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Sökning: WFRF:(Styring S)

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  • Magnuson, Ann, et al. (författare)
  • Biomimetic and Microbial Approaches to Solar Fuel Generation
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Accounts of Chemical Research. - : The American Chemical Society (ACS). - 1520-4898 .- 0001-4842. ; 42:12, s. 1899-1909
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Photosynthesis is performed by a multitude of organisms, but in P nearly all cases, it is variations on a common theme: absorption of light followed by energy transfer to a reaction center where charge separation takes place, This initial form of chemical energy is stabilized by the biosynthesis of carbohydrates. To produce these energy-rich products, a substrate is needed that feeds in reductive equivalents, When photosynthetic microorganisms learned to use water as a substrate some 2 billion years ago, a fundamental barrier against unlimited use of solar energy was overcome. The possibility of solar energy use has inspired researchers to construct artificial photosynthetic systems that show analogy to parts of the intricate molecular machinery of photosynthesis. Recent years have seen a reorientation of efforts toward creating integrated light-to-fuel systems that can use solar energy for direct synthesis of energy-rich compounds, so-called solar fuels. Sustainable production of solar fuels is a long awaited development that promises extensive solar energy use combined with long-term storage. The stoichiometry of water splitting into molecular oxygen, protons, and electrons is deceptively simple; achieving it by chemical catalysis has proven remarkably difficult. The reaction center Photosystem II couples light-induced charge separation to an efficient molecular water-splitting catalyst, a Mn4Ca complex, and is thus an important template for biomimetic chemistry. In our aims to design biomimetic manganese complexes for light-driven water oxidation, we link photosensitizers and charge-separation motifs to potential catalysts in supramolecular assemblies. In photosynthesis, production of carbohydrates demands the delivery of multiple reducing equivalents to CO2. In contrast, the two-electron reduction of protons to molecular hydrogen is much less demanding. Virtually all microorganisms have enzymes called hydrogenases that convert protons to hydrogen, many of them with good catalytic efficiency. The catalytic sites of hydrogenases are now the center of attention of biomimetic efforts, providing prospects for catalytic hydrogen production with inexpensive metals. Thus, we might complete the water-to-fuel conversion: light + 2H(2)O -> 2H(2) + O-2 This reaction formula is to some extent already elegantly fulfilled by cyanobacteria and green algae, water-splitting photosynthetic microorganisms that under certain conditions also can produce hydrogen. An alternative route to hydrogen from solar energy is therefore to engineer these organisms to produce hydrogen more efficiently. This Account describes our original approach to combine research in these two fields: mimicking structural and functional principles of both Photosystem II and hydrogenases by synthetic chemistry and engineering cyanobacteria to become better hydrogen producers and ultimately developing new routes toward synthetic biology.
  • Abrahamsson, M. L. A., et al. (författare)
  • Ruthenium-manganese complexes for artificial photosynthesis : Factors controlling intramolecular electron transfer and excited-state quenching reactions
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Inorganic Chemistry. - : The American Chemical Society (ACS). - 0020-1669 .- 1520-510X. ; 41:6, s. 1534-1544
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Continuing our work toward a system mimicking the electron-transfer steps from manganese to P-680(+) in photosystem II (PS II), we report a series of ruthenium(II)-manganese(II) complexes that display intramolecular electron transfer from manganese(II) to photooxidized ruthenium(III). The electron-transfer rate constant (k(ET)) values span a large range, 1 X 10(5)-2 x 10(7) s(-1), and we have investigated different factors that are responsible for the variation. The reorganization energies determined experimentally (lambda = 1.5-2.0 eV) are larger than expected for solvent reorganization in complexes of similar size in polar solvents (typically lambda approximate to 1.0 eV). This result indicates that the inner reorganization energy is relatively large and, consequently, that at moderate driving force values manganese complexes are not fast donors. Both the type of manganese ligand and the link between the two metals are shown to be of great importance to the electron-transfer rate. In contrast, we show that the quenching of the excited state of the ruthenium(II) moiety by manganese(II) in this series of complexes mainly depends on the distance between the metals. However, by synthetically modifying the sensitizer so that the lowest metal-to-ligand charge transfer state was localized on the nonbridging ruthenium(II) ligands, we could reduce the quenching rate constant in one complex by a factor of 700 without changing the bridging ligand. Still, the manganese(II)-ruthenium (III) electrontransfer rate constant was not reduced. Consequently, the modification resulted in a complex with very favorable properties.
  • Berg, K. E., et al. (författare)
  • Covalently linked ruthenium(II)-manganese(II) complexes : Distance dependence of quenching and electron transfer
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry. - 1434-1948 .- 1099-1948. ; :4, s. 1019-1029
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Continuing our development of artificial models for photosystem II in green plants, a series of compounds have been prepared in which a RU(bpy)(3)(2+) photosensitizer is covalently Linked to a manganese(II) electron donor. In addition to a trispicolylamine Ligand, two other manganese Ligands, dipicolylamine and aminodiacetic acid, have been introduced in order to study Ligands that are appropriate for the construction of manganese dimers with open coordination sites for the binding of water. Coordination equilibria of the manganese ions were monitored by EPR. The interactions between the ruthenium and manganese moieties were probed by flash photolysis, cyclic voltammetry and steady-state and time-resolved emission measurements. The quenching of the Ru-II excited state by Mn-II was found to be rapid in complexes with short Ru-Mn distances. Nevertheless, each Run species could be photo-oxidized by bimolecular quenching with methylviologen, and the subsequent electron transfer from Mn-II to Ru-III could be monitored.
  • Borgström, Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • Light induced manganese oxidation and long-lived charge separation in a Mn2II,II-RuII(bpy)3-acceptor triad
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Chemical Society. - 0002-7863 .- 1520-5126. ; 127:49, s. 17504-17515
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The photoinduced electron-transfer reactions in a Mn2II,II-RuII-NDI triad (1) ([Mn2(bpmp)(OAc)2]+, bpmp = 2,6-bis[bis(2-pyridylmethyl)aminomethyl]-4-methylphenolate and OAc = acetate, RuII = tris-bipyridine ruthenium(II), and NDI = naphthalenediimide) have been studied by time-resolved optical and EPR spectroscopy. Complex 1 is the first synthetically linked electron donor-sensitizer-acceptor triad in which a manganese complex plays the role of the donor. EPR spectroscopy was used to directly demonstrate the light induced formation of both products: the oxidized manganese dimer complex (Mn2II,III) and the reduced naphthalenediimide (NDI*-) acceptor moieties, while optical spectroscopy was used to follow the kinetic evolution of the [Ru(bpy)3]2+ intermediate states and the NDI*- radical in a wide temperature range. The average lifetime of the NDI*- radical is ca. 600 micros at room temperature, which is at least 2 orders of magnitude longer than that for previously reported triads based on a [Ru(bpy)3]2+ photosensitizer. At 140 K, this intramolecular recombination was dramatically slowed, displaying a lifetime of 0.1-1 s, which is comparable to many of the naturally occurring charge-separated states in photosynthetic reaction centra. It was found that the long recombination lifetime could be explained by an unusually large reorganization energy (lambda approximately 2.0 eV), due to a large inner reorganization of the manganese complex. This makes the recombination reaction strongly activated despite the large driving force (Delta-G degrees = 1.07 eV). Thus, the intrinsic properties of the manganese complex are favorable for creating a long-lived charge separation in the "Marcus normal region" also when the charge separated state energy is high.
  • Chábera, Pavel, et al. (författare)
  • A low-spin Fe(iii) complex with 100-ps ligand-to-metal charge transfer photoluminescence
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 543:7647, s. 695-699
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Transition-metal complexes are used as photosensitizers1, in light-emitting diodes, for biosensing and in photocatalysis2. A key feature in these applications is excitation from the ground state to a charge-transfer state3,4; the long charge-transfer-state lifetimes typical for complexes of ruthenium5 and other precious metals are often essential to ensure high performance. There is much interest in replacing these scarce elements with Earth-abundant metals, with iron6 and copper7 being particularly attractive owing to their low cost and non-toxicity. But despite the exploration of innovative molecular designs6,8,9,10, it remains a formidable scientific challenge11 to access Earth-abundant transition-metal complexes with long-lived charge-transfer excited states. No known iron complexes are considered12 photoluminescent at room temperature, and their rapid excited-state deactivation precludes their use as photosensitizers13,14,15. Here we present the iron complex [Fe(btz)3]3+ (where btz is 3,3′-dimethyl-1,1′-bis(p-tolyl)-4,4′-bis(1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidene)), and show that the superior σ-donor and π-acceptor electron properties of the ligand stabilize the excited state sufficiently to realize a long charge-transfer lifetime of 100 picoseconds (ps) and room-temperature photoluminescence. This species is a low-spin Fe(iii) d5 complex, and emission occurs from a long-lived doublet ligand-to-metal charge-transfer (2LMCT) state that is rarely seen for transition-metal complexes4,16,17. The absence of intersystem crossing, which often gives rise to large excited-state energy losses in transition-metal complexes, enables the observation of spin-allowed emission directly to the ground state and could be exploited as an increased driving force in photochemical reactions on surfaces. These findings suggest that appropriate design strategies can deliver new iron-based materials for use as light emitters and photosensitizers.
  • Daniel, Quentin, et al. (författare)
  • Rearranging from 6-to 7-coordination initiates the catalytic activity : An EPR study on a Ru-bda water oxidation catalyst
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Coordination chemistry reviews. - : Elsevier. - 0010-8545 .- 1873-3840. ; 346, s. 206-215
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The coordination of a substrate water molecule on a metal centered catalyst for water oxidation is a crucial step involving the reorganization of the ligand sphere. This process can occur by substituting a coordinated ligand with a water molecule or via a direct coordination of water onto an open site. In 2009, we reported an efficient ruthenium-based molecular catalyst, Ru-bda, for water oxidation. Despite the impressive improvement in catalytic activity of this type of catalyst over the past years, a lack of understanding of the water coordination still remains. Herein, we report our EPR and DFT studies on Ru-bda (triethylammonium 3-pyridine sulfonate)(2) (1) at its Ru-III oxidation state, which is the initial state in the catalytic cycle for the O-O bond formation. Our investigation suggests that at this III-state, there is already a rearrangement in the ligand sphere where the coordination of a water molecule at the 7th position (open site) takes place under acidic conditions (pH = 1.0) to form a rare 7-coordinated Ru-III species.
  • Ghanem, R., et al. (författare)
  • Light-driven tyrosine radical formation in a ruthenium-tyrosine complex attached to nanoparticle TiO2
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Inorganic Chemistry. - : The American Chemical Society (ACS). - 0020-1669 .- 1520-510X. ; 41:24, s. 6258-6266
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We demonstrate a possibility of multistep electron transfer in a supramolecular complex adsorbed on the surface of nanocrystalline TiO2. The complex mimics the function of the tyrosinez and chlorophyll unit P-680 in natural photosystem II (PSII). A ruthenium(II) tris(bipyridyl) complex covalently linked to a L-tyrosine ethyl ester through an amide bond was attached to the surface of nanocrystalline TiO2 via carboxylic acid groups linked to the bpy ligands. Synthesis and characterization of this complex are described. Excitation (450 nm) of the complex promotes an electron to a metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) excited state, from which the electron is injected into TiO2. The photogeneration of Ru(III) is followed by an intramolecular electron transfer from tyrosine to Ru(III), regenerating the photosensitizer Ru(II) and forming the tyrosyl radical. The tyrosyl radical is formed in less than 5 us with a yield of 15%. This rather low yield is a result of a fast back electron transfer reaction from the nanocrystalline TiO2 to the photogenerated Ru(III).
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