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Sökning: WFRF:(Strand Tanja)

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1.
  • Strand, T. M., et al. (författare)
  • Highly Pathogenic Leptospira Found in Urban Brown Rats (Rattus norvegicus) in the Largest Cities of Sweden
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. - 1530-3667 .- 1557-7759. ; 15:12, s. 779-781
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Leptospirosis is an emerging zoonosis of global concern; however, its contemporary occurrence in Sweden, a European country partly located north of the Arctic Circle, is poorly known. Four out of 30 brown rats, captured within urban districts in Sweden, were found to be positive for antibodies to Leptospira interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae. This serovar causes Weil's disease in humans, a severe infection with jaundice, renal failure, and hemorrhage. Our study is the first finding of this highly pathogenic serovar in Swedish rats since the 1930s.
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2.
  • Wang, Biao, et al. (författare)
  • Sequencing of the core MHC region of black grouse (Tetrao tetrix) and comparative genomics of the galliform MHC
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: BMC Genomics. - 1471-2164 .- 1471-2164. ; 13, s. 553-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:The MHC, which is regarded as the most polymorphic region in the genomes of jawed vertebrates, plays a central role in the immune system by encoding various proteins involved in the immune response. The chicken MHC-B genomic region has a highly streamlined gene content compared to mammalian MHCs. Its core region includes genes encoding Class I and Class IIB molecules but is only ~92Kb in length. Sequences of other galliform MHCs show varying degrees of similarity as that of chicken. The black grouse (Tetrao tetrix) is a wild galliform bird species which is an important model in conservation genetics and ecology. We sequenced the black grouse core MHC-B region and combined this with available data from related species (chicken, turkey, gold pheasant and quail) to perform a comparative genomics study of the galliform MHC. This kind of analysis has previously been severely hampered by the lack of genomic information on avian MHC regions, and the galliformes is still the only bird lineage where such a comparison is possible.RESULTS:In this study, we present the complete genomic sequence of the MHC-B locus of black grouse, which is 88,390 bp long and contains 19 genes. It shows the same simplicity as, and almost perfect synteny with, the corresponding genomic region of chicken. We also use 454-transcriptome sequencing to verify expression in 17 of the black grouse MHC-B genes. Multiple sequence inversions of the TAPBP gene and TAP1-TAP2 gene block identify the recombination breakpoints near the BF and BLB genes. Some of the genes in the galliform MHC-B region also seem to have been affected by selective forces, as inferred from deviating phylogenetic signals and elevated rates of non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions.CONCLUSIONS:We conclude that there is large synteny between the MHC-B region of the black grouse and that of other galliform birds, but that some duplications and rearrangements have occurred within this lineage. The MHC-B sequence reported here will provide a valuable resource for future studies on the evolution of the avian MHC genes and on links between immunogenetics and ecology of black grouse.
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3.
  • Strand, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • Caring for patients with spinal metastasis during an MRI examination
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Radiography. - London : Elsevier. - 1078-8174 .- 1532-2831. ; 24:1, s. 79-83
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is without question the best tool used for diagnosing and evaluating spinal metastasis. An MRI examination is known to be of great value for the treatment planning and survival of these patients. Radiographers have an important role in how the quality of care is experienced by the patients during an MRI examination. The purpose of the study was to describe the radiographers’ perceptions of caring for patients with spinal metastasis during an examination with MRI.Methods: Phenomenography was used to analyze the data in this study. Ten radiographers, one male and nine females were interviewed about their perception of caring for patients with spinal metastasis during an MRI examination.Results: The findings showed that the radiographers’ caring perspective influenced their approach towards what they consider to be essential in the care of patients with spinal metastasis. This can impact the extent of the adjustment to the care needs of the patients. Furthermore, the findings showed that there was a strong connection between the radiographers’ care approach and preparedness to personalize the care.Conclusion: This study shows that it is important to be flexible when providing care for the patients. A person-centered care is achieved when the caring perspective is based on the patient’s view and adjustments are made in agreement with the patient.
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4.
  • Strand, Tanja M., 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • Detection of Leptospira in Urban Swedish Rats : Pest Control Interventions as a Promising Source of Rats Used for Surveillance
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. - : Mary Ann Liebert. - 1530-3667 .- 1557-7759. ; 19:6, s. 414-420
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rat carcasses obtained from pest control interventions can potentially be used for an efficient surveillance of zoonotic diseases such as leptospirosis. To evaluate the performance of different laboratory methods for detection of pathogenic Leptospira spp., heart and kidney samples from wild Norway rats were analyzed by microscopic agglutination test (MAT, the gold standard), a commercial IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and by an optimized quantitative PCR (secY qPCR, followed by sequencing). We found secY qPCR to be as sensitive as MAT for screening of Leptospira infection in pest control rats and selected secY qPCR for a larger screening of rats from urban and rural areas in central and southern Sweden. We identified secY qPCR positive rats from the cities Stockholm, Gothenburg, and Malmö, which were further confirmed by sequencing.
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5.
  • Verner-Carlsson, Jenny, et al. (författare)
  • First evidence of Seoul hantavirus in the wild rat population in the Netherlands
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology. - 2000-8686 .- 2000-8686. ; 5, s. 27215-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the first detection of Seoul hantavirus (SEOV)-specific antibodies in the wild brown rat population in the Netherlands. SEOV-reactive antibodies were found in three rats out of 16 in a repeated series of tests including immunofluorescence assay, immunoblot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Focus reduction neutralization test confirmed the presence of SEOV-specific antibodies, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed the presence of hantaviral RNA. This discovery follows the recent findings of SEOV infections in wild and pet brown rats and humans in England, Wales, France, Belgium, and Sweden, indicating an even higher importance of this hantavirus for public health in large areas of Europe.
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6.
  • Esson, Carol, et al. (författare)
  • Health and zoonotic Infections of snow leopards Panthera unica in the South Gobi desert of Mongolia.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology. - : Taylor & Francis Open: Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial / Co-Action Publishing. - 2000-8686 .- 2000-8686. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Snow leopards, Panthera uncia, are a threatened apex predator, scattered across the mountains of Central and South Asia. Disease threats to wild snow leopards have not been investigated.Methods and Results: Between 2008 and 2015, twenty snow leopards in the South Gobi desert of Mongolia were captured and immobilised for health screening and radio-collaring. Blood samples and external parasites were collected for pathogen analyses using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), microscopic agglutination test (MAT), and next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques. The animals showed no clinical signs of disease, however, serum antibodies to significant zoonotic pathogens were detected. These pathogens included, Coxiella burnetii, (25% prevalence), Leptospira spp., (20%), and Toxoplasma gondii (20%). Ticks collected from snow leopards contained potentially zoonotic bacteria from the genera Bacillus, Bacteroides, Campylobacter, Coxiella, Rickettsia, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus.Conclusions: The zoonotic pathogens identified in this study, in the short-term did not appear to cause illness in the snow leopards, but have caused illness in other wild felids. Therefore, surveillance for pathogens should be implemented to monitor for potential longer- term disease impacts on this snow leopard population.
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7.
  • Kulma, Katarzyna, et al. (författare)
  • Immunoglobulin level and infection intensity influence how malaria-infected collared flycatchers respond to brood size manipulation
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • 1.The existence of a trade-off between investment in reproduction and immune function is well-established in many species. However, variation in the underlying physiological allocation strategies, which is what selection operates on, remains largely unexplored.2.We investigated how haemosporidian infection influenced stress hormone level and ability to increase parental effort in female collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis). We especially focused on how estimates of investment in humoral immune response and level of parasitemia influenced subsequent parental investment (i.e. offspring provisioning and offspring mass).3.To achieve these goals, we combined a brood size manipulation experiment with nested- and quantitative PCR methods to establish infection status and intensity. In addition, we quantified immunoglobulin Y (IgY) and stress protein levels.4. Malaria-infected females reared enlarged broods with lower mass but there was large variation in their response to the experiment. Only infected females with low IgY levels decreased their relative provisioning rate and there was a positive relationship between the intensity of infection and total brood mass.5. Our study implies that malaria-infected flycatchers experience a trade-off between keeping their infection at bay (i.e. low level of parasitemia) and responding to increased offspring demands (i.e. high offspring mass in enlarged broods). However, relatively immunocompetent individuals (i.e. individuals with high IgY levels) did not compromise their parental care suggesting that the main cost of raising the immune response does not lay in antibody production.
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8.
  • Puckett, Emily E., et al. (författare)
  • Genomic analyses reveal three independent introductions of the invasive brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) to the Faroe Islands
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Heredity. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 0018-067X .- 1365-2540. ; 124:1, s. 15-27
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Population genomics offers innovative approaches to test hypotheses related to the source and timing of introduction of invasive species. These approaches are particularly appropriate to study colonization of island ecosystems. The brown rat is a cold-hardy global invasive that has reached most of the world's island ecosystems, including even highly isolated archipelagoes such as the Faroe Islands in the North Atlantic Ocean. Historic records tell of rats rafting to the southern island of Suouroy in 1768 following a shipwreck off the coast of Scotland, then expanding across the archipelago. We investigated the demographic history of brown rats in the Faroes using 50,174 SNPs. We inferred three independent introductions of rats, including to Suouroy, the islands of Borooy and Viooy, and onto Streymoy from which they expanded to Eysturoy and Vagar. All Faroese populations showed signs of strong bottlenecks and declining effective population size. We inferred that these founder events removed low frequency alleles, the exact data needed to estimate recent demographic histories. Therefore, we were unable to accurately estimate the timing of each invasion. The difficulties with demographic inference may be applicable to other invasive species, particularly those with extreme and recent bottlenecks. We identified three invasions of brown rats to the Faroe Islands that resulted in highly differentiated populations that will be useful for future studies of life history variation and genomic adaptation.
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9.
  • Puckett, Emily E., et al. (författare)
  • Global population divergence and admixture of the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus)
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences. - 0962-8452 .- 1471-2954. ; 283:1841
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Native to China and Mongolia, the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) now enjoys a worldwide distribution. While black rats and the house mouse tracked the regional development of human agricultural settlements, brown rats did not appear in Europe until the 1500s, suggesting their range expansion was a response to relatively recent increases in global trade. We inferred the global phylogeography of brown rats using 32 k SNPs, and detected 13 evolutionary clusters within five expansion routes. One cluster arose following a southward expansion into Southeast Asia. Three additional clusters arose from two independent eastward expansions: one expansion from Russia to the Aleutian Archipelago, and a second to western North America. Westward expansion resulted in the colonization of Europe from which subsequent rapid colonization of Africa, the Americas and Australasia occurred, and multiple evolutionary clusters were detected. An astonishing degree of fine-grained clustering between and within sampling sites underscored the extent to which urban heterogeneity shaped genetic structure of commensal rodents. Surprisingly, few individuals were recent migrants, suggesting that recruitment into established populations is limited. Understanding the global population structure of R. norvegicus offers novel perspectives on the forces driving the spread of zoonotic disease, and aids in development of rat eradication programmes.
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10.
  • Rózsa, Jani, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of a range expansion on adaptive and neutral genetic diversity in dispersal limited Hazel grouse (Bonasa bonasia) in the French Alps
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Conservation Genetics. - 1566-0621 .- 1572-9737. ; 17:2, s. 401-412
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Biogeographic range expansions, when related to dispersal limitation, may have counter intuitive effects on genetic diversity. At range margins the relative roles of demographic changes, connectivity and genetic diversity need to be integrated for a successful assessment of population viability. Historically the Hazel grouse (Bonasa bonasia) in France was found in the north of the French Alps and also in a disjunct population in the nearby Jura Mountains. The species has recently undergone a range expansion in a north to south axis in the Alps. Local population size estimates and migration patterns during expansion have previously been studied. In this study, we performed genotyping at neutral (microsatellite) and adaptive (MHC) genetic markers in Hazel grouse. We compared diversity and differentiation (FST and DEST) at three sampling localities along the expansion axis in the French Alps and Jura, as well as at two sampling localities in Sweden, where the population has had a long-term continuous and stable distribution. Strong serial founder effects were found between the French localities, resulting in stronger isolation further south, with a relatively high neutral differentiation (pair-wise FST = 0.117). However, the loss of adaptive diversity MHC was slight. No adaptive differentiation (MHC DEST = −0.015) was observed, thus, the French localities can be considered uniform units with regard to MHC diversity, a criterion to treat populations in these localities as a management unit.
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