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1.
  • Brownstein, Catherine A., et al. (författare)
  • An international effort towards developing standards for best practices in analysis, interpretation and reporting of clinical genome sequencing results in the CLARITY Challenge
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Genome Biology. - 1465-6906 .- 1474-760X. ; 15:3, s. R53-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: There is tremendous potential for genome sequencing to improve clinical diagnosis and care once it becomes routinely accessible, but this will require formalizing research methods into clinical best practices in the areas of sequence data generation, analysis, interpretation and reporting. The CLARITY Challenge was designed to spur convergence in methods for diagnosing genetic disease starting from clinical case history and genome sequencing data. DNA samples were obtained from three families with heritable genetic disorders and genomic sequence data were donated by sequencing platform vendors. The challenge was to analyze and interpret these data with the goals of identifying disease-causing variants and reporting the findings in a clinically useful format. Participating contestant groups were solicited broadly, and an independent panel of judges evaluated their performance. Results: A total of 30 international groups were engaged. The entries reveal a general convergence of practices on most elements of the analysis and interpretation process. However, even given this commonality of approach, only two groups identified the consensus candidate variants in all disease cases, demonstrating a need for consistent fine-tuning of the generally accepted methods. There was greater diversity of the final clinical report content and in the patient consenting process, demonstrating that these areas require additional exploration and standardization. Conclusions: The CLARITY Challenge provides a comprehensive assessment of current practices for using genome sequencing to diagnose and report genetic diseases. There is remarkable convergence in bioinformatic techniques, but medical interpretation and reporting are areas that require further development by many groups.
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2.
  • Anderson, Beverley H., et al. (författare)
  • Mutations in CTC1, encoding conserved telomere maintenance component 1, cause Coats plus
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 44:3, s. 338-342
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Coats plus is a highly pleiotropic disorder particularly affecting the eye, brain, bone and gastrointestinal tract. Here, we show that Coats plus results from mutations in CTC1, encoding conserved telomere maintenance component 1, a member of the mammalian homolog of the yeast heterotrimeric CST telomeric capping complex. Consistent with the observation of shortened telomeres in an Arabidopsis CTC1 mutant and the phenotypic overlap of Coats plus with the telomeric maintenance disorders comprising dyskeratosis congenita, we observed shortened telomeres in three individuals with Coats plus and an increase in spontaneous gamma H2AX-positive cells in cell lines derived from two affected individuals. CTC1 is also a subunit of the alpha-accessory factor (AAF) complex, stimulating the activity of DNA polymerase-alpha primase, the only enzyme known to initiate DNA replication in eukaryotic cells. Thus, CTC1 may have a function in DNA metabolism that is necessary for but not specific to telomeric integrity.
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  • Livingston, John H, et al. (författare)
  • Leukoencephalopathy with Calcifications and Cysts : A Purely Neurological Disorder Distinct from Coats Plus
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Neuropediatrics. - 0174-304X .- 1439-1899. ; 45:3, s. 175-182
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective With the identification of mutations in the conserved telomere maintenance component 1 (CTC1) gene as the cause of Coats plus (CP) disease, it has become evident that leukoencephalopathy with calcifications and cysts (LCC) is a distinct genetic entity. Patients and Methods A total of 15 patients with LCC were identified from our database of patients with intracranial calcification. The clinical and radiological features are described. Results The median age (range) at presentation was 10 months (range, 2 days-54 years). Of the 15 patients, 9 presented with epileptic seizures, 5 with motor abnormalities, and 1 with developmental delay. Motor abnormalities developed in 14 patients and cognitive problems in 13 patients. Dense calcification occurred in the basal ganglia, thalami, dentate nucleus, brain stem, deep gyri, deep white matter, and in a pericystic distribution. Diffuse leukoencephalopathy was present in all patients, and it was usually symmetrical involving periventricular, deep, and sometimes subcortical, regions. Cysts developed in the basal ganglia, thalamus, deep white matter, cerebellum, or brain stem. In unaffected areas, normal myelination was present. No patient demonstrated cerebral atrophy. Conclusion LCC shares the neuroradiological features of CP. However, LCC is a purely neurological disorder distinguished genetically by the absence of mutations in CTC1. The molecular cause(s) of LCC has (have) not yet been determined.
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7.
  • Michels, F., et al. (författare)
  • Searching for consensus in the approach to patients with chronic lateral ankle instability: ask the expert
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy. - 0942-2056. ; 26:7, s. 2095-2102
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of this study is to propose recommendations for the treatment of patients with chronic lateral ankle instability (CAI) based on expert opinions. A questionnaire was sent to 32 orthopaedic surgeons with clinical and scientific experience in the treatment of CAI. The questions were related to preoperative imaging, indications and timing of surgery, technical choices, and the influence of patient-related aspects. Thirty of the 32 invited surgeons (94%) responded. Consensus was found on several aspects of treatment. Preoperative MRI was routinely recommended. Surgery was considered in patients with functional ankle instability after 3-6 months of non-surgical treatment. Ligament repair is still the treatment of choice in patients with mechanical instability; however, in patients with generalized laxity or poor ligament quality, lateral ligament reconstruction (with grafting) of both the ATFL and CFL should be considered. Most surgeons request an MRI during the preoperative planning. There is a trend towards earlier surgical treatment (after failure of non-surgical treatment) in patients with mechanical ligament laxity (compared with functional instability) and in high-level athletes. This study proposes an assessment and a treatment algorithm that may be used as a recommendation in the treatment of patients with CAI.
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8.
  • Puissant, Alexandre, et al. (författare)
  • SYK Is a Critical Regulator of FLT3 in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Cancer Cell. - : Cell Press. - 1878-3686. ; 25:2, s. 226-242
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cooperative dependencies between mutant oncoproteins and wild-type proteins are critical in cancer pathogenesis and therapy resistance. Although spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) has been implicated in hematologic malignancies, it is rarely mutated. We used kinase activity profiling to identify collaborators of SYK in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and determined that FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) is transactivated by SYK via direct binding. Highly activated SYK is predominantly found in FLT3-ITD positive AML and cooperates with FLT3-ITD to activate MYC transcriptional programs. FLT3-ITD AML cells are more vulnerable to SYK suppression than FLT3 wild-type counterparts. In a FLT3-ITD in vivo model, SYK is indispensable for myeloproliferative disease (MPD) development, and SYK overexpression promotes overt transformation to AML and resistance to FLT3-ITD-targeted therapy.
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10.
  • Takao, Masato, et al. (författare)
  • Arthroscopic anterior talofibular ligament repair for lateral instability of the ankle.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Knee surgery, sports traumatology, arthroscopy : official journal of the ESSKA. - 1433-7347. ; 24:4, s. 1003-1006
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although several arthroscopic procedures for lateral ligament instability of the ankle have been reported recently, it is difficult to augment the reconstruction by arthroscopically tightening the inferior extensor retinaculum. There is also concern that when using the inferior extensor retinaculum, this is not strictly an anatomical repair since its calcaneal attachment is different to that of the calcaneofibular ligament. If a ligament repair is completed firmly, it is unnecessary to add argumentation with inferior extensor retinaculum. The authors describe a simplified technique, repair of the lateral ligament alone using a lasso-loop stitch, which avoids additionally tighten the inferior extensor retinaculum. In this paper, it is described an arthroscopic anterior talofibular ligament repair using lasso-loop stitch alone for lateral instability of the ankle that is likely safe for patients and minimal invasive. Level of evidence Therapeutic study, Level V.
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