of Canadian ice-hockey players : An empirical National Hockey League career model<em></em>
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: International journal of sports science & coaching. - London, UK : Sage Publications. - 1747-9541 .- 2048-397X. ; 14:6, s. 726-737
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Sport psychology researchers have studied careers of Canadian ice hockey players in the National Hockey League (NHL) and devised an empirical NHL career model (Authors, 2015; in press). The model was comprised of career stages, statuses, demands and barriers to career progression without any indication of coping. The intent in the present article is to feature coping resources and strategies utilized by players during each status and career stage within the empirical model. Five rookies, five veterans, and 13 retirees participated in conversational interviews and the data underwent a deductive thematic analysis (Braun &amp; Clarke, 2012). Prospects seeking to gain entry into the NHL set controllable expectations rather than playing to impress coaches and staff. Most prospects played in the minor leagues where they adjusted their expectations to accept roles that they were likely to have during an NHL call-up. The career stage of developing as an NHL player was about rookies producing immediately in their role while holding off internal competition for their roster spot. In the same stage, sophomores were in their second full NHL season and they studied their opponents to avoid the sophomore slump. The stage of reaching the NHL elite involved constant pressure for point production and winning playoff games. The final stage was about seasoned veterans maintaining NHL play involvement by preserving their physique despite being worn down from long careers in a contact sport. The authors will discuss the significance of the model for sport psychology researchers and practitioners, and NHL stakeholders. © The Author(s) 2019.</p>
  • Becker-Larsen, Astrid, et al. (författare)
  • "Organizing for excellence" : stress-recovery states in the Danish national orienteering team during a training camp and the 2015 World Championship
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Sport psychology: Linking theory to practice : Proceedings of the 14<sup>th </sup>ISSP World Congress of Sport Psychology. - 978-84-9148-282-6 ; s. 639-640
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Elite level athletes are under considerable pressure to perform, why energy management is a natural part of the life of elite athletes. Energy management is particularly important during periods of high demand on their resources, such as during training camps and competitions, which are often intense and do not allow sufficient time for recovery. Research on recovery has mainly focused on individual physical and physiological strategies. In the 2015 World Championship, the Danish national orienteering team was the best nation, winning four gold medals. In the present study we examined: (a) the stress-recovery states of the Danish orienteers during a three-week preparatory training camp and the following 2015 World Championship, and (b) their perceived sources of stress and recovery during the two events. The study was designed as mixed-method with the RESTQ-sport questionnaire, semi-structured interviews, and a coach’s journal as the data sources used longitudinally during the camp and the championship. Results revealed: (a) well-balanced stress-recovery states among all athletes during the entire period; and (b) perceived sources of stress and recovery classified into organizational, social, personal, and athletic. The athletes themselves stated that their well-balanced stress-recovery states positively affected their learning, well-being, and performance. The organizational strategies played a key role in reducing athletes’ unnecessary stress and in facilitating individual recovery. We suggest that “organizing for excellence”, keeping in mind athletes' energy management, is a special task for coaches and managers when preparing for camps and competitions. </p>
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