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Sökning: WFRF:(Sund Levander Märtha 1954 )

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1.
  • Hellqvist, Carina, 1976-, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of self-management education for persons with Parkinson's disease and their care partners : A qualitative observational study in clinical care
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nursing and Health Sciences. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1441-0745 .- 1442-2018.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Persons with Parkinson's disease and their care partners want support from healthcare to develop the skills to handle everyday life with disease. Earlier findings indicate that participants of the self‐management program Swedish National Parkinson School experience several benefits of the program. The purpose of this qualitative observational study was to explore if participants had implemented the strategies of self‐monitoring included in the program, and use them to communicate health care status and needs in clinical encounters. Data was collected 3–15 months after participation in the program and analysed using constant comparative analysis. Three categories were evident: “Self‐observation in everyday life”, “Self‐care activities to promote health” and “Managing emotional impact of Parkinson's Disease”. Categories were linked together in a core category that highlight the use of self‐management strategies described by participants during clinical encounters. Results confirmed that persons with Parkinson's disease and care partners use the techniques of self‐observation in their everyday lives. Observations of effects in clinical care can be a valuable approach to evaluate the outcomes educational interventions and their benefits for individuals and health care.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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2.
  • Sund-Levander, M, et al. (författare)
  • Normal oral, rectal, tympanic and axillary body temperature in adult men and women : a systematic literature review
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences. - 0283-9318 .- 1471-6712. ; 16:2, s. 122-128
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of this study was to investigate normal body temperature in adult men and women. A systematic review of data was performed. Searches were carried out in MEDLINE, CINAHL, and manually from identified articles reference lists. Studies from 1935 to 1999 were included. Articles were classified as (1) strong, (2) fairly strong and (3) weak evidence. When summarizing studies with strong or fairly strong evidence the range for oral temperature was 33.2-38.2 degreesC, rectal: 34.4-37.8 degreesC, tympanic: 35.4-37.8 degreesC and axillary: 35.5-37.0 degreesC. The range in oral temperature for men and women, respectively, was 35.7-37.7 and 33.2-38.1 degreesC, in rectal 36.7-37.5 and 36.8-37.1 degreesC, and in tympanic 35.5-37.5 and 35.7-37.5 degreesC. The ranges of normal body temperature need to be adjusted, especially for the lower values. When assessing body temperature it is important to take place of measurement and gender into consideration. Studies with random samples are needed to confirm the range of normal body temperature with respect to gender and age.
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3.
  • Carey, N, et al. (författare)
  • Exploring views and experiences of how infections are detected and managed in practice by nurse's, care workers and manager's in nursing homes in England and Sweden : a survey protocol
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 2044-6055 .- 2044-6055. ; 10, s. 1-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction In order to avoid unnecessary hospital admission and associated complications, there is an urgent need to improve the early detection of infection in nursing home residents. Monitoring signs and symptoms with checklists or aids called decision support tools may help nursing home staff to detect infection in residents, particularly during the current COVID-19 pandemic.We plan to conduct a survey exploring views and experiences of how infections are detected and managed in practice by nurses, care workers and managers in nursing homes in England and Sweden.Methods and analysis An international cross-sectional descriptive survey, using a pretested questionnaire, will be used to explore nurses, care workers and managers views and experiences of how infections are detected and managed in practice in nursing homes. Data will be analysed descriptively and univariate associations between personal and organisational factors explored. This will help identify important factors related to awareness, knowledge, attitudes, belief and skills likely to affect future implementation of a decision support tool for the early detection of infection in nursing home residents.Ethics and dissemination This study was approved using the self-certification process at the University of Surrey and Linköping University ethics committee (Approval 2018/514-32) in 2018. Study findings will be disseminated through community/stakeholder/service user engagement events in each country, publication in academic peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations. A LAY summary will be provided to participants who indicate they would like to receive this information.This is the first stage of a plan of work to revise and evaluate the Early Detection of Infection Scale (EDIS) tool and its effect on managing infections and reducing unplanned hospital admissions in nursing home residents. Implementation of the EDIS tool may have important implications for the healthcare economy; this will be explored in cost–benefit analyses as the work progresses.
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4.
  • Edvardsson, Maria, 1972- (författare)
  • Circulating levels and assessment of clinical laboratory analytes, in >80-year-old, apparently healthy, moderately healthy, and frail individuals
  • 2019
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Blood samples are often used to investigate the possible presence of disease and to make treatment decisions. In the interpretation of the results, comparison either with previous values from the same individual or with a set of appropriate group-based reference intervals are used. Current reference intervals for common laboratory analytes are often based on measurements from apparently healthy persons aged 18–65 years. Age is accompanied by a general decline in organ functions and it is difficult to determine whether a change in levels of laboratory analytes in an elderly individual can be attributed to age alone, independent of environmental or disease processes. Frailty can be seen as a consequence of age-related multifactorial deterioration – physical, cognitive and sensory – resulting in vulnerability and lack of adaptability to internal stressors such as infection or new medication and/or external stressors such as fall at home. Consensus about the definition of “frail” and “frailty” is missing, both nationally and internationally, the question arises whether different definitions of “frailty” affect the interpretation of analytes when comparing different groups of elderly.The overarching aim of the thesis was to interpret and assess circulating levels of some clinical laboratory analytes in relation to conventional reference values in ≥80-year-old, “apparently healthy”, “moderately healthy”, and “frail” individuals. Data originated from other studies, in which blood samples were collected from individuals ≥80-year-old. Comparisons in Paper I of levels of some laboratory analytes, from 138 nursing home residents (NHRs), was made with blood from reference populations, both blood donor and the NORIP study. The results indicated differences for some immunological (complement factor 3 and 4, immunoglobulin G and M) and chemical analytes (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), phosphate, albumin, sodium, creatinine and urea), but no differences in levels occurred for aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT) or lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). It was unclear whether the differences were due to differences in age between the elderly and the reference populations or whether the elderly individuals had chronic diseases and were on medication. In Paper II, 569 individuals elderly individuals ≥80 years old were classified as “healthy”, “moderately healthy”, and “frail”, based on diseases, medications and physical and cognitive abilities. Statistical differences between the groups were found for the investigated analytes; albumin, ALT, AST, creatinine and γ-GT. In Paper IV, individuals from Paper II (n=569) were divided into two groups and thereafter divided into “apparently healthy”, “moderately healthy”, and “frail”. One group was subdivided into “apparently healthy”, “moderately healthy” and “frail” based on physical and cognitive abilities and the other group was divided based on the frailty index (FI). There was no statistical difference found between “apparently healthy” and “moderately healthy" groups, regardless of classification model used. Among “frail” individuals, differences in levels occurred for three out of the five investigated analytes: ALT, creatinine and g-GT, with lower levels occurring when the FI classification model was used. No differences in levels occurred for albumin or AST in “frail” individuals, regardless of classification model used. The aim of Paper III was to study whether 1-year changes in complete blood count (CBC) (including haemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell (RBC), erythrocyte volume fraction (EVF), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular Hb concentration (MCHC), white blood cell (WBC) and platelet count (PLT)), C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 are associated with survival in elderly NHRs aged >80 years. Elevated levels of CRP and IL-8 during 1-year follow-up were associated with reduced length of survival in elderly NHRs. Based on the present thesis it is clear that there is need for reference intervals that consider both age and health status in elderly individuals. A reasonable conclusion when interpreting levels of analytes in elderly individuals with disease or frailty is that individual evaluation based on the individual’s previous levels, is recommended.
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5.
  • Edvardsson, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Differences in levels of albumin, ALT, AST, gamma-GT and creatinine in frail, moderately healthy and healthy elderly individuals
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. - : WALTER DE GRUYTER GMBH. - 1434-6621 .- 1437-4331. ; 56:3, s. 471-478
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Reference intervals are widely used as decision tools, providing the physician with information about whether the analyte values indicate ongoing disease process. Reference intervals are generally based on individuals without diagnosed diseases or use of medication, which often excludes elderly. The aim of the study was to assess levels of albumin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine and gamma-glutamyl transferase (gamma-GT) in frail, moderately healthy and healthy elderly indivuduals. Methods: Blood samples were collected from individuals amp;gt; 80 years old, nursing home residents, in the Elderly in Linkoping Screening Assessment and Nordic Reference Interval Project, a total of 569 individuals. They were divided into three cohorts: frail, moderately healthy and healthy, depending on cognitive and physical function. Albumin, ALT, AST, creatinine and gamma-GT were analyzed using routine methods. Results: Linear regression predicted factors for 34% of the variance in albumin were activities of daily living (ADL), gender, stroke and cancer. ADLs, gender and weight explained 15% of changes in ALT. For AST levels, ADLs, cancer and analgesics explained 5% of changes. Kidney disease, gender, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease explained 25% of the variation in creatinine levels and MMSE explained three per cent of gamma-GT variation. Conclusions: Because a group of people are at the same age, they should not be assessed the same way. To interpret results of laboratory tests in elderly is a complex task, where reference intervals are one part, but far from the only one, to take into consideration.
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6.
  • Hellqvist, Carina, 1976- (författare)
  • Self-management support to handle everyday life with Parkinson´s disease
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Being diagnosed with Parkinson´s disease (PD) is a life-altering experience. The long-term condition requires continuous adjustments to the everyday life not only of the person affected, but also for care partners. There is still insufficient knowledge on how best to support this process of acceptance and adjustment to encourage self-management.Aims: The aim of this thesis is to enhance the knowledge and understanding of self-management for persons with PD (PwPD) and their care partners. Furthermore, to investigate whether the self-management intervention Swedish National Parkinson School can be used as a tool to support self-management, and how nurses specialised in the care of persons with Parkinson´s disease can tailor their support to encourage self-management in everyday life. Method and design: Both qualitative and quantitative designs and methods were used in the three studies included in this thesis. Participants included a total of 209 persons. Of these, 127 were persons with PD and 75 were care partners. Participants with PD were largely in the middle stages of the disease. The time since diagnosis ranged from less than one year to over 20 years, and most participants had lived with the disease for around five years. Participants were cared for at five separate outpatient clinics, both geriatric and neurological, in three county and two university hospitals across Sweden. Data collection included observations, interviews, self-reported questionnaires and audio-recordings of the National Parkinson School in clinical care. The overall results of this thesis were obtained using a qualitative approach, where the results of the three studies were analysed using qualitative thematic analysis as described by Braun and Clarke (2006).Results: In combining the results of the separate studies through thematic analysis three distinct but interrelated themes were evident. These described the processes and efforts of persons to accept, manage and adjust to everyday life with PD. The theme “A changed reality” involves participants´ descriptions of how life changed after the diagnosis of PD. For many this was a shock, and both the person affected and their care partners experienced a variety of emotions such as anger, denial and hopelessness. It changed their personal identities, their perception of themselves as individuals and as a couple. They worried about what the future would hold, and the uncertainty was hard to accept and handle. One strategy for processing and beginning to acknowledge the new situation involved speaking openly about the diagnosis. The second theme “Finding a new path”, involves a description of how, after accepting or at least acknowledging, their new reality, participants started to find ways of managing the impact of PD on everyday life, incorporating it into their current life and identity. Many felt new knowledge was needed and turned to books and websites on PD. An intervention which was appreciated in terms of providing tools for self-observation and self-knowledge was the Swedish National Parkinson School. Participants later used these techniques to communicate and observe symptoms and healthcare needs. Being an active participant in life and performing activities such as physical exercise or other activities they enjoyed were also used as a strategy to feel satisfaction in life. Participants frequently worked out self-care and compensatory strategies to handle everyday tasks. Another strategy they found comforting and helpful involved retaining a positive mind-set and believing that a good future lay ahead. In the third category “The companions”, the participants described self-management in everyday life as a task they performed together. Management of PD was considered the shared responsibility of the person affected and the care partner, but was also influenced by others such as family members and close friends. The Swedish National Parkinson School provided knowledge as a form of common ground for the person affected and the care partner. During the Swedish National Parkinson School, the social interaction involved in exchanging experiences and feeling support from others in the same situation was considered helpful and was much appreciated.Conclusions: Management of PD in everyday life involves both the person affected and the care partner. After the initial emotional reactions, alongside feelings of lost identity and an altered life, persons started to look to the future and were ready to find ways of handling the changed conditions of their everyday lives. Persons with PD and their care partners were now willing to learn more about PD and to find tools and strategies to help them manage its impact on their everyday lives. During this phase, they appreciated the support of the Swedish National Parkinson School intervention. In the intervention, they would meet others in the same situation to find support and exchange experiences. They also turn to healthcare for support in the process of self-management in everyday life. Nurses working specifically to support PwPD and their CP will need to tailor support taking into account the disease trajectory as well as the psychological processes involved in accepting and adjusting to PD to best fit the unique needs and wishes of every person with PD and their care partner.
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8.
  • Sund-Levander, Märtha, 1954- (författare)
  • Measurement and evaluation of body temperature : Implications for clinical practice
  • 2004
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The general aim was to explore factors influencing the normal variation and measurement of body temperature. Additional aims were to study morbidity, mortality and the clinical presentation of pneumonia and predictors for survival in elderly nursing-home residents. Two hundred and thirty seven non-febrile nursing home residents (aged 66-99 years) and 87 healthy adults (aged 19-59 years) were included. In elderly individuals, the morning ear and rectal body temperature was measured at baseline and pneumonia and survival was observed at one- two and three-year. In healthy adults the rectal, ear, oral and axillary temperature were measured simultaneously on one morning and repeated measurements were performed in three subjects.Overall, the range of normal body temperature was wider then traditionally stated. In elderly nursinghome residents, functional and cognitive impairment and BMI < 20 were related to a lower body temperature and medication with analgesics to a higher. Compared to adults < 60 years elderly persons had a higher average ear and a lower rectal temperature. Men and postmenopausal women < 60 years had lower body temperature than premenopausal women. The repeated measurements showed a wide individual variability irrespective of the site of measurement, and that replicated measurements do not improve accuracy. When comparing the rectal temperature with oral, ear and axillary readings the average difference was > 0.5°C with a wide individual variation.The yearly incidence of nursing-home acquired pneumonia varied between 6.9% and 13.7%. Functional impairment, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and male sex were related to a higher risk of acquiring pneumonia and presenting non-specific symptoms were common. Age and functional impairment predicted mortality, irrespective of gender, while cerebral vascular insult, a lower body mass index and malnutrition in women and heart disease, COPD, medication with sedatives and mortality rate index in men were gender specific predictors. Surviving women had a higher baseline body temperature than non-surviving, while no such difference was found in men.When assessing body temperature, it is important to consider the site of measurement, technical design, operator technique, age and gender and, in elderly nursing-home residents, physical and cognitive impairment, body constitution and medication with analgesics. The best approach is to use an unadjusted mode, without adjusting to another site. To prevent a delayed diagnosis of pneumonia, one should be aware of a low baseline body temperature and lack of specific clinical symptoms in elderly nursing-home residents. Preserving and/or improving functional, cognitive, nutritional status and preventing agitation and confusion would improve survival in nursing-home residents.
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