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Sökning: WFRF:(Sundelin G.)

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  • Helgesson, Gert, et al. (författare)
  • Ethical aspects of diagnosis and interventions for children with fetal alcohol Spectrum disorder (FASD) and their families
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: ; 19
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is an umbrella term covering several conditions for which alcohol consumption during pregnancy is taken to play a causal role. The benefit of individuals being identified with a condition within FASD remains controversial. The objective of the present study was to identify ethical aspects and consequences of diagnostics, interventions, and family support in relation to FASD.Methods: Ethical aspects relating to diagnostics, interventions, and family support regarding FASD were compiled and discussed, drawing on a series of discussions with experts in the field, published literature, and medical ethicists.Results: Several advantages and disadvantages in regards of obtaining a diagnosis or description of the condition were identified. For instance, it provides an explanation and potential preparedness for not yet encountered difficulties, which may play an essential role in acquiring much needed help and support from health care, school, and the socia ! services. There are no interventions specifically evaluated for FASD conditions, but training programs and family support for conditions with symptoms overlapping with FASD, e.g. ADHD, autism, and intellectual disability, are likely to be relevant. Stigmatization, blame, and guilt are potential downsides. There might also be unfortunate prioritization if individuals with equal needs are treated differently depending on whether or not they meet the criteria for a specific condition. Conclusions: The value for the concerned individuals of obtaining a FASD-related description of their condition - for instance, in terms of wellbeing - is not established. Nor is it established that allocating resources based, on whether individuals fulfil FASD-related criteria is justified, compared to allocations directed to the most prominent specific needs.
  • Sundelin, Håkan, et al. (författare)
  • The maturity of electric road systems
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: 2016 International Conference on Electrical Systems for Aircraft, Railway, Ship Propulsion and Road Vehicles & International Transportation Electrification Conference (ESARS-ITEC). - : Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.. - 9781509008148
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Electric Road System (ERS) is a technology concept that has the potential to heavily reduce fossil fuel dependency. ERS is defined by dynamic power transfer from the road to the vehicle while the vehicle is in motion and could be achieved through different power transfer technologies from the road to the vehicle such as rail, overhead-line, and wireless solutions. The investment cost to implement ERS will be high and decision makers will require knowledge about how mature different solutions are compared to the conventional and alternative technologies. However, while there are numerous ERS development and demonstration projects globally, it is unclear which technological solution that is best suited for large scale implementation. Drawing on the method associated with Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs), this article evaluates the maturity level of the different ERS technologies and focuses on the power transfer technology subsystem. Thereby it contributes to discourse on sustainable transportation and the development of ERS.
  • Axelsson, John, et al. (författare)
  • Sleepiness as motivation : a potential mechanism for how sleep deprivation affects behavior
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Sleep. - 0161-8105 .- 1550-9109. ; 43:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine how sleepiness and sleep deprivation drive the motivation to engage in different behaviors.METHODS: We studied the sleepiness of 123 participants who had been randomized to sleep deprivation or normal sleep, and their willingness to engage in a range of everyday behaviors.RESULTS: Self-reported sleepiness was a strong predictor of the motivation to engage in sleep-preparatory behaviors such as shutting one's eyes (OR=2.78, 95%CI: 2.19-3.52 for each step up on the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale) and resting (OR=3.20, CI: 2.46-4.16). Sleepiness was also related to the desire to be cared for by a loved one (OR=1.49, CI: 1.22-1.82), and preparedness to utilize monetary and energy resources to get to sleep. Conversely, increased sleepiness was associated with a decreased motivation for social and physical activities (e.g., be with friends OR=0.71, CI: 0.61-0.82; exercise OR=0.65, CI: 0.56-0.76). Sleep deprivation had similar effects as sleepiness on these behaviors. Neither sleepiness nor sleep deprivation had strong associations with hunger, thirst, or food preferences.CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that sleepiness is a dynamic motivational drive that promotes sleep-preparatory behaviors and competes with other drives and desired outcomes. Consequently, sleepiness may be a central mechanism by which impaired alertness, e.g., due to insufficient sleep, contributes to poor quality of life and adverse health. We propose that sleepiness helps organize behaviors toward the specific goal of assuring sufficient sleep, in competition with other needs and incentives. A theoretical framework on sleepiness and its behavioral consequences are likely to improve our understanding of several disease mechanisms.
  • Comasco, Erika, et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol Consumption Among Pregnant Women in a Swedish Sample and Its Effects on the Newborn Outcomes
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Alcoholism. - 0145-6008 .- 1530-0277. ; 36:10, s. 1779-1786
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Little is known about the effects of low levels of maternal alcohol intake on the neuropsychological development of the child. This study is part of an ongoing investigation on maternal drinking and presents data on demographic variables, maternal alcohol use, and birth outcomes from that study. Methods The sample comprised 2,264 women from a Swedish antenatal clinic. Retrospective self-report data were collected on alcohol consumption before and during pregnancy, using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and on nicotine use. Specific alcohol biomarkers for excessive drinking, carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) in serum and phosphatidylethanol (PEth) in whole blood, were determined during mid-pregnancy in a subsample of the women. Data on labor and early characteristics of the child were also assessed. Results Before pregnancy, 89% of the women regularly consumed alcohol and 49% reported occasional or frequent binge drinking. Nicotine was used by 15% before and by 5% during pregnancy. During pregnancy, 12% continued using alcohol and 5% also admitted binge drinking. However, all alcohol biomarker values were below the reporting limits (CDT = 1.7% disialotransferrin; total PEth < 0.1 mu mol/L). Self-reported drinking during pregnancy was associated with a higher AUDIT score before pregnancy, nicotine use at the time of the first prenatal visit, older age, and previous legal abortions. Conclusions The AUDIT questionnaire and 2 specific alcohol biomarkers were used in routine maternity care to collect information about drinking during pregnancy and thereby to identify children at risk for alcohol-related complications. While the AUDIT results suggested that a significant number of women continued using alcohol during pregnancy, implying a risk for fetal disorders, the biomarkers showed negative test values thus indicating only modest drinking levels.
  • Emmoth, Birger, et al. (författare)
  • In-situ measurements of carbon and deuterium deposition using the fast reciprocating probe in TEXTOR
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Nuclear Materials. - 0022-3115 .- 1873-4820. ; 390-91, s. 179-182
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Silicon samples were exposed in the scrape-off layer of the TEXTOR plasma using a fast reciprocating probe, with the aim of studying carbon deposition and deuterium retention during Dynamic Ergodic Divertor (DED) operation. Separate samples were exposed for 300 ms at the flat-top phase of neutral beam heated discharges. The exposure conditions were varied on a shot-to-shot basis by external magnetic perturbations generated by the DED in the m/n = 3/1, DC regime, base configuration. Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) was used to characterise collector sample surfaces after their exposure. Enhanced concentrations of both carbon and deuterium (C 3-10 x 10(16) at./cm(2), D 8-60 x 10(15) at./cm(2)) were found. The D/C ratio was less than unity which indicates that most of the carbon and deuterium were co-deposited. Carbon e-folding lengths of about 2 cm were found on both toroidal sides of the probe independent of DED perturbations.
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