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  • Stegmayr, B., et al. (författare)
  • World apheresis registry 2003-2007 data
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Transfusion and apheresis science. - Oxford : Pergamon. - 1473-0502 .- 1878-1683. ; 39:3, s. 247-254
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: Seventy-five centers from many countries have applied for a login code to the WAA apheresis registry. Fifteen centers from 7 countries have been actively entering data at the internet site from 2003 until 2007. We report on data from the registry so far. Methods: This is a web-based registry. A link is available from the WAA homepage (www.worldapheresis.org). So far data from 2013 patients (12,448 procedures) have been included. A median of 6 treatments have been performed (range 1140). Mean age 51 years (range 1-94 years; 45% women). Seven percent of the patients were <= 21 years and 4% were <= 16 years. Results: The purpose of the apheresis procedure was therapeutic in 67% and retrieval of blood components in 33% Main indications: neurological and hematological diseases, lipid apheresis and stemcell collection (autologous, and some allogeneic). Blood access: peripheral vessels (71%), central dialysis catheter through jugular (6.5%) or subclavian veins (6.7%), femoral vein (8%) and AV fistula (4%). ACD was used for anticoagulation in 73% of the procedures. Albumin was mainly used as replacement fluid. Adverse events (AE) were registered in 5.7% of the procedures. AE was graded as mild (2.5%), moderate (2.7%) or severe (0.5%). No death occurred due to treatment. The procedures were interrupted in 2.6%. Most frequent AEs were blood access problems (29%), tingling around the mouth (20%), hypotension (18%), and urticaria (9%). There were significant differences between the centers regarding mild and moderate AEs. Data indicate that centers using continuous infusion of calcium had fewer AEs. Conclusion: There was a limited number of severe AEs. Centers use various standard procedures for apheresis. By learning from the experience of others the treatment quality will improve further. In the near future, an update of the registry will enable more extensive evaluation of the data.
  • Wiklund, Per-Gunnar, et al. (författare)
  • Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism and risk of stroke : replicated findings in two nested case-control studies based on independent cohorts.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Stroke. - 0039-2499 .- 1524-4628. ; 36:8, s. 1661-1665
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Impaired fibrinolytic function secondary to elevated plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels has been implicated in ischemic stroke. PAI-1 levels are determined by genetic factors and environmental factors, triglyceride levels in particular. The aim of this study was to investigate the common functional 4/5 guanosine (4G/5G) polymorphism in the promoter region of the PAI-1 gene and the risk of stroke. METHODS: A nested case-control study design was applied, using baseline data for 2 independent cohorts obtained at population-based surveys in northern Sweden. In study A, there were 113, and in study B, there were 275 individuals without major concomitant disease at baseline who later experienced a first-ever stroke. Blood samples obtained at baseline were analyzed for potential risk factors, including the 4G/5G polymorphism of the PAI-1 gene. RESULTS: The 4G allele of the PAI-1 polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of future ischemic stroke in both studies (odds ratio [OR] of 4G homozygosity, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.12 to 3.15 in study A; OR of 4G homozygosity, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.12 to 2.16 in study B). Individuals with the combination of hypertriglyceridemia and 4G homozygosity were at the greatest risk of developing stroke. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified 4G homozygosity, systolic blood pressure, and diabetes as independent predictors of ischemic stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Identical findings in 2 independent studies strongly suggest a true and clinically important association between PAI-1 4G/5G genotype and risk of future ischemic stroke. The observed modification of the genotype effect by triglycerides may be interpreted as a gene-environment interaction.
  • Appelros, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Riks-Stroke och hur fallgropar vid tolkning av resultaten undviks : rapport
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Läkartidningen. - Stockholm : Sveriges läkarförbund. - 0023-7205 .- 1652-7518. ; 105:8, s. 529-533
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Riks-Stroke, the Swedish quality register for stroke care, has been in service for twelve years. The register gives a unique opportunity to compare treatment, care, and rehabilitation of stroke patients. The protocol has now been launched in its eighth version. The most important changes include that the register now also includes cases that are treated as outpatients. Also, a more robust measure of stroke severity, the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) has been included. All quality registers are sensitive for selection bias. Therefore, it is important to aim at as complete case ascertainment as possible, both at baseline and at the 3-month follow-up. To analyze the comparability of quality parameters between different time points, or between different hospitals, we suggest the use of certain “base factors”, for example age, stroke severity, and number of patients included at baseline and at follow-up.From 2007, with a more robust measure of stroke severity, we are offered an instrument that facilitates comparisons. By registering outpatients, selection bias from this cause is avoided. We will also learn if outpatients have a worse long time outcome. A possible future direction is that the quality of medical follow-up is evaluated within the frames of Riks-Stroke, for example life style factors and treatment of hypertension.
  • Asplund, Kjell, et al. (författare)
  • Diagnostic procedures, treatments, and outcomes in stroke patients admitted to different types of hospitals
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Stroke. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0039-2499 .- 1524-4628. ; 46:3, s. 806-812
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Purpose: In many countries, including Sweden, initiatives have been taken to reduce between-hospital differences in the quality of stroke services. We have explored to what extent hospital type (university, specialized nonuniversity, or community hospital) influences hospital performance. Methods: Riksstroke collects clinical data during hospital stay (national coverage 94%). Follow-up data at 3 months were collected using administrative registers and a questionnaire completed by surviving patients (response rate 88%). Structural data were collected from a questionnaire completed by hospital staff (response rate 100%). Multivariate analyses with adjustment for clustering were used to test differences between types of hospitals. Results: The proportion of patients admitted directly to a stroke unit was highest in community hospitals and lowest in university hospitals. Magnetic resonance, carotid imaging, and thrombectomy were more frequently performed in university hospitals, and the door-to-needle time for thrombolysis was shorter. Secondary prevention with antihypertensive drugs was used less often, and outpatient follow-up was less frequent in university hospitals. Fewer patients in community hospitals were dissatisfied with their rehabilitation. After adjusting for possible confounders, poor outcome (dead or activities of daily living dependency 3 months after stroke) was not significantly different between the 3 types of hospital. Conclusions: In a setting with national stroke guidelines, stroke units in all hospitals, and measurement of hospital performance and benchmarking, outcome (after case-mix adjustment) is similar in university, specialized nonuniversity, and community hospitals. There seems to be fewer barriers to organizing well-functioning stroke services in community hospitals compared with university hospitals.
  • Asplund, Kjell, et al. (författare)
  • End of life after stroke : a nationwide study of 42,502 deaths occurring within a year after stroke
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Stroke Journal. - : Sage Publications. - 2396-9873 .- 2396-9881. ; 3:1, s. 74-81
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: In the scientific literature, there is very limited empirical information on end-of-life issues after stroke in the scientific literature. The present nationwide study describes the circumstances surrounding deaths that occur within a year after a stroke. Patients and methods: Datasets from three nationwide Swedish registers (on stroke, palliative care and cause of death) were linked. Basic information was available for 42,502 unselected cases of death that occurred within a year after a stroke and more detailed information was available for 16,408 deaths. Odds ratios for characteristics of end-of-life care were calculated by logistic regression. Results: In the late phase after stroke (three months to one year), 46% of patients died in a nursing home, whereas 37% of patients died in a hospital after readmission and 10% of patients died at home. Eleven per cent of deaths were reported as being unexpected. A next of kin was present at 49% of deaths. The frequency of unattended deaths (neither next of kin nor staff were present at the time of death) ranged from 5% at home with specialised home care to 25% in hospitals. Discussion: This is, by far, the largest study published on end-of-life issues after stroke. Major differences between countries in healthcare, community services, family structure and culture may limit direct transfer of the present results to other settings. Conclusion: There is considerable discordance between presumed good death' late after stroke (dying at home surrounded by family members) and the actual circumstances at the end of life.
  • Asplund, Kjell, et al. (författare)
  • Patient Dissatisfaction With Acute Stroke Care.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation. - : American Heart Association. - 1524-4628 .- 0039-2499. ; 40, s. 3851-3856
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Riks-Stroke, the Swedish Stroke Register, was used to explore patient characteristics and stroke services as determinants of patient dissatisfaction with acute in-hospital care. METHODS: All 79 hospitals in Sweden admitting acute stroke patients participate in Riks-Stroke. During 2001 to 2007, 104 876 patients (87% of survivors) responded to a follow-up questionnaire 3 months after acute stroke; this included questions on satisfaction with various aspects of stroke care. RESULTS: The majority (>90%) were satisfied with acute in-hospital stroke care. Dissatisfaction was closely associated with outcome at 3 months. Patient who were dependent regarding activities of daily living, felt depressed, or had poor self-perceived general health were more likely to be dissatisfied. Dissatisfaction with global acute stroke care was linked to dissatisfaction with other aspects of care, including rehabilitation and support by community services. Patients treated in stroke units were less often dissatisfied than patients in general wards, as were patients who had been treated in a small hospital (vs medium or large hospitals) and patient who had participated in discharge planning. In multivariate analyses, the strongest predictor of dissatisfaction with acute care was poor outcome (dependency regarding activities of daily living, depressed mood, poor self-perceived health). CONCLUSIONS: Dissatisfaction with in-hospital acute stroke care is part of a more extensive complex comprising poor functional outcome, depressive mood, poor self-perceived general health, and dissatisfaction not only with acute care but also with health care and social services at large. Several aspects of stroke care organization are associated with a lower risk of dissatisfaction.
  • Eriksson, Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Discarding Heparins as Treatment for Progressive Stroke in Sweden 2001 to 2008
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Stroke: a journal of cerebral circulation. - : American Heart Association. - 1524-4628 .- 0039-2499. ; 41:11, s. 2552-2558
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Purpose-High-dose heparin has been used extensively to treat patients with progressive ischemic stroke, but the scientific support is poor and the current stroke guidelines advise against its use. We studied how heparin treatment for progressive stroke has been discarded in Sweden. Methods-All 78 hospitals in Sweden that admit acute stroke patients participate in Riks-Stroke, the Swedish Stroke Register. During 2001 to 2008, information on the use of high-dose heparin was available for 155 344 patients with acute ischemic stroke. The determinants as to region, patient characteristics, and stroke service settings were analyzed. Results-Use of heparin for progressive stroke declined from 7.5% (2001) to 1.6% (2008) of all patients with ischemic stroke. The marked regional differences present in 2001 were reduced over time. The use of heparin declined at a similar rate in all types of hospital settings, in stroke units vs nonstroke units, and in neurological vs medical wards. Independent predictors of use of heparin included younger age, first-ever stroke, independence in activities of daily living before stroke, atrial fibrillation, no aspirin treatment, and lowered consciousness on admission. Conclusions-There is no immediate, stepwise effect of new scientific information and national guidelines on clinical practice. Rather, the phasing out of heparin has followed a linear course over several years, with less variation between hospitals. We speculate that open comparisons between hospitals in a national stroke register may have helped to reduce the variations in clinical practice. (Stroke. 2010;41:2552-2558.)
  • Fiskesund, Roland, et al. (författare)
  • Low levels of antibodies against phosphorylcholine predict development of stroke in a population-based study from northern Sweden
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Stroke. - 0039-2499 .- 1524-4628. ; 41:4, s. 607-612
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Natural immunoglobulin M antibodies specific for phosphorylcholine (anti-PC) have been implicated in atherosclerosis. We have shown previously that high levels of anti-PC predict a slower progression of atherosclerosis in humans and that low levels of anti-PC are associated with higher risk for cardiovascular disease. Here we determine the association between anti-PC and the incidence of stroke. METHODS: Using a nested case control study design, we examined 227 incident cases (125 men and 102 women) of first-time stroke and 455 age- and sex-matched controls identified during a 13-year time period (1985 to 1999) within the population-based cohorts of the Västerbotten Intervention Project (VIP) and the World Health Organization Monitoring Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease (WHO MONICA) project in Northern Sweden. Odds ratios of stroke with 95% CIs with adjustments for age, gender, smoking, serum cholesterol, diabetes, body mass index, and blood pressure were determined. Anti-PC levels were measured using ELISA. RESULTS: A significant association between low levels of anti-PC at baseline and incident stroke was seen for the whole group of anti-PC levels below the 30th percentile (multivariately adjusted odds ratio, 1.62; CI, 1.11 to 2.35). Analyses of gender-specific associations indicated fairly strong associations for females, especially at the lowest 30th percentile (multivariately adjusted odds ratio, 2.65; CI, 1.41 to 4.95). No associations were noted for men. CONCLUSION: Low anti-PC is a novel independent risk marker for development of stroke. Measurements of anti-PC could be used to identify immunodeficient subjects at an increased risk for stroke. The possibility that such subjects might be targets for novel modes of treatment such as immunotherapies deserves further investigation.
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