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Sökning: WFRF:(Stenkrona Per)

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1.
  • Kågedal, Matts, et al. (författare)
  • A positron emission tomography study in healthy volunteers to estimate mGluR5 receptor occupancy of AZD2066-Estimating occupancy in the absence of a reference region
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: NeuroImage. - 1053-8119 .- 1095-9572. ; 82, s. 160-169
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AZD2066 is a new chemical entity pharmacologically characterized as a selective, negative allosteric modulator of the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5). Antagonism of mGluR5 has been implicated in relation to various diseases such as anxiety, depression, and pain disorders. To support translation from preclinical results and previous experiences with this target in man, a positron emission tomography study was performed to estimate the relationship between AZD2066 plasma concentrations and receptor occupancy in the human brain, using the mGluR5 radioligand [C-11]-ABP688. The study involved PET scans on 4 occasions in 6 healthy volunteers. The radioligand was given as a tracer dose alone and following oral treatment with different doses of AZD2066. The analysis was based on the total volume of distribution derived fro m each PET-assessment. A non-linear mixed effects model was developed where ten delineated brain regions of interest from all PET scans were included in one simultaneous fit. For comparison the analysis was also performed according to a method described previously by Lassen et al. (1995). The results of the analysis showed that the total volume of distribution decreased with increasing drug concentrations in all regions with an estimated Kipl of 1170 nM. Variability between individuals and occasions in non-displaceable volume of distribution could explain most of the variability in the total volume of distribution. The Lassen approach provided a similar estimate for Kipl, but the variability was exaggerated and difficult to interpret.
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2.
  • Kågedal, Matts, et al. (författare)
  • Non-linear mixed effects modelling of positron emission tomography data for simultaneous estimation of radioligand kinetics and occupancy in healthy volunteers
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: NeuroImage. - 1053-8119 .- 1095-9572. ; 61:4, s. 849-856
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this work was to develop a model simultaneously estimating (11)C-AZD9272 radioligand kinetics and the relationship between plasma concentration of AZD9272 and receptor occupancy in the human brain.AZD9272 is a new chemical entity pharmacologically characterised as a noncompetitive antagonist at the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5). Positron emission tomography (PET) was used to measure the time course of ((11)C-AZD9272) in the brain. The study included PET measurements in six healthy volunteers where the radioligand was given as a tracer dose alone as well as post oral treatment with different doses of unlabelled AZD9272. Estimation of radioligand kinetics, including saturation of receptor binding was performed by use of non-linear mixed effects modelling. Data from the regions with the highest (ventral striatum) and lowest (cerebellum) radioligand concentrations were included in the analysis. It was assumed that the extent of non-displaceable brain uptake was the same in both regions while the rate of CNS uptake and the receptor density differed.The results of the analysis showed that AZD9272 binding at the receptor is saturable with an estimated plasma concentration corresponding to 50% occupancy of approximately 200nM. The density of the receptor binding sites was estimated to 800nM and 200nM in ventral striatum and cerebellum respectively. By simultaneously analysing data from several PET measurements and different brain regions in a non-linear mixed effects framework it was possible to estimate parameters of interest that would otherwise be difficult to quantify.
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3.
  • Matheson, Granville J, et al. (författare)
  • Reliability of volumetric and surface-based normalisation and smoothing techniques for PET analysis of the cortex : A test-retest analysis using [11C]SCH-23390
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: NeuroImage. - : Elsevier BV. - 1053-8119 .- 1095-9572. ; 155, s. 344-353
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Parametric voxelwise analysis is a commonly used tool in neuroimaging, as it allows for identification of regions of effects in the absence of a strong a-priori regional hypothesis by comparing each voxel of the brain independently. Due to the inherent imprecision of single voxel measurements, spatial smoothing is performed to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of single-voxel estimates. In addition, smoothing compensates for imprecisions in anatomical registration, and allows for the use of cluster-based statistical thresholding. Smoothing has traditionally been applied in three dimensions, without taking the tissue types of surrounding voxels into account. This procedure may be suitable for subcortical structures, but is problematic for cortical regions for which grey matter often constitutes only a small proportion of the smoothed signal. New methods have been developed for cortical analysis in which voxels are sampled to a surface, and smoothing is restricted to neighbouring regions along the cortical grey matter in two dimensions. This procedure has recently been shown to decrease intersubject variability and bias of PET data. The aim of this study was to compare the variability, bias and test-retest reliability of volumetric and surface-based methods as they are applied in practice. Fifteen healthy young males were each measured twice using the dopamine D1 receptor radioligand [11C]SCH-23390, and analyses were performed at the level of individual voxels and vertices within the cortex. We found that surface-based methods yielded higher BPND values, lower coefficient of variation, less bias, better reliability and more precise estimates of parametric binding. All in all, these results suggest that surface-based methods exhibit superior performance to volumetric approaches for voxelwise analysis of PET data, and we advocate for their use when a ROI-based analysis is not appropriate.
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4.
  • Plaven-Sigray, Pontus, et al. (författare)
  • Dopamine D1 receptor availability is related to social behavior : A positron emission tomography study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: NeuroImage. - : Elsevier. - 1053-8119 .- 1095-9572. ; 102, s. 590-595
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dysfunctional interpersonal behavior is thought to underlie a wide spectrum of psychiatric disorders; however, the neurobiological underpinnings of these behavioral disturbances are poorly understood. Previous molecular imaging studies have shown associations between striatal dopamine (DA) D2-receptor binding and interpersonal traits, such as social conformity. The objective of this study was to explore, for the first time, the role of DA D1-receptors (D1-Rs) in human interpersonal behavior. Twenty-three healthy subjects were examined using positron emission tomography and the radioligand [C-11] SCH23390, yielding D1-R binding potential values. Striatal D1-R binding was related to personality scales selected to specifically assess one dimension of interpersonal behavior, namely a combination of affiliation and dominance (i.e., the Social Desirability, Verbal Trait Aggression and Physical Trait Aggression scales from Swedish Universities Scales of Personality). An exploratory analysis was also performed for extrastriatal brain regions. D1-R binding potential values in the limbic striatum(r= .52; p= .015), associative striatum(r= .55; p= .009), and sensorimotor striatum(r= .67; p= .001) were positively related to Social Desirability scores. D1-R binding potential in the limbic striatum (r= -.51; p = .019) was negatively associated with Physical Trait Aggression scores. For extrastriatal regions, Social Desirability scores showed positive correlations in the amygdala (r = .60; p = .006) and medial frontal cortex (r= .60; p = .004). This study provides further support for the role of DA function in the expression of disaffiliative and dominant traits. Specifically, D1-R availability may serve as a marker for interpersonal behavior in humans. Associations were demonstrated for the same dimension of interpersonal behavior as for D2-R, but in the opposite direction, suggesting that the two receptor subtypes are involved in the same behavioral processes, but with different functional roles.
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5.
  • Stenkrona, Per, et al. (författare)
  • D1-Dopamine Receptor Availability in First-Episode Neuroleptic Naive Psychosis Patients
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS. - 1461-1457 .- 1469-5111. ; 22:7, s. 415-425
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Positron emission tomography studies examining differences in D1-dopamine receptor binding between control subjects and patients with schizophrenia have been inconsistent, reporting higher, lower, and no difference in the frontal cortex. Exposure to antipsychotic medication has been suggested to be a likely source of this heterogeneity, and thus there is a need for studies of patients at early stages of the disorder who have not been exposed to such drugs. Methods: Here, we compared 17 healthy control subjects and 18 first-episode neuroleptic naive patients with schizophrenia or schizophreniform psychosis using positron emission tomography and the D1-dopamine receptor radioligand [C-11]SCH23390. Results: We observed a statistically significant difference in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Contrary to our expectations, patients had less D1-dopamine receptor availability with a moderate effect size. In a Bayesian analysis, we show that the data are over 50 times more likely to have occurred under the decrease as opposed to the increase hypothesis. This effect was not global, as our analysis showed that the null hypothesis was preferred over either hypothesis in the striatum. Conclusions: This investigation represents the largest single sample of neuroleptic-naive patients examined for D1-dopamine receptor availability using PET and suggests a reduction of prefrontal D1-dopamine receptor density in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, further work will be required to reach a consensus.
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6.
  • Chiotis, Konstantinos, et al. (författare)
  • Dual tracer tau PET imaging reveals different molecular targets for C-11-THK5351 and C-11-PBB3 in the Alzheimer brain
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. - 1619-7070 .- 1619-7089. ; 45:9, s. 1605-1617
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several tau PET tracers have been developed, but it remains unclear whether they bind to the same molecular target on the heterogeneous tau pathology. In this study we evaluated the binding of two chemically different tau-specific PET tracers (C-11-THK5351 and C-11-PBB3) in a head-to-head, in vivo, multimodal design. Nine patients with a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment or probable Alzheimer's disease and cerebrospinal fluid biomarker evidence supportive of the presence of Alzheimer's disease brain pathology were recruited after thorough clinical assessment. All patients underwent imaging with the tau-specific PET tracers C-11-THK5351 and C-11-PBB3 on the same day, as well as imaging with the amyloid-beta-specific tracer C-11-AZD2184, a T1-MRI sequence, and neuropsychological assessment. The load and regional distribution of binding differed between C-11-THK5351 and C-11-PBB3 with no statistically significant regional correlations observed between the tracers. The binding pattern of C-11-PBB3, but not that of C-11-THK5351, in the temporal lobe resembled that of C-11-AZD2184, with strong correlations detected between C-11-PBB3 and C-11-AZD2184 in the temporal and occipital lobes. Global cognition correlated more closely with C-11-THK5351 than with C-11-PBB3 binding. Similarly, cerebrospinal fluid tau measures and entorhinal cortex thickness were more closely correlated with C-11-THK5351 than with C-11-PBB3 binding. This research suggests different molecular targets for these tracers; while C-11-PBB3 appeared to preferentially bind to tau deposits with a close spatial relationship to amyloid-beta, the binding pattern of C-11-THK5351 fitted the expected distribution of tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease better and was more closely related to downstream disease markers.
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7.
  • Plaven-Sigray, Pontus, et al. (författare)
  • Accuracy and reliability of [C-11]PBR28 specific binding estimated without the use of a reference region
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: NeuroImage. - : ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE. - 1053-8119 .- 1095-9572. ; 188, s. 102-110
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • [C-11]PBR28 is a positron emission tomography radioligand used to examine the expression of the 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO). TSPO is located in glial cells and can function as a marker for immune activation. Since TSPO is expressed throughout the brain, no true reference region exists. For this reason, an arterial input function is required for accurate quantification of [C-11]PBR28 binding and the most common outcome measure is the total distribution volume (V-T). Notably, V-T reflects both specific binding and non-displaceable binding. Therefore, estimates of specific binding, such as binding potential (e.g. BPND) and specific distribution volume (V-S) should theoretically be more sensitive to underlying differences in TSPO expression. It is unknown, however, if unbiased and accurate estimates of these outcome measures are obtainable for [C-11]PBR28. The Simultaneous Estimation (SIME) method uses time-activity-curves from multiple brain regions with the aim to obtain a brain-wide estimate of the non-displaceable distribution volume (V-ND), which can subsequently be used to improve the estimation of BPND and V-S. In this study we evaluated the accuracy of SIME-derived V-ND, and the reliability of resulting estimates of specific binding for [C-11]PBR28, using a combination of simulation experiments and in vivo studies in healthy humans. The simulation experiments, based on data from 54 unique [C-11]PBR28 examinations, showed that V-ND values estimated using SIME were both precise and accurate. Data from a pharmacological competition challenge (n = 5) showed that SIME provided V-ND values that were on average 19% lower than those obtained using the Lassen plot, but similar to values obtained using the Likelihood-Estimation of Occupancy technique. Test-retest data (n = 11) showed that SIME-derived V-S values exhibited good reliability and precision, while larger variability was observed in SIME-derived BPND values. The results support the use of SIME for quantifying specific binding of [C-11]PBR28, and suggest that V-S can be used in complement to the conventional outcome measure V-T. Additional studies in patient cohorts are warranted.
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8.
  • Plaven-Sigray, Pontus, et al. (författare)
  • Is dopamine D1 receptor availability related to social behavior? : A positron emission tomography replication study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1932-6203. ; 13:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Associations between dopamine receptor levels and pro- and antisocial behavior have previously been demonstrated in human subjects using positron emission tomography (PET) and self-rated measures of personality traits. So far, only one study has focused on the dopamine D1-receptor (D-1-R), finding a positive correlation with the trait social desirability, which is characterized by low dominant and high affiliative behavior, while physical aggression showed a negative correlation. The aim of the present study was to replicate these previous findings using a new independent sample of subjects.Materials and methods Twenty-six healthy males were examined with the radioligand [C-11]SCH-23390, and completed the Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP) which includes measures of social desirability and physical trait aggression. The simplified reference tissue model with cerebellum as reference region was used to calculate BPND values in the whole striatum and limbic striatum. The two regions were selected since they showed strong association between D-I-R availability and personality scores in the previous study. Pearson's correlation coefficients and replication Bayes factors were then employed to assess the replicability and robustness of previous results.Results There were no significant correlations (all p values >0.3) between regional BPND values and personality scale scores. Replication Bayes factors showed strong to moderate evidence in favor no relationship between Dl-receptor availability and social desirability (striatum BF01 = 12.4; limbic striatum BF01 = 7.2) or physical aggression scale scores (limbic striatum BF01 = 3.3), compared to the original correlations.Discussion We could not replicate the previous findings of associations between D1-R availability and either pro- or antisocial behavior as measured using the SSP. Rather, there was evidence in favor of failed replications of associations between BPND and scale scores. Potential reasons for these results are restrictive variance in both PET and personality outcomes due to high sample homogeneity, or that the previous findings were false positives.
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9.
  • Stenkrona, Per, et al. (författare)
  • [11C]SCH23390 binding to the D-1-dopamine receptor in the human brain : a comparison of manual and automated methods for image analysis
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: EJNMMI Research. - : Springer Nature. - 2191-219X .- 2191-219X. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The D-1-dopamine receptor radioligand [C-11] SCH23390 has been frequently used in PET studies. In drug-naive patients with schizophrenia, the findings have been inconsistent, with decreases, increases, and no change in the frontal cortex D-1-dopamine receptors. While these discrepancies are likely primarily due to a lack of statistical power in these studies, we speculated that an additional explanation may be the differences due to methods of image analysis between studies, affecting reliability as well as bias between groups. Methods: Fifteen healthy subjects underwent two PET measurements with [C-11] SCH23390 on the same day. The binding potential (BPND) was compared using a 95% confidence interval following manual and automated delineation of a region of interest (ROI) as well as with and without frame-by-frame realignment. Results: Automated target region delineation produced lower BPND values, while automated delineation of the reference region yielded higher BPND values. However, no significant differences were observed for repeatability using automated and manual delineation methods. Frame-by-frame realignment generated higher BPND values and improved repeatability. Conclusions: The results suggest that the choice of ROI delineation method is not an important factor for reliability, whereas the improved results following movement correction confirm its importance in PET image analysis. Realignment is therefore especially important for measurements in patient populations such as schizophrenia or Parkinson's disease, where motion artifacts may be more prevalent.
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10.
  • Stenkrona, Per (författare)
  • Positron emission tomography studies of the D₁ dopamine receptor in schizophrenia
  • 2021
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis is based on investigations of central D1-dopamine receptor (D1R) binding in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET). The aims were i) to examine the antipsychotic effect of a D1R antagonist in schizophrenia and ii) to test the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia by comparing D1R binding between patients and healthy subjects. SCH39166, is the first selective D1R antagonist that was developed both as a PET radioligand for D1R and as an antipsychotic drug. The D1-receptor occupancy of SCH39166 was determined with PET and [11C]SCH39166 in a dose-response fashion after single oral doses in healthy volunteers. The D1R occupancy in the putamen was about 70 % after 100 mg. The conclusion was that this dose would be adequate to investigate potential antipsychotic effect of a D1R antagonist in schizophrenia. SCH39166 was then given orally in escalating doses to 17 acutely ill drug free schizophrenic patients (DSM-IIIR) in an open 4-week study. The drug had to be withdrawn prematurely in ten patients due to deterioration or refusal to take SCH39166. In the nine patients participating for more than 2 weeks, the drug did not have an apparent antipsychotic effect. After withdrawal of SCH39166, the patients improved when treated with classical neuroleptics or clozapine. The result of the study does not support the prediction that selective D1R antagonism have antipsychotic effect in schizophrenia. To better inform statistical evaluation of any cross sectional evaluation of D1R binding a testretest PET study of the D1R selective radioligand [11C]SCH23390 was performed in fifteen healthy subjects to compare different methodologies of image analysis. The binding potential (BPND ) values were compared following manual and automated delineation of regions of interest (ROI’s) as well as with and without frame-by-frame realignment. No significant differences were observed for repeatability using automated and manual delineation methods whereas frame-by-frame realignment generated higher BPND values and improved repeatability. The results suggest that the choice of ROI delineation method is not an important condition for reliability, whereas thorough movement correction is of importance. A cohort of 18 first-episode neuroleptic-naïve patients with schizophrenia or schizophreniform psychosis and 17 healthy control subjects were examined with PET and [11C]SCH23390. The patients had a statistically significant lower D1R BPND in frontal cortex with a moderate effect size. This suggests a reduction of prefrontal D1R density in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Study II and IV provides indirect support for the hypothesis of frontal hypodopaminergia. The observation of a low D1R-binding in schizophrenia may explain why a D1R-antagonist (which further reduces the availability of D1R) has no obvious antipsychotic effect. The findings provide support for current developments of D1R-agonists for the treatment of schizophrenia.
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