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Sökning: WFRF:(Stordal Eystein)

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  • Almkvist, Ove, et al. (författare)
  • Selective impact of disease on short-term and long-term components of self-reported memory : a population-based HUNT study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open. - 2044-6055. ; 7:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Subjective memory is commonly considered to be a unidimensional measure. However, theories of performance-based memory suggest that subjective memory could be divided into more than one dimension. Objective: To divide subjective memory into theoretically related components of memory and explore the relationship to disease. Methods: In this study, various aspects of self-reported memory were studied with respect to demographics and diseases in the third wave of the HUNT epidemiological study in middle Norway. The study included all individuals 55 years of age or older, who responded to a nine-item questionnaire on subjective memory and questionnaires on health (n=18 633). Results: A principle component analysis of the memory items resulted in two memory components; the criterion used was an eigenvalue above 1, which accounted for 54% of the total variance. The components were interpreted as long-term memory (LTM; the first component; 43% of the total variance) and short-term memory (STM; the second component; 11% of the total variance). Memory impairment was significantly related to all diseases (except Bechterew's disease), most strongly to brain infarction, heart failure, diabetes, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and whiplash. For most diseases, the STM component was more affected than the LTM component; however, in cancer, the opposite pattern was seen. Conclusions: Subjective memory impairment as measured in HUNT contained two components, which were differentially associated with diseases.
  • Bosnes, Ingunn, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence and correlates of successful aging in a population-based sample of older adults : the HUNT study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International psychogeriatrics. - 1041-6102. ; 29:3, s. 431-440
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The factors influencing successful aging (SA) are of great interest in an aging society. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of SA, the relative importance across age of the three components used to define it (absence of disease and disability, high cognitive and physical function, and active engagement with life), and its correlates. Data were extracted from the population-based cross-sectional Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3 2006–2008). Individuals aged 70–89 years with complete datasets for the three components were included (N = 5773 of 8,040, 71.8%). Of the respondents, 54.6% were women. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to analyze possible correlates of SA. Overall, 35.6% of the sample met one of the three criteria, 34.1% met combinations, and 14.5% met all of the three criteria. The most demanding criterion was high function, closely followed by absence of disease, while approximately two-thirds were actively engaged in life. The relative change with age was largest for the high cognitive and physical function component and smallest for active engagement with life. The significant correlates of SA were younger age, female gender, higher education, weekly exercise, more satisfaction with life, non-smoking, and alcohol consumption, whereas marital status was not related to SA. The prevalence of SA in this study (14.5%) is comparable to previous studies. It may be possible to increase the prevalence by intervention directed toward more exercise, non-smoking, and better satisfaction with life.
  • Dahl, A., et al. (författare)
  • SPIFA-A presentation of the Structured Psychiatric Interview for General Practice
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry. - 0803-9488 .- 1502-4725. ; 63:6, s. 443-453
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The diagnostic ability of general practitioners (GPs) concerning mental disorders is not optimal, and could be improved by structured diagnostic interviews. Various aspects of the Structured Psychiatric Interview for General Practice (SPIFA) are examined. Aims: The inter-rater reliability of the SPIFA, the time used by GPs and specialists and the GPs satisfaction are examined. The properties of the SPIFA are compared with those of the Prime-MD and the MINI schedules. Methods: Inter-rater reliability of the SPIFA was tested in 336 patients in general practice. The patients were randomized to two interview strategies. Either both GPs and psychiatrists used the SPIFA, or GPs used the SPIFA and psychiatrists a modified version of the SCID for Axis I disorders. The satisfaction was investigated by a questionnaire sent to 1000 GPs who had SPIFA training. Results: The SPIFA showed adequate inter-rater reliability for depression, anxiety disorders and increased suicidal risk for both interview strategies. In patients with more than two co-morbid disorders, the inter-rater reliability was poor. The mean duration of SPIFA was 21 min for SPIFA screening and 22 min for SPIFA manual. The 192 GPs responding to the questionnaire were mostly satisfied with the SPIFA. Conclusions: The SPIFA seems to be a reliable, valid and helpful instrument for GPs making diagnoses of mental disorders in their patients. Compared with the Prime MD and the MINI, the SPIFA seemed to have comparable psychometric properties but better feasibility in primary care.
  • Grav, Siv, et al. (författare)
  • Association between social support and depression in the general population : the HUNT study, a cross-sectional survey.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Nursing. - 0962-1067. ; 21:1-2, s. 111-120
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim.  The aim was to investigate the associations between perceived social support and depression in a general population in relation to gender and age. Background.  Social support is seen as one of the social determinants for overall health in the general population. Studies have found higher probability of experiencing depression among people who have a lack of social support; evidence from the general population has been more limited. Subjective perception that support would be available if needed may reduce and prevent depression and unnecessary suffering. Design.  A cross-sectional survey with self-reported health was used. Method.  A total of 40,659 men and women aged 20-89 years living in Nord-Trøndelag County of Norway with valid ratings of depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in the The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 3 were used. Logistic regression was used to quantify associations between two types of perceived support (emotional and tangible) and depression. Gender, age and interaction effects were controlled for in the final model. Results.  The main finding was that self-rated perceived support was significantly associated with Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-defined depression, even after controlling for age and gender; emotional support (OR = 3·14) and tangible support (OR = 2·93). The effects of emotional and tangible support differ between genders. Interaction effects were found for age groups and both emotional and tangible support. Conclusion.  Self-rated perceived functional social support is associated with Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-defined depression. In the group of older people who have a lack of social support, women seem to need more emotional support and men tangible support. Relevance to clinical practice.  Health care providers should consider the close association between social support and depression in their continuing care, particularly in the older people.
  • Grav, Siv, et al. (författare)
  • Association of personality, neighbourhood, and civic participation with the level of perceived social support: the HUNT study, a cross-sectional survey
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. - 1403-4948. ; 41:6, s. 579-586
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim:The aim of the current study was to examine the association of personality,neighbourhood, and civic participation on the level of perceived social support if needed.Methods:The sample consists of a total of 35,797 men (16,035) and women (19,762) drawnfrom the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 3 (HUNT3), aged 20-89, with a fully completed shortversion of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) including a complete response toquestions regarding perceived social support. A multinomial logistic regression model wasused to investigate the association between the three-category outcomes (high, medium, andlow) of perceived social support.Results: The Chi-square test detected a significant (p <0.001) association between personality, sense of community, civic participation, self-ratedhealth, living arrangement, age groups, gender, and perceived social support except betweenperceived social support and loss of social network in which no significance was found. Thecrude and adjusted multinomial logistic regression models shows relation between mediumand low scores on perceived social support, personality, and sources of social support.Interactions were observed between gender and self-rated health.Conclusions: There is anassociation between the level of perceived social support and personality, sense ofcommunity in the neighbourhood, and civic participation. Even if the interactionbetween men and self-reported health decreases the odds for low and medium socialsupport, health professionals should be aware of men with poor health and their lack ofsocial support.
  • Grav, Siv, et al. (författare)
  • The prevalence of recovered and new cases of depressionin relation to social support and temperament in an 11-year follow-up; The HUNT study
  • ????
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims.This study aimed to describe changes in the prevalence of depression in relation tosocial support and temperament, in an 11-year follow-up study.Background.Lack of social support is a risk factor for depression. Understanding the role oftemperament and social support in relation to development of, and recovery from, depressionmay help nurses to intervene early with high-risk patients in order to prevent depression andpromote health.Design.Longitudinal design was used.Methods.In total, 26,709 men (42.8%) and women (57.2%) aged 20-89 years from Nord-Trøndelag County in Norway participated. Those who had a valid rating on the depressionsubscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) from The Nord-TrøndelagHealth Study (HUNT) wave 2 (1995-97) and wave 3 (2006-08), including a completeresponse to the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and questions regarding socialsupport, were included.Results.The prevalence of new cases of depression was higher than the prevalence ofrecovery from depression. There was a significant association between the sub-groups ofdepression and temperament, changes in health, and social support. The risk factors for newcases had a greater causal influence on depression than risk factors for recovery.Conclusions.Prevention of depression seems to be more effective than treatment. Olderpeople and males are the most frequent new cases. Nurses should emphasize the interpersonalprocess to meet the needs of an individual patient and his or her social network that providessocial support, especially among older people and males.
  • Hellzen, Ove, et al. (författare)
  • The relationship among neuroticism, extraversion, and depression in the HUNT Study: in relation to age and gender.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Issues in Mental Health Nursing. - 0161-2840. ; 33:11, s. 777-785
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between personality and depression in a general population in relation to gender and age. The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (2006–2008), a large cross-sectional survey, was used. The sample consists of 35,832 men (16,104) and women (19,728) aged 20–89 years, living in the Nord-Trøndelag County of Norway, with valid ratings on the depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). This study demonstrates a relationship between depression and both neuroticism and extraversion in a general population. Older people score low more often on Extraversion (E) than younger people. Interactions were observed between neuroticism and age, gender, and extraversion with depression. The interaction term indicates a high score on Neuroticism (N) enhanced by introversion, older age, and being a male with depression. The findings suggest that health professionals may need to put extra effort into the care of patients with low extraversion and high neuroticism, in order to help those patients avoid depression.Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/01612840.2012.713082
  • Musliner, Katherine L., et al. (författare)
  • Association of Polygenic Liabilities for Major Depression, Bipolar Disorder, and Schizophrenia With Risk for Depression in the Danish Population
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: JAMA psychiatry. - Chicago : American Medical Association. - 2168-6238. ; 76:5, s. 516-525
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE: Although the usefulness of polygenic risk scores as a measure of genetic liability for major depression (MD) has been established, their association with depression in the general population remains relatively unexplored.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether polygenic risk scores for MD, bipolar disorder (BD), and schizophrenia (SZ) are associated with depression in the general population and explore whether these polygenic liabilities are associated with heterogeneity in terms of age at onset and severity at the initial depression diagnosis.DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Participants were drawn from the Danish iPSYCH2012 case-cohort study, a representative sample drawn from the population of Denmark born between May 1, 1981, and December 31, 2005. The hazard of depression was estimated using Cox regressions modified to accommodate the case-cohort design. Case-only analyses were conducted using linear and multinomial regressions. The data analysis was conducted from February 2017 to June 2018.EXPOSURES: Polygenic risk scores for MD, BD, and SZ trained using the most recent genome-wide association study results from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium.MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The main outcome was first depressive episode (international Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision [ICD-10] code F32) treated in hospital-based psychiatric care. Severity at the initial diagnosis was measured using the ICD-10 code severity specifications (mild, moderate, severe without psychosis, and severe with psychosis) and treatment setting (inpatient, outpatient, and emergency).RESULTS: Of 34 573 participants aged 10 to 31 years at censoring, 68% of those with depression were female compared with 48.9% of participants without depression. Each SD increase in polygenic liability for MD, BD, and SZ was associated with 30% (hazard ratio [HR], 1.30; 95% CI, 1.27-1.33), 5% (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02-1.07), and 12% (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.09-1.15) increases in the hazard of depression, respectively. Among cases, a higher polygenic liability for BD was associated with earlier depression onset (beta =-.07; SE =.02; P =.002).CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Polygenic ability for MD is associated with first depress on in the general population, which supports the idea that these scores tap into an underlying liability for developing the disorder. The fact that polygenic risk for BD and polygenic risk for SZ also were associated with depression is consistent with prior evidence that these disorders share some common genetic overlap. Variations in polygenic liability may contribute slightly to heterogeneity in clinical presentation, but these associations appear minimal.
  • Rasmussen, Hege, et al. (författare)
  • Family caregivers experiences of the pre-diagnostic stage in frontotemporal dementia
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Geriatric Nursing. - Elsevier. - 0197-4572. ; 40:3, s. 246-251
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a neurodegenerative disease with symptoms that differs from other dementias. Commonly early symptoms in FTD are changes in personality and behavior, which can be interpreted as psychiatric disease. The delay in FTD diagnosis contributes to the burden of family caregivers. Therefore, it is important to have more knowledge about the pre-diagnostic stage. In this qualitative interview study, we explored fourteen family caregiver's experiences of the pre-diagnostic stage of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Our findings suggest that the family caregivers experienced the pre-diagnostic stage of FTD as changes in the interpersonal relationship with their loved one. These changes were often subtle and difficult for family caregivers to explain to others. The findings from our study illuminate the importance of medical staff paying attention when a next of kin is concerned about subtle changes in a loved one. The findings also illuminate that awareness of FTD should be raised.
  • Rongve, Arvid, et al. (författare)
  • GBA and APOE ε4 associate with sporadic dementia with Lewy bodies in European genome wide association study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) is a common neurodegenerative disorder with poor prognosis and mainly unknown pathophysiology. Heritability estimates exceed 30% but few genetic risk variants have been identified. Here we investigated common genetic variants associated with DLB in a large European multisite sample. We performed a genome wide association study in Norwegian and European cohorts of 720 DLB cases and 6490 controls and included 19 top-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms in an additional cohort of 108 DLB cases and 75545 controls from Iceland. Overall the study included 828 DLB cases and 82035 controls. Variants in the ASH1L/GBA (Chr1q22) and APOE ε4 (Chr19) loci were associated with DLB surpassing the genome-wide significance threshold (p < 5 × 10 −8 ). One additional genetic locus previously linked to psychosis in Alzheimer’s disease, ZFPM1 (Chr16q24.2), showed suggestive association with DLB at p-value < 1 × 10 −6 . We report two susceptibility loci for DLB at genome-wide significance, providing insight into etiological factors. These findings highlight the complex relationship between the genetic architecture of DLB and other neurodegenerative disorders.
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