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Sökning: WFRF:(Stone Gregg W)

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1.
  • Bixby, H., et al. (författare)
  • Rising rural body-mass index is the main driver of the global obesity epidemic in adults
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 569:7755, s. 260-4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Body-mass index (BMI) has increased steadily in most countries in parallel with a rise in the proportion of the population who live in cities(.)(1,2) This has led to a widely reported view that urbanization is one of the most important drivers of the global rise in obesity(3-6). Here we use 2,009 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight in more than 112 million adults, to report national, regional and global trends in mean BMI segregated by place of residence (a rural or urban area) from 1985 to 2017. We show that, contrary to the dominant paradigm, more than 55% of the global rise in mean BMI from 1985 to 2017-and more than 80% in some low- and middle-income regions-was due to increases in BMI in rural areas. This large contribution stems from the fact that, with the exception of women in sub-Saharan Africa, BMI is increasing at the same rate or faster in rural areas than in cities in low- and middle-income regions. These trends have in turn resulted in a closing-and in some countries reversal-of the gap in BMI between urban and rural areas in low- and middle-income countries, especially for women. In high-income and industrialized countries, we noted a persistently higher rural BMI, especially for women. There is an urgent need for an integrated approach to rural nutrition that enhances financial and physical access to healthy foods, to avoid replacing the rural undernutrition disadvantage in poor countries with a more general malnutrition disadvantage that entails excessive consumption of low-quality calories.
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2.
  • Iurilli, M. L. C., et al. (författare)
  • Heterogeneous contributions of change in population distribution of body mass index to change in obesity and underweight NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC)
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: eLife. - : ELIFE SCIENCES PUBLICATIONS LTD. - 2050-084X. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • From 1985 to 2016, the prevalence of underweight decreased, and that of obesity and severe obesity increased, in most regions, with significant variation in the magnitude of these changes across regions. We investigated how much change in mean body mass index (BMI) explains changes in the prevalence of underweight, obesity, and severe obesity in different regions using data from 2896 population-based studies with 187 million participants. Changes in the prevalence of underweight and total obesity, and to a lesser extent severe obesity, are largely driven by shifts in the distribution of BMI, with smaller contributions from changes in the shape of the distribution. In East and Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, the underweight tail of the BMI distribution was left behind as the distribution shifted. There is a need for policies that address all forms of malnutrition by making healthy foods accessible and affordable, while restricting unhealthy foods through fiscal and regulatory restrictions.
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  • Erlinge, David, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of vulnerable plaques and patients by intracoronary near-infrared spectroscopy and ultrasound (PROSPECT II): a prospective natural history study.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Lancet (London, England). - : Elsevier. - 1474-547X .- 0140-6736. ; 397:10278, s. 985-995
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and intravascular ultrasound are promising imaging modalities to identify non-obstructive plaques likely to cause coronary-related events. We aimed to assess whether combined NIRS and intravascular ultrasound can identify high-risk plaques and patients that are at risk for future major adverse cardiac events (MACEs).PROSPECT II is an investigator-sponsored, multicentre, prospective natural history study done at 14 university hospitals and two community hospitals in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. We recruited patients of any age with recent (within past 4 weeks) myocardial infarction. After treatment of all flow-limiting coronary lesions, three-vessel imaging was done with a combined NIRS and intravascular ultrasound catheter. Untreated lesions (also known as non-culprit lesions) were identified by intravascular ultrasound and their lipid content was assessed by NIRS. The primary outcome was the covariate-adjusted rate of MACEs (the composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or progressive angina) arising from untreated non-culprit lesions during follow-up. The relations between plaques with high lipid content, large plaque burden, and small lumen areas and patient-level and lesion-level events were determined. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02171065.Between June 10, 2014, and Dec 20, 2017, 3629 non-culprit lesions were characterised in 898 patients (153 [17%] women, 745 [83%] men; median age 63 [IQR 55-70] years). Median follow-up was 3·7 (IQR 3·0-4·4) years. Adverse events within 4 years occurred in 112 (13·2%, 95% CI 11·0-15·6) of 898 patients, with 66 (8·0%, 95% CI 6·2-10·0) arising from 78 untreated non-culprit lesions (mean baseline angiographic diameter stenosis 46·9% [SD 15·9]). Highly lipidic lesions (851 [24%] of 3500 lesions, present in 520 [59%] of 884 patients) were an independent predictor of patient-level non-culprit lesion-related MACEs (adjusted odds ratio 2·27, 95% CI 1·25-4·13) and non-culprit lesion-specific MACEs (7·83, 4·12-14·89). Large plaque burden (787 [22%] of 3629 lesions, present in 530 [59%] of 898 patients) was also an independent predictor of non-culprit lesion-related MACEs. Lesions with both large plaque burden by intravascular ultrasound and large lipid-rich cores by NIRS had a 4-year non-culprit lesion-related MACE rate of 7·0% (95% CI 4·0-10·0). Patients in whom one or more such lesions were identified had a 4-year non-culprit lesion-related MACE rate of 13·2% (95% CI 9·4-17·6).Combined NIRS and intravascular ultrasound detects angiographically non-obstructive lesions with a high lipid content and large plaque burden that are at increased risk for future adverse cardiac outcomes.Abbott Vascular, Infraredx, and The Medicines Company.
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  • Bikdeli, Behnood, et al. (författare)
  • Individual Patient Data Pooled Analysis of Randomized Trials of Bivalirudin versus Heparin in Acute Myocardial Infarction : Rationale and Methodology
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Thrombosis and Haemostasis. - : Schattauer GmbH. - 0340-6245. ; 120:2, s. 348-361
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Individual randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of periprocedural anticoagulation with bivalirudin versus heparin during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have reported conflicting results. Study-level meta-analyses lack granularity to adjust for confounders, explore heterogeneity, or identify subgroups that may particularly benefit or be harmed.Objective To overcome these limitations, we sought to develop an individual patient-data pooled database of RCTs comparing bivalirudin versus heparin.Methods We conducted a systematic review to identify RCTs in which ≥1,000 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing PCI were randomized to bivalirudin versus heparin.Results From 738 identified studies, 8 RCTs met the prespecified criteria. The principal investigators of each study agreed to provide patient-level data. The data were pooled and checked for accuracy against trial publications, with discrepancies addressed by consulting with the trialists. Consensus-based definitions were created to resolve differing antithrombotic, procedural, and outcome definitions. The project required 3.5 years to complete, and the final database includes 27,409 patients (13,346 randomized to bivalirudin and 14,063 randomized to heparin).Conclusion We have created a large individual patient database of bivalirudin versus heparin RCTs in patients with AMI undergoing PCI. This endeavor may help identify the optimal periprocedural anticoagulation regimen for patient groups with different relative risks of adverse ischemic versus bleeding events, including those with ST-segment and non-ST-segment elevation MI, radial versus femoral access, use of a prolonged bivalirudin infusion or glycoprotein inhibitors, and others. Adherence to standardized techniques and rigorous validation processes should increase confidence in the accuracy and robustness of the results..
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7.
  • Harnek, Jan, et al. (författare)
  • Transcatheter Implantation of the MONARC Coronary Sinus Device for Mitral Regurgitation 1-Year Results From the EVOLUTION Phase I Study (Clinical Evaluation of the Edwards Lifesciences Percutaneous Mitral Annuloplasty System for The Treatment of Mitral Regurgitation)
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: JACC. Cardiovascular interventions. - : Elsevier. - 1936-8798 .- 1876-7605. ; 4:1, s. 115-122
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives This study sought to assess the safety and efficacy of transcatheter valve annuloplasty in patients with mitral regurgitation (MR). Background Mitral regurgitation is associated with a worsened prognosis in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Surgical mitral annuloplasty reduces the septal-lateral dimension of the mitral annulus resulting in improved leaflet coaptation with a reduction in regurgitation. Percutaneous annuloplasty with the MONARC device (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, California) implanted within the coronary sinus is designed to reduce mitral regurgitation through a similar mechanism. Methods A total of >= 2 patients with MR grade were enrolled at 8 participating centers in 4 countries. Clinical evaluation and transthoracic echocardiography were performed at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months. Multislice cardiac computed tomography and coronary angiography were performed at baseline and 3 months. Results The MONARC device was implanted in 59 of 72 patients (82%). The primary safety end point (freedom from death, tamponade, or myocardial infarction at 30 days) was met in 91% of patients at 30 days and in 82% at 1 year. Computed tomography imaging documented passage of the great cardiac vein over an obtuse marginal artery in 55% of patients and was associated with angiographic coronary artery compression in 15 patients and myocardial infarction in 2 patients (3.4%). At 12 months, a reduction in MR by >= 1 grade was observed in 50.0% of 22 implanted patients with matched echocardiograms and in 85.7% of 7 patients with baseline MR >= 3 grade Conclusions Implantation of the MONARC device in the coronary sinus is feasible and may reduce MR. However, coronary artery compression may occur in patients in whom the great cardiac vein passes over a coronary artery, necessitating strategies in future studies to avoid this occurrence.
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8.
  • Chen, Shmuel, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors after revascularization of patients with left main coronary artery disease.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Coronary artery disease. - 1473-5830.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is a paucity of data regarding the effect of inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system on outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We sought to examine long-term outcomes of patients with left main coronary disease (LMCAD) randomized to PCI with fluoropolymer-based cobalt-chromium everolimus-eluting stents or CABG according to treatment at discharge with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) in the large-scale, multicenter, randomized EXCEL trial.EXCEL randomized 1905 patients with LMCAD of low and intermediate anatomical complexity (visually-assessed SYNTAX score ≤32) to PCI (n = 948) versus CABG (n = 957). Patients were categorized according to whether they were treated with ACEI/ARB at discharge; their outcomes from discharge to 5 years were examined using multivariable logistic regression with an offset for follow-up time.Among 1775 patients discharged alive with known ACEI/ARB treatment status, 896 (50.5%) were treated with one of these agents. Among those treated with ACEI/ARB, the 5-year rate of all-cause death was similar after PCI or CABG (10.7% versus 9.8% respectively, adjOR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.56-1.57) in contrast to patients not treated with ACEI/ARB (15.0% versus 7.8%, respectively, adjOR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.32-3.67) (Pinteraction = 0.02). Significant interactions between treatment arm (PCI versus CABG) and ACEI/ARB treatment status were also found for cardiovascular death (Pinteraction = 0.03), ischemia-driven revascularization (Pinteraction = 0.03), target vessel revascularization (Pinteraction = 0.007) and target vessel failure (Pinteraction = 0.0009).In the EXCEL trial, the postdischarge rates of death and revascularization after 5 years were similar after PCI and CABG in patients with LMCAD treated with ACEI/ARB at discharge. In contrast, event rates were higher after PCI versus CABG in those not so treated.
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9.
  • Gregson, John, et al. (författare)
  • Implications of Alternative Definitions of Peri-Procedural Myocardial Infarction After Coronary Revascularization.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American College of Cardiology. - 1558-3597. ; 76:14, s. 1609-1621
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Varying definitions of procedural myocardial infarction (PMI) are in widespread use.This study sought to determine the rates and clinical relevance of PMI using different definitions in patients with left main coronary artery disease randomized to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery in the EXCEL (Evaluation of XIENCE versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for Effectiveness of Left Main Revascularization) trial.The pre-specified protocol definition of PMI (PMIProt) required a large elevation of creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), with identical threshold for both procedures. The Third Universal Definition of MI (types 4a and 5) (PMIUD) required lesser biomarker elevations but with supporting evidence of myocardial ischemia, different after PCI and CABG. For the PMIUD, troponins were used preferentially (available in 49.5% of patients), CK-MB otherwise. The multivariable relationship between each PMI type and 5-year mortality was determined.PMIProt occurred in 34 of 935 (3.6%) patients after PCI and 56 of 923 (6.1%) patients after CABG (difference -2.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -4.4% to -0.5%; p = 0.015). The corresponding rates of PMIUD were 37 (4.0%) and 20 (2.2%), respectively (difference 1.8%; 95% CI: 0.2% to 3.4%; p = 0.025). Both PMIProt and PMIUD were associated with 5-year cardiovascular mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 2.18 [95% CI: 1.13 to 4.23] and 2.87 [95% CI: 1.44 to 5.73], respectively). PMIProt was associated with a consistent hazard of cardiovascular mortality after both PCI and CABG (pinteraction = 0.86). Conversely, PMIUD was strongly associated with cardiovascular mortality after CABG (adjusted HR: 11.94; 95% CI: 4.84 to 29.47) but not after PCI (adjusted HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 0.35 to 3.67) (pinteraction = 0.004). Results were similar for all-cause mortality and with varying PMIUD biomarker definitions. Only large biomarker elevations (CK-MB ≥10× upper reference limit and troponin ≥70× upper reference limit) were associated with mortality.The rates of PMI after PCI and CABG vary greatly with different definitions. In the EXCEL trial, the pre-specified PMIProt was associated with similar hazard after PCI and CABG, whereas PMIUD was strongly associated with mortality after CABG but not after PCI. (EXCEL Clinical Trial [EXCEL]; NCT01205776).
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10.
  • Xin, Huang, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on prognosis after percutaneous coronary intervention and bypass surgery for left main coronary artery disease: An analysis from the EXCEL trial
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery. - 1010-7940 .- 1873-734X. ; 55:6, s. 1144-1151
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is often favoured over coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery for revascularization in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We studied whether COPD affected clinical outcomes according to revascularization in the Evaluation of XIENCE Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for Effectiveness of Left Main Revascularization (EXCEL) trial, in which PCI with everolimus-eluting stents was non-inferior to CABG for the treatment of patients with left main coronary artery disease and low or intermediate SYNTAX scores. Patients with a history of COPD were propensity score matched to those without COPD. Outcomes at 30 days and 3 years in both groups were compared in patients randomized to PCI versus CABG. RESULTS: COPD status was available for 1901 of 1905 randomized patients (99.8%), 148 of whom had COPD (7.8%). Propensity score matching yielded 135 patients with COPD and 675 patients without COPD. Patients with COPD had higher 3-year rates of the primary composite end point of death, myocardial infarction or stroke (31.7% vs 14.5%, P 0.0001), death (17.1% vs 7.5%, P = 0.0005) and myocardial infarction (18.3% vs 7.3%, P 0.0001), but not stroke (3.3% vs 2.9%, P = 0.84). There were no statistically significant interactions in the relative risks of PCI versus CABG for the primary composite end point in patients with and without COPD at 30 days [hazard ratio (HR) 0.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12 1.21 vs HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.29 1.06; Pinteraction = 0.61] or at 3 years (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.46 1.56 vs HR 1.28, 95% CI 0.84 1.94; Pinteraction = 0.27). CONCLUSIONS: In the EXCEL trial, COPD was independently associated with poor prognosis after left main coronary artery disease revascularization. The relative risks of PCI versus CABG at 30 days and 3 years were consistent in patients with and without COPD..
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  • [1]2345Nästa

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