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Sökning: WFRF:(Stender Steen)

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1.
  • Bendsen, Nathalie T., et al. (författare)
  • Effect of industrially produced trans fat on markers of systemic inflammation : evidence from a randomized trial in women
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Lipid Research. - 0022-2275 .- 1539-7262. ; 52:10, s. 1821-1828
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Consumption of industrially produced trans fatty acids (IP-TFA) has been positively associated with systemic markers of low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in cross-sectional studies, but results from intervention studies are inconclusive. Therefore, we conducted a 16 week double-blind parallel intervention study with the objective to examine the effect of IP-TFA intake on bio-markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction. Fifty-two healthy overweight postmenopausal women (49 completers) were randomly assigned to receive either partially hydrogenated soybean oil (15.7 g/day IP-TFA) or control oil without IP-TFA. After 16 weeks, IP-TFA intake increased baseline-adjusted serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha by 12% [95% confidence interval (CI): 5-20; P = 0.002] more in the IP-TFA group compared with controls. Plasma soluble TNF receptors 1 and 2 were also increased by IP-TFA [155 pg/ml (CI: 63-247); P < 0.001 and 480 pg/ml (CI: 72-887); P = 0.02, respectively]. Serum C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL) 6 and adiponectin and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue mRNA expression of IL6, IL8, TNF alpha, and adiponectin as well as ceramide content were not affected by IP-TFA, nor was urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin-F(2 alpha). In conclusion, this dietary trial indicates that the mechanisms linking dietary IP-TFA to cardiovascular disease may involve activation of the TNF alpha system.
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2.
  • Patel, Riyaz S., et al. (författare)
  • Subsequent Event Risk in Individuals With Established Coronary Heart Disease : Design and Rationale of the GENIUS-CHD Consortium
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 2574-8300. ; 12:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The Genetics of Subsequent Coronary Heart Disease (GENIUS-CHD) consortium was established to facilitate discovery and validation of genetic variants and biomarkers for risk of subsequent CHD events, in individuals with established CHD.METHODS: The consortium currently includes 57 studies from 18 countries, recruiting 185 614 participants with either acute coronary syndrome, stable CHD, or a mixture of both at baseline. All studies collected biological samples and followed-up study participants prospectively for subsequent events.RESULTS: Enrollment into the individual studies took place between 1985 to present day with a duration of follow-up ranging from 9 months to 15 years. Within each study, participants with CHD are predominantly of self-reported European descent (38%-100%), mostly male (44%-91%) with mean ages at recruitment ranging from 40 to 75 years. Initial feasibility analyses, using a federated analysis approach, yielded expected associations between age (hazard ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.14-1.16) per 5-year increase, male sex (hazard ratio, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.13-1.21) and smoking (hazard ratio, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.35-1.51) with risk of subsequent CHD death or myocardial infarction and differing associations with other individual and composite cardiovascular endpoints.CONCLUSIONS: GENIUS-CHD is a global collaboration seeking to elucidate genetic and nongenetic determinants of subsequent event risk in individuals with established CHD, to improve residual risk prediction and identify novel drug targets for secondary prevention. Initial analyses demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of a federated analysis approach. The consortium now plans to initiate and test novel hypotheses as well as supporting replication and validation analyses for other investigators.
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3.
  • Shah, Sonia, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association and Mendelian randomisation analysis provide insights into the pathogenesis of heart failure
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 11:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A small proportion of HF cases are attributable to monogenic cardiomyopathies and existing genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have yielded only limited insights, leaving the observed heritability of HF largely unexplained. We report results from a GWAS meta-analysis of HF comprising 47,309 cases and 930,014 controls. Twelve independent variants at 11 genomic loci are associated with HF, all of which demonstrate one or more associations with coronary artery disease (CAD), atrial fibrillation, or reduced left ventricular function, suggesting shared genetic aetiology. Functional analysis of non-CAD-associated loci implicate genes involved in cardiac development (MYOZ1, SYNPO2L), protein homoeostasis (BAG3), and cellular senescence (CDKN1A). Mendelian randomisation analysis supports causal roles for several HF risk factors, and demonstrates CAD-independent effects for atrial fibrillation, body mass index, and hypertension. These findings extend our knowledge of the pathways underlying HF and may inform new therapeutic strategies.
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4.
  • Astrup, Arne, et al. (författare)
  • The role of reducing intakes of saturated fat in the prevention of cardiovascular disease : where does the evidence stand in 2010?
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - 0002-9165 .- 1938-3207. ; 93:4, s. 684-688
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Current dietary recommendations advise reducing the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) to reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but recent findings question the role of SFAs. This expert panel reviewed the evidence and reached the following conclusions: the evidence from epidemiologic, clinical, and mechanistic studies is consistent in finding that the risk of CHD is reduced when SFAs are replaced with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In populations who consume a Western diet, the replacement of 1% of energy from SFAs with PUFAs lowers LDL cholesterol and is likely to produce a reduction in CHD incidence of >= 2-3%. No clear benefit of substituting carbohydrates for SFAs has been shown, although there might be a benefit if the carbohydrate is unrefined and has a low glycemic index. Insufficient evidence exists to judge the effect on CHD risk of replacing SFAs with MUFAs. No clear association between SFA intake relative to refined carbohydrates and the risk of insulin resistance and diabetes has been shown. The effect of diet on a single biomarker is insufficient evidence to assess CHD risk. The combination of multiple biomarkers and the use of clinical end-points could help substantiate the effects on CHD. Furthermore, the effect of particular foods on CHD cannot be predicted solely by their content of total SFAs because individual SFAs may have different cardiovascular effects and major SFA food sources contain other constituents that could influence CHD risk. Research is needed to clarify the role of SFAs compared with specific forms of carbohydrates in CHD risk and to compare specific foods with appropriate alternatives.
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5.
  • Hedengran, Katrine K., et al. (författare)
  • Environmental tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy has limited effect on infant birthweight and umbilical vein endothelial nitric oxide synthase
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0001-6349. ; 97:11, s. 1309-1316
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Women who smoke, deliver significantly smaller infants. These infants have reduced levels of the vasodilator endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) levels in the umbilical vessels, which may reduce fetal growth. Serum cotinine, the degradation product of nicotine, can be used to determine the level of tobacco exposure. Newborns of environmental smokers are suggested to be smaller and shorter in weight, length, and head circumference. eNOS levels have not yet been studied in these infants. We here investigated the existence of a relation between maternal environmental tobacco smoke exposure, eNOS activity, concentration, and birthweight. Material and methods: We included 263 healthy singleton pregnancies categorized into three groups according to measured cotinine levels: 175 nonsmokers, 38 smokers, and 50 environmental smokers. Cotinine was quantified by mass spectrometry with a detection limit of.2 ng/mL; eNOS activity and concentration were measured in endothelial cells (ECs) of the umbilical vein. Results: Infants born to environmental smokers had similar weights to infants born to nonsmokers (47 g heavier, P =.48). Cotinine concentrations were.06/.09/.12 ng/mL (quartiles) in infants born to nonsmokers,.27/.37/.81 ng/mL in infants born to women exposed to environmental tobacco smoke, and 43.0/63.8/108.1 ng/mL in infants born to smokers. The eNOS concentration was 1.65 ±.92 ng/106 ECs (mean ± SD) in nonsmokers and 1.71 ± 1.00 ng/106 ECs in environmental smokers. The eNOS activity was 52.0 ± 20.6 pmol l-citrulline/min/106 ECs in nonsmokers and 48.7 ± 19.8 pmol l-citrulline/min/106 ECs in environmental smokers. Conclusions: Infants born to environmental smokers, as judged by umbilical serum cotinine levels close to.2 ng/mL, are not associated with lower birthweight or reduced eNOS activity, or concentration in the fetal vascular bed.
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6.
  • Holman, Rury R., et al. (författare)
  • Effect of Nateglinide on the Incidence of Diabetes and Cardiovascular Events
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 362:16, s. 1463-1476
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND The ability of short-acting insulin secretagogues to reduce the risk of diabetes or cardiovascular events in people with impaired glucose tolerance is unknown. METHODS In a double-blind, randomized clinical trial, we assigned 9306 participants with impaired glucose tolerance and either cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular risk factors to receive nateglinide (up to 60 mg three times daily) or placebo, in a 2-by-2 factorial design with valsartan or placebo, in addition to participation in a lifestyle modification program. We followed the participants for a median of 5.0 years for incident diabetes (and a median of 6.5 years for vital status). We evaluated the effect of nateglinide on the occurrence of three coprimary outcomes: the development of diabetes; a core cardiovascular outcome that was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or hospitalization for heart failure; and an extended cardiovascular outcome that was a composite of the individual components of the core composite cardiovascular outcome, hospitalization for unstable angina, or arterial revascularization. RESULTS After adjustment for multiple testing, nateglinide, as compared with placebo, did not significantly reduce the cumulative incidence of diabetes (36% and 34%, respectively; hazard ratio, 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00 to 1.15; P = 0.05), the core composite cardiovascular outcome (7.9% and 8.3%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.94, 95% CI, 0.82 to 1.09; P = 0.43), or the extended composite cardiovascular outcome (14.2% and 15.2%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.93, 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.03; P = 0.16). Nateglinide did, however, increase the risk of hypoglycemia. CONCLUSIONS Among persons with impaired glucose tolerance and established cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular risk factors, assignment to nateglinide for 5 years did not reduce the incidence of diabetes or the coprimary composite cardiovascular outcomes. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00097786.)
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7.
  • McMurray, John J, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of valsartan on the incidence of diabetes and cardiovascular events
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 362:16, s. 1477-1490
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: It is not known whether drugs that block the renin-angiotensin system reduce the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular events in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. METHODS: In this double-blind, randomized clinical trial with a 2-by-2 factorial design, we assigned 9306 patients with impaired glucose tolerance and established cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular risk factors to receive valsartan (up to 160 mg daily) or placebo (and nateglinide or placebo) in addition to lifestyle modification. We then followed the patients for a median of 5.0 years for the development of diabetes (6.5 years for vital status). We studied the effects of valsartan on the occurrence of three coprimary outcomes: the development of diabetes; an extended composite outcome of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, hospitalization for heart failure, arterial revascularization, or hospitalization for unstable angina; and a core composite outcome that excluded unstable angina and revascularization. RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of diabetes was 33.1% in the valsartan group, as compared with 36.8% in the placebo group (hazard ratio in the valsartan group, 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 0.92; P<0.001). Valsartan, as compared with placebo, did not significantly reduce the incidence of either the extended cardiovascular outcome (14.5% vs. 14.8%; hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.07; P=0.43) or the core cardiovascular outcome (8.1% vs. 8.1%; hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.14; P=0.85). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with impaired glucose tolerance and cardiovascular disease or risk factors, the use of valsartan for 5 years, along with lifestyle modification, led to a relative reduction of 14% in the incidence of diabetes but did not reduce the rate of cardiovascular events. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00097786.)
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8.
  • Olsson, Anders, 1940-, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of rosuvastatin and atorvastatin compared over 52 weeks of treatment in patients with hypercholesterolemia
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 144:6, s. 1044-1051
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Despite the demonstrated benefits of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction in reducing the risk of coronary heart disease, many patients receiving lipid-lowering therapy fail to achieve LDL-C goals. We compared the effects of rosuvastatin and atorvastatin in reducing LDL-C and achieving LDL-C goals in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia. Methods and Results: In this 52-week, randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial (4522IL/0026), 412 patients with LDL-C 160 to <250 mg/dL received a 5-mg dose of rosuvastatin (n = 138), a 10-mg dose of rosuvastatin (n = 134), or a 10-mg dose of atorvastatin (n = 140) for 12 weeks, during the following 40 weeks, dosages could be sequentially doubled up to 80 mg if National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel II (ATP-II) LDL-C goals were not achieved. At 12 weeks, 5- and 10-mg doses of rosuvastatin were associated with significantly greater LDL-C reductions than 10-mg doses of atorvastatin (46% and 50% vs 39%, both P < .001). At 12 weeks, both rosuvastatin dosages brought more patients to within ATP-II and European LDL-C goals than atorvastatin (86% and 89% vs 73% and 75%, and 86% vs 55%, respectively). At 52 weeks, compared with atorvastatin, both initial rosuvastatin treatment groups significantly reduced LDL-C (47% and 53% vs 44%, P < .05 and P < .001). Overall, more patients in the initial rosuvastatin 10-mg group achieved their ATP-II LDL-C goal than those in the initial atorvastatin 10-mg group (98% vs 87%), with 82% of patients treated with rosuvastatin achieving their goal at the 10-mg starting dosage without the need for titration, compared with 59% of patients treated with atorvastatin. Both treatments were well tolerated over 52 weeks. Conclusion: Compared with atorvastatin, rosuvastatin produced greater reductions in LDL-C, which may offer advantages in LDL-C goal attainment over existing lipid-lowering therapies.
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