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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Standing A.) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Standing A.)

  • Resultat 1-7 av 7
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1.
  • Swayne,, et al. (författare)
  • The EBLM project - VIII. First results for M-dwarf mass, radius, and effective temperature measurements using CHEOPS light curves
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 506:1, s. 306-322
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The accuracy of theoretical mass, radius, and effective temperature values for M-dwarf stars is an active topic of debate. Differences between observed and theoretical values have raised the possibility that current theoretical stellar structure and evolution models are inaccurate towards the low-mass end of the main sequence. To explore this issue, we use the CHEOPS satellite to obtain high-precision light curves of eclipsing binaries with low-mass stellar companions. We use these light curves combined with the spectroscopic orbit for the solar-type companion to measure the mass, radius, and effective temperature of the M-dwarf star. Here, we present the analysis of three eclipsing binaries. We use the pycheops data analysis software to fit the observed transit and eclipse events of each system. Two of our systems were also observed by the TESS satellite - we similarly analyse these light curves for comparison. We find consistent results between CHEOPS and TESS, presenting three stellar radii and two stellar effective temperature values of low-mass stellar objects. These initial results from our on-going observing programme with CHEOPS show that we can expect to have similar to 24 new mass, radius, and effective temperature measurements for very low-mass stars within the next few years.
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2.
  • Musuamba, F. T., et al. (författare)
  • Advanced Methods for Dose and Regimen Finding During Drug Development : Summary of the EMA/EFPIA Workshop on Dose Finding (London 4-5 December 2014)
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: CPT. - 2163-8306. ; 6:7, s. 418-429
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Inadequate dose selection for confirmatory trials is currently still one of the most challenging issues in drug development, as illustrated by high rates of late-stage attritions in clinical development and postmarketing commitments required by regulatory institutions. In an effort to shift the current paradigm in dose and regimen selection and highlight the availability and usefulness of well-established and regulatory-acceptable methods, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) in collaboration with the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries Association (EFPIA) hosted a multistakeholder workshop on dose finding (London 4-5 December 2014). Some methodologies that could constitute a toolkit for drug developers and regulators were presented. These methods are described in the present report: they include five advanced methods for data analysis (empirical regression models, pharmacometrics models, quantitative systems pharmacology models, MCP-Mod, and model averaging) and three methods for study design optimization (Fisher information matrix (FIM)-based methods, clinical trial simulations, and adaptive studies). Pairwise comparisons were also discussed during the workshop; however, mostly for historical reasons. This paper discusses the added value and limitations of these methods as well as challenges for their implementation. Some applications in different therapeutic areas are also summarized, in line with the discussions at the workshop. There was agreement at the workshop on the fact that selection of dose for phase III is an estimation problem and should not be addressed via hypothesis testing. Dose selection for phase III trials should be informed by well-designed dosefinding studies; however, the specific choice of method(s) will depend on several aspects and it is not possible to recommend a generalized decision tree. There are many valuable methods available, the methods are not mutually exclusive, and they should be used in conjunction to ensure a scientifically rigorous understanding of the dosing rationale.
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3.
  • Nanthapisal, S., et al. (författare)
  • Deficiency of Adenosine Deaminase Type 2 A Description of Phenotype and Genotype in Fifteen Cases
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Arthritis & Rheumatology. - 2326-5191. ; 68:9, s. 2314-2322
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. To describe the clinical features, genotype, and treatment in a series of subjects with confirmed adenosine deaminase 2 (ADA2) deficiency. Methods. All symptomatic subjects were referred for genetic testing for suspected ADA2 deficiency; relatives of index cases were also screened. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics and treatments were recorded. Genetic analyses included whole-exome sequencing in 4 subjects and Sanger sequencing of CECR1 (the gene for cat eye syndrome chromosome region candidate 1) in all subjects. Assays for ADA2 enzyme activity and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of CECR1 messenger RNA (mRNA) were also performed. Results. We identified 15 subjects with ADA2 deficiency, 5 of whom were asymptomatic (relatives of index cases; ages 5-42 years). Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in CECR1 were identified in all subjects. Phenotypic manifestations in the patients with symptomatic ADA2 deficiency included livedo racemosa (73.3%), neurologic involvement (53.3%), and immunodeficiency (46.7%). CECR1 mRNA expression in 8 subjects, including 5 who were presymptomatic, was significantly lower than in healthy controls (P=0.0016). Subjects with ADA2 deficiency (with or without symptoms) also had lower ADA2 enzyme activity compared to healthy pediatric controls (P<0.0001) and patients with sporadic (nonfamilial) childhood polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) without CECR1 mutation (P= 0.0108). Anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy was required in 9 of the 10 symptomatic subjects. Conclusion. The clinical manifestations of ADA2 deficiency ranged in severity from limited cutaneous involvement to severe multisystemic vasculitis; one-third of our cases (5 of 15) were currently asymptomatic, and required close monitoring. We recommend CECR1 screening for unaffected siblings of index cases, cases of familial vasculitis, and cases of PAN that is resistant to standard treatment.
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5.
  • Germovsek, Eva, et al. (författare)
  • Development and Evaluation of a Gentamicin Pharmacokinetic Model That Facilitates Opportunistic Gentamicin Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Neonates and Infants
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. - 0066-4804 .- 1098-6596. ; 60:8, s. 4869-4877
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Trough gentamicin therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is time-consuming, disruptive to neonatal clinical care, and a patient safety issue. Bayesian models could allow TDM to be performed opportunistically at the time of routine blood tests. This study aimed to develop and prospectively evaluate a new gentamicin model and a novel Bayesian computer tool (neoGent) for TDM use in neonatal intensive care. We also evaluated model performance for predicting peak concentrations and the area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 h to time t h (AUC(0-t)). A pharmacokinetic meta-analysis was performed on pooled data from three studies (1,325 concentrations from 205 patients). A 3-compartment model was used with the following covariates: allometric weight scaling, postmenstrual and postnatal age, and serum creatinine concentration. Final parameter estimates (standard errors) were as follows: clearance, 6.2 (0.3) liters/h/70 kg of body weight; central volume (V), 26.5 (0.6) liters/70 kg; intercompartmental disposition (Q), 2.2 (0.3) liters/h/70 kg; peripheral volume V2, 21.2 (1.5) liters/70 kg; intercompartmental disposition (Q2), 0.3 (0.05) liters/h/70 kg; peripheral volume V3, 148 (52.0) liters/70 kg. The model's ability to predict trough concentrations from an opportunistic sample was evaluated in a prospective observational cohort study that included data from 163 patients and 483 concentrations collected in five hospitals. Unbiased trough predictions were obtained; the median (95% confidence interval [CI]) prediction error was 0.0004 (-1.07, 0.84) mg/liter. Results also showed that peaks and AUC(0-t) values could be predicted (from one randomly selected sample) with little bias but relative imprecision, with median (95% CI) prediction errors being 0.16 (-4.76, 5.01) mg/liter and 10.8 (-24.9, 62.2) mg center dot h/liter, respectively. neoGent was implemented in R/NONMEM and in the freely available TDMx software.
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6.
  • Germovsek, Eva, et al. (författare)
  • Development and external evaluation of a population pharmacokinetic model for continuous and intermittent administration of vancomycin in neonates and infants using prospectively collected data
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS. - 0305-7453 .- 1460-2091. ; 74:4, s. 1003-1011
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Vancomycin is commonly used for nosocomial bacterial pathogens causing late-onset septicaemia in preterm infants. We prospectively collected pharmacokinetic data aiming to describe pharmacokinetics and determine covariates contributing to the variability in neonatal vancomycin pharmacokinetics. Further, we aimed to use the model to compare the ratio of AUC(24) at steady-state to the MIC (AUC(24,ss)/MIC) of several intermittent and continuous dosing regimens.Methods: Newborns receiving vancomycin for suspected or confirmed late-onset sepsis were included. Peak and trough concentrations for intermittent vancomycin dosing and steady-state concentrations for continuous vancomycin dosing were measured. NONMEM 7.3 was used for population pharmacokinetic analysis. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to compare dosing schemes.Results: Data from 54 infants were used for model development and from 34 infants for the model evaluation {corrected gestational age [median (range)]=29 (23.7-41.9) weeks and 28 (23.4-41.7) weeks, respectively}. The final model was a one-compartment model. Weight and postmenstrual age were included a priori, and then no additional covariate significantly improved the model fit. Final model parameter estimates [mean (SEM)]: CL=5.7 (0.3) L/h/70kg and V=39.3 (3.7) L/70kg. Visual predictive check of the evaluation dataset confirmed the model can predict external data. Simulations using MIC of 1mg/L showed that for neonates with gestational age 25weeks and postnatal age 2weeks AUC(24,ss)/MIC was lower with the intermittent regimen (median 482 versus 663).Conclusions: A population pharmacokinetic model for continuous and intermittent vancomycin administration in infants was developed. Continuous administration might be favourable for treating infections caused by resistant microorganisms in very young and immature infants.
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