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  • Sorbe, Bengt, et al. (författare)
  • A population-based series of uterine carcinosarcomas with long-term follow-up.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden). - 1651-226X. ; 52:4, s. 759-66
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. Carcinosarcomas are a highly malignant type of endometrial carcinomas where extra uterine spread and recurrences are frequent. There is no consensus regarding the best treatment of this group of malignancies. Material and methods. In a complete geographic series of 322 cases of primary uterine carcinosarcomas prophylactic pelvic irradiation and/or chemotherapy was used as postoperative treatment in the majority of the cases. Vaginal brachytherapy was also added as a boost. The primary surgery was extended hysterectomy in 23 cases (10%), and simple hysterectomy in 220 cases (90%). In 46 cases (14%) no major surgery was possible. Results. In the complete series 123 recurrences (38%) were recorded. Locoregional recurrences (11%) and distant recurrences (28%) were most frequent. Type and extent of surgery was not associated with the risk of tumor recurrence. Extended surgery did not reduce the risk of local and regional recurrences. In the complete series, the five-year overall survival rate was 30% and the recurrence-free survival (RFS) rate was 27%. The five-year pelvic disease control was 82% in stage I, 68% in stage II, and 76% for more advanced stages. The five-year locoregional RFS rate was 63% for patients treated with surgery alone, 68% after addition of adjuvant chemotherapy, 86% after adjuvant radiotherapy, and 95% after combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Conclusion. Radiotherapy seems to be the most important constituent of the adjuvant therapy. Serious late tissue reactions, requiring surgery, from the bladder and intestine occurred in 2.5% of the irradiated cases. The death of three patients could be related to radiotherapy and of four patients due to the cytotoxic treatment. This population-based series may serve as a baseline for improvements by, e. g. standard care programs and referral to a few specialist centers for this rare and serious disease.
  • Adding, Christofer, et al. (författare)
  • Robotkirurgi ger bra resultat vid radikal prostatektomi. Prostatacancer kan behandlas mer effektivt och skonsamt [Good results in robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. Prostatic cancer can be treated more effectively and carefully].
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Läkartidningen. - 0023-7205. ; 108:19, s. 1053-1057
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Operationsresultat redovisas för män opererade med radikal prostatektomi – öppen kirurgi jämfört med robot­assisterad laparaskopi – under 2002–2006 vid Karolins­ka universitetssjukhuset, Solna.Män som följdes under minst 1 år besvarade enkätfrågor; 768 robotkirurgiska och 411 öppenkirurgiska operationer utvärderades.Under perioden minskade andelen män med positiv resektionsrand från 37 procent till 22 procent och med erektil dysfunktion från 66 procent till 60 procent. Andelen optimala operationsresultat (»trifecta«) ökade från 19 procent till 28 procent.Vi har inte hittat några indikationer på att införandet av robotkirurgi har försämrat situationen för män diagnostiserade med prostatacancer.Vi kan inte avgöra om de positiva operationsresultaten skulle ha blivit bättre eller sämre om ett utvecklingsprogram för öppen radikal pros­tatektomi i stället initierats.En nationell studie, LAPPRO, avseende effekterna av de två operationsformerna pågår.
  • Al-Abany, M., et al. (författare)
  • Reliability of assessment of urgency and other symptoms indicating anal sphincter, large bowel or urinary dysfunction
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Scand J Urol Nephrol. - 0036-5599 (Print). ; 40:5, s. 397-408
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: The Radiumhemmets Scale of Disease-Specific Symptom Assessment-Prostate Cancer has been used in several studies. However, no test-retest reliability study of it has been conducted concerning the assessment of urinary, anal sphincter or large bowel function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of items assessing these functions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We investigated 89 prostate cancer patients randomly selected from a group of patients diagnosed in Stockholm. The patients answered 24 questions assessing anal sphincter, large bowel and urinary function twice, with a 3-week interval in-between, to assess reliability. RESULTS: Most of the questions assessing bowel and urinary symptoms showed substantial or near-perfect agreement. The kappa value for bowel symptom items was > or = 0.60 for all items, except for defecation urgency (0.40-0.55). The kappa value for urinary symptom items varied between 0.43 and 1.0, except for urinary urgency (0.30-0.39). CONCLUSIONS: When comparing the impact of different symptoms of anal sphincter, large bowel or urinary tract dysfunction, it may be important to consider that defecation urgency and urinary urgency have the highest measuring error (low reliability). This error dilutes assessed associations with, for example, decreased quality of life. Nevertheless, the test-retest reliability for anal sphincter, large bowel and urinary symptoms indicates that surveys yield meaningful information.
  • Al-Abany, M., et al. (författare)
  • Toward a definition of a threshold for harmless doses to the anal-sphincter region and the rectum
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. - 0360-3016 (Print). ; 61:4, s. 1035-44
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: To investigate dysfunction caused by unwanted radiation to the anal-sphincter region and the rectum. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A questionnaire assessing bowel symptoms, sexual function, and urinary symptoms was sent to 72 patients with clinically localized prostatic adenocarcinoma treated by external beam radiation therapy at the Radiumhemmet, Karolinska Hospital, in Stockholm, Sweden, 2-4 years after treatment. The mean percentage dose-volume histograms for patients with and without the specific symptom were calculated. RESULTS: Of the 65 patients providing information, 9 reported fecal leakage, 10 blood and mucus in stools, 10 defecation urgency, and 7 diarrhea or loose stools. None of the 19 and 13 patients who received, respectively, a dose of > or =35 Gy to < or =60% or > or =40 Gy to < or =40% of the anal-sphincter region volume reported fecal leakage (p < 0.05). In dose-volume histograms, a statistically significant correlation was found between radiation to the anal-sphincter region and the risk of fecal leakage in the interval 45-55 Gy. There was also a statistically significant correlation between radiation to the rectum and the risk of defecation urgency and diarrhea or loose stools in the interval 25-42 Gy. No relationship was found between anatomic rectal wall volume and the investigated late effects. CONCLUSIONS: Although the limited data in this study prevent the definition of a conclusive threshold regarding volume and dose to the anal-sphincter region and untoward morbidity, it seems that careful monitoring of unnecessary irradiation to this area should be done because it can potentially help reduce the risk of adverse effects, such as fecal leakage. Future studies should pay more attention to the anal-sphincter region and help to more rigorously define its radiotherapeutic tolerance.
  • Alevronta, Eleftheria, et al. (författare)
  • Dose-response relationships for an atomized symptom of fecal incontinence after gynecological radiotherapy.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden). - 1651-226X. ; 52:4, s. 719-26
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate what bowel organ and delivered dose levels are most relevant for the development of 'emptying of all stools into clothing without forewarning' so that the related dose-responses could be derived as an aid in avoiding this distressing symptom in the future.MATERIAL AND METHODS: Of the 77 gynecological cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy (RT) for gynecological cancer, 13 developed the symptom. The survivors were treated between 1991 and 2003. The anal-sphincter region, the rectum, the sigmoid and the small intestines were all delineated and the dose-volume histograms were exported for each patient. The dose-volume parameters were estimated fitting the data to the Relative Seriality (RS), the Lyman and the generalized Equivalent Uniform Dose (gEUD) model.RESULTS: The dose-response parameters for all three models and four organs at risk (OARs) were estimated. The data from the sigmoid fits the studied models best: D50 was 58.8 and 59.5 Gy (RS, Lyman), γ50 was 1.60 and 1.57 (RS, Lyman), s was 0.32, n was 0.13 and a was 7.7 (RS, Lyman, gEUD). The estimated volume parameters indicate that the investigated OARs behave serially for this endpoint. Our results for the three models studied indicate that they have the same predictive power (similar LL values) for the symptom as a function of the dose for all investigated OARs.CONCLUSIONS: In our study, the anal-sphincter region and sigmoid fit our data best, but all OARs were found to have steep dose-responses for 'emptying of all stools into clothing without forewarning' and thus, the outcome can be predicted with an NTCP model. In addition, the dose to the four studied OARs may be considered when minimizing the risk of the symptom.
  • Alevronta, Eleftheria, et al. (författare)
  • Dose-response relationships of the sigmoid for urgency syndrome after gynecological radiotherapy.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden). - 1651-226X. ; 57:10, s. 1352-1358
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: To find out what organs and doses are most relevant for 'radiation-induced urgency syndrome' in order to derive the corresponding dose-response relationships as an aid for avoiding the syndrome in the future.MATERIAL AND METHODS: From a larger group of gynecological cancer survivors followed-up 2-14 years, we identified 98 whom had undergone external beam radiation therapy but not brachytherapy and not having a stoma. Of those survivors, 24 developed urgency syndrome. Based on the loading factor from a factor analysis, and symptom frequency, 15 symptoms were weighted together to a score interpreted as the intensity of radiation-induced urgency symptom. On reactivated dose plans, we contoured the small intestine, sigmoid colon and the rectum (separate from the anal-sphincter region) and we exported the dose-volume histograms for each survivor. Dose-response relationships from respective risk organ and urgency syndrome were estimated by fitting the data to the Probit, RS, LKB and gEUD models.RESULTS: The rectum and sigmoid colon have steep dose-response relationships for urgency syndrome for Probit, RS and LKB. The dose-response parameters for the rectum were D50: 51.3, 51.4, and 51.3 Gy, γ50 = 1.19 for all models, s was 7.0e-09 for RS and n was 9.9 × 107 for LKB. For Sigmoid colon, D50 were 51.6, 51.6, and 51.5 Gy, γ50 were 1.20, 1.25, and 1.27, s was 2.8 for RS and n was 0.079 for LKB.CONCLUSIONS: Primarily the dose to sigmoid colon as well as the rectum is related to urgency syndrome among gynecological cancer survivors. Separate delineation of the rectum and sigmoid colon in order to incorporate the dose-response results may aid in reduction of the incidence of the urgency syndrome.
  • Alevronta, Eleftheria, et al. (författare)
  • Time-dependent dose-response relation for absence of vaginal elasticity after gynecological radiation therapy.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. - 1879-0887. ; 120:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and purpose: To investigate the dose-response relation between the dose to the vagina and the patient-reported symptom absence of vaginal elasticity and how time to follow-up influences this relation. Material and methods: The study included 78 long-term gynecological cancer survivors treated between 1991 and 2003 with external beam radiation therapy. Of those, 24 experienced absence of vaginal elasticity. A normal tissue complication model is introduced that takes into account the influence of time to follow-up on the dose-response relation and the patients age. The best estimates of the dose-response parameters were calculated using Probit, Probit-Relative Seriality (RS) and Probit-time models. Log likelihood (LL) values and the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) were used to evaluate the model fit. Results: The dose-response parameters for absence of vaginal elasticity according to the Probit and Probit-time models with the 68% Confidence Intervals (CI) were: LL = 39.8, D-50 = 49.7 (47.2-52.4) Gy, gamma(50) =1.40 (1.12-1.70) and LL = 37.4, D-50 = 46.9 (43.5-50.9) Gy, gamma(50) = 1.81 (1.17-2.51) respectively. Conclusions: The proposed model, which describes the influence of time to follow-up on the dose response relation, fits our data best. Our data indicate that the steepness of the dose-response curve of the dose to the vagina and the symptom absence of vaginal elasticity increases with time to follow-up, while D-50 decreases. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Alsadius, David, 1975-, et al. (författare)
  • Mean Absorbed Dose to the Anal-Sphincter Region and Fecal Leakage among Irradiated Prostate Cancer Survivors.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics. - 1879-355X. ; 84:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: To supplement previous findings that the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation to the anal sphincter or lower rectum affects the occurrence of fecal leakage among irradiated prostate-cancer survivors. We also wanted to determine whether anatomically defining the anal-sphincter region as the organ at risk could increase the degree of evidence underlying clinical guidelines for restriction doses to eliminate this excess risk. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We identified 985 men irradiated for prostate cancer between 1993 and 2006. In 2008, we assessed long-term gastrointestinal symptoms among these men using a study-specific questionnaire. We restrict the analysis to the 414 men who had been treated with external beam radiation therapy only (no brachytherapy) to a total dose of 70 Gy in 2-Gy daily fractions to the prostate or postoperative prostatic region. On reconstructed original radiation therapy dose plans, we delineated the anal-sphincter region as an organ at risk. RESULTS: We found that the prevalence of long-term fecal leakage at least once per month was strongly correlated with the mean dose to the anal-sphincter region. Examining different dose intervals, we found a large increase at 40 Gy; ≥40 Gy compared with <40 Gy gave a prevalence ratio of 3.8 (95% confidence interval 1.6-8.6). CONCLUSIONS: This long-term study shows that mean absorbed dose to the anal-sphincter region is associated with the occurrence of long-term fecal leakage among irradiated prostate-cancer survivors; delineating the anal-sphincter region separately from the rectum and applying a restriction of a mean dose <40 Gy will, according to our data, reduce the risk considerably.
  • Alsadius, David, 1975-, et al. (författare)
  • Partnership status affects the association between gastrointestinal symptoms and quality of life after radiation therapy for prostate cancer.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden). - 1651-226X. ; 53:3, s. 378-384
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose. To study if partnership modifies the effect of gastrointestinal symptoms on quality of life after radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Material and methods. Using a study-specific questionnaire we conducted a cross-sectional follow-up of the occurrence gastrointestinal symptoms and quality of life after radiation therapy for prostate cancer. We obtained information from 874 prostate cancer survivors treated with radiation therapy at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden between 1994 and 2006. In this paper we describe how partnership status affects the association between gastrointestinal symptoms and quality of life. Results. We found that unpartnered men with gastrointestinal symptoms reported a lower quality of life than unpartnered men without such symptoms. Unpartnered men with symptoms had an excess risk of low quality of life compared with unpartnered men without symptoms for those experiencing altered composition of stools, prevalence ratio 3.8 (95% CI 1.1-13.1), leakage, 3.6 (1.3-10.1), sensory bowel symptoms, 4.5 (1.6-12.8), and for urgency, 4.2 (1.2-15.1). We also found that unpartnered men with symptoms had an excess risk of low quality of life compared with partnered men with symptoms for those experiencing altered composition of stools, prevalence ratio 2.9 (95% CI 1.4-5.8), leakage 2.8 (1.2-6.4), sensory bowel symptoms 3.4 (1.5-7.4), urgency 2.6 (1.2-5.8), and for any gastrointestinal symptom 2.5 (1.3-4.9). Conclusion. Unpartnered men may represent a group that is specifically vulnerable to the distressful effects of gastrointestinal symptoms after radiation therapy for prostate cancer.
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