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1.
  • Kadi, F, et al. (författare)
  • The effects of different training programs on the trapezius muscle of women with work-related neck and shoulder myalgia
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Acta Neuropathologica. - Berlin : Springer-Verlag New York. - 0001-6322 .- 1432-0533. ; 100:3, s. 253-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to examine the effects of training on the structural characteristics of the trapezius muscle in women with work-related trapezius myalgia. Muscle biopsies were taken before and after 10 weeks of three different training programs (strength, endurance and coordination). Enzyme-immunohistochemical analysis was performed to assess muscle fibre types, fibre area, capillary supply and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity. There was an increase in the proportion of type IIA fibres in strength trained group (P < 0.05). Strength training elicited a preferential increase in the area of type II fibres (P < 0.05); both strength and endurance programs induced an increase in the number of capillaries around type I and IIA muscle fibres. Finally, all training programs induced a decrease in the proportion of COX-negative fibres. In conclusion, the trapezius muscle of women with neck and shoulder myalgia is characterised by a great potential of adaptation to physical exercise over a period of 10 weeks. The significant changes in the number of capillaries and the specific changes induced by training at the level of muscle fibres might well explain the improvement of muscle function.
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2.
  • Näslund, Annika, et al. (författare)
  • Reach performance and postural adjustments during standing in children with severe spastic diplegia using dynamic ankle-foot orthoses
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine. - 1650-1977 .- 1651-2081. ; 39:9, s. 715-23
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the co-ordination between reaching, ground reaction forces and muscle activity in standing children with severe spastic diplegia wearing dynamic ankle-foot orthoses compared with typically developing children. DESIGN: Clinical experimental study. SUBJECTS: Six children with spastic diplegia (Gross Motor Function Classification System level III-IV) and 6 controls. METHODS: Ground reaction forces (AMTI force plates), ankle muscle activity (electromyography and displacement of the hand (ELITE systems) were investigated while reaching for an object. RESULTS: For the children with severe spastic diplegia who were wearing dynamic ankle-foot orthoses, co-ordination between upward and forward reach velocity differed regarding the temporal sequencing and amplitude of velocity peaks. During reaching, these children lacked interplay of pushing force beneath the reach leg and braking force beneath the non-reach leg and co-ordinated ankle muscle activity, compared with controls. CONCLUSION: The results suggest differences in reach performance and postural adjustments for balance control during a reaching movement in standing between children with spastic diplegia Gross Motor Function Classification System level III-IV, wearing dynamic ankle-foot orthoses compared with typically developing children.
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3.
  • Ahlgren, Christina, et al. (författare)
  • Effects on physical performance and pain from three dynamic training programs for women with work-related trapezius myalgia
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine. - : Taylor & Francis. - 1650-1977 .- 1651-2081. ; 33:4, s. 162-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To compare training programs for women with trapezius myalgia regarding physical performance and pain, 102 women were randomized to strength, endurance, co-ordination and non-training groups. Before and after the intervention, static strength and dynamic muscular endurance in shoulder muscles were measured on a Cybex II dynamometer. Muscle activity in shoulder muscles was monitored via surface EMG. The signal amplitude ratio between the active and passive phase of repeated contractions indicated the ability to relax. Pain at present, pain in general and pain at worst were measured on visual analogue scales. After training, within group comparisons showed that the training groups rated less pain, and in the strength training group ratings of pain at worst differed from the non-training group. Using the non-training group as a reference, static strength increased in the strength and endurance training groups and muscular endurance in all training groups. The study indicates that regular exercises with strength, endurance or co-ordination training of neck/shoulder muscles might alleviate pain for women with work-related trapezius myalgia.
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4.
  • Arnadottir, Solveig, 1968- (författare)
  • Physical activity, participation and self-rated health among older community-dwelling Icelanders : a population-based study
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: The main objective of this study was to investigate older people’s physical activity, their participation in various life situations, and their perceptions of their own health. This included an exploration of potential influences of urban versus rural residency on these outcomes, an evaluation of the measurement properties of a balance confidence scale, and an examination of the proposed usefulness of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a conceptual framework to facilitate analysis and understanding of selected outcomes.Methods: The study design was cross-sectional, population-based, with random selection from the national register of one urban and two rural municipalities in Northern Iceland. There were 186 participants, all community-dwelling, aged 65 to 88 years (mean = 73.8), and 48% of the group were women. The participation rate was 79%. Data was collected in 2004, in face-to-face interviews and through various standardized assessments. The main outcomes were total physical activity; leisure-time, household, and work-related physical activity; participation frequency and perceived participation restrictions; and self-rated health. Other assessments represented aspects of the ICF body functions, activities, environmental factors and personal factors. Moreover, Rasch analysis methods were applied to examine and modify the Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale and the ICF used as a conceptual framework throughout the study.Results: The total physical activity score was the same for urban and rural people and the largest proportion of the total physical activity behavior was derived from the household domain. Rural females received the highest scores of all in household physical activity and rural males were more physically active than the others in the work-related domain. However, leisure-time physical activity was more common in urban than rural communities. A physically active lifestyle, urban living, a higher level of cognition, younger age, and fewer depressive symptoms were all associated with more frequent participation. Rural living and depressive symptoms were associated with perceived participation restrictions. Moreover, perceived participation restrictions were associated with not being employed and limitations in advanced lower extremity capacity. Both fewer depressive symptoms and advanced lower extremity capacity also increased the likelihood of better self-rated health, as did capacity in upper extremities, older age, and household physical activity. Rasch rating scale analysis indicated a need to modify the ABC to improve its psychometric properties. The modified ABC was then used to measure balance confidence which, however, was found not to play a major role in explaining participation or self-rated health. Finally, the ICF was useful as a conceptual framework for mapping various components of functioning and health and to facilitate analyses of their relationships.Conclusions: The results highlighted the commonalities and differences in factors associated with participation frequency, perceived participation restrictions, and self-rated health in old age. Some of these factors, such as advanced lower extremity capacity, depressive symptoms, and physical activity pattern should be of particular interest for geriatric physical therapy due to their potential for interventions. While the associations between depressive symptoms, participation, and self-rated health are well known, research is needed on the effects of advanced lower extremity capacity on participation and self-rated health in old age. The environment (urban versus rural) also presented itself as an important contextual variable to be aware of when working with older people’s participation and physically active life-style. Greater emphasis should be placed on using Rasch measurement methods for improving the availability of quality scientific measures to evaluate various aspects of functioning and health among older adults. Finally, a coordinated implementation of a conceptual framework such as ICF may further advance interdisciplinary and international studies on aging, functioning, and health.
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5.
  • Björklund, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Minska värken : Åtgärder mot värk i nacke och rygg
  • 2010
  • Rapport (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • Denna skrift vänder sig till dig som har ständig värk i rygg eller nacke, eller som vid flera tillfällen haft en diffus smärta i rygg eller nacke. Här kan du läsa om vilka åtgärder forskare rekommenderar och vad du själv kan göra för att minska värken. Forskningen om vilka åtgärder som hjälper har gjort framsteg och även för dig som haft långvarig värk finns det goda möjligheter att minska smärtan.
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6.
  • Blomqvist, Sven, 1964-, et al. (författare)
  • Physical exercise frequency seem not to influence postural balance but trunk muscle endurance in young persons with intellectual disability
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physical Education and Sports Management. - : American Research Institute for Policy Development. - 2373-2156 .- 2373-2164. ; 4:2, s. 38-47
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The influence of various physical exercise frequencies on postural balance and muscle performance among young persons with intellectual disability (ID) is not well understood.Method Cross-sectional data from 26 elite athletes were compared with 37 students at a sports school and to 57 students at a special school, all diagnosed with mild to moderate ID and with different exercise frequencies. Data were also compared with a group of 149 age-matched participants without ID.Results There were no significant differences in postural balance between young ID groups regardless of physical exercise frequency, all of them had however impaired postural balance compared to the non-ID group. The group with high exercise performed better than the other ID groups in the trunk muscle endurance test.Conclusions It appears as if physical exercise frequency don’t improve postural balance but endurance in the trunk muscles for young persons with ID.
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7.
  • Blomqvist, Sven (författare)
  • Postural balance, physical activity and capacity among young people with intellectual disability
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate postural balance, physical activity, physical capacity and their associations in young people (16-20 years) with intellectual disability (ID), mild to moderate. The aim was also to study the reliability and concurrent validity of postural balance tests.To evaluate postural balance, one assessor used five common postural balance tests and one new test. The tests were performed twice for 89 young people with ID (one to twelve days apart). Intraclass correlation coefficients greater than 0.80 were achieved for four of the common balance tests: Extended Timed Up and Go Test (ETUGT), Modified Forward Reach Test (MFRT), One-Leg Stance Test (OLS), and a Force Platform Test (FPT). The smallest real difference ranged from 12% to 40%; less than 20% is considered to be low. For the six balance tests, the concurrent validity varied between none to low.Falls are more common for young people with ID compared to young people without ID. One reason could be impaired postural balance. The postural balance for young people with ID has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, five balance tests and three muscle strength tests were used to compare young people with ID with an age-matched control group without ID (n=255). The young people with ID had significantly lower scores on most of the postural balance tests and muscle strength tests of the trunk and lower limbs. Muscle strength, height, and body mass index had no strong association with postural balance. The results also illustrated that young people with ID did not rely more on vision for their balance ability compared to peers without ID.It seems that postural balance is impaired for young people with ID when evaluated with common tests. An everyday situation is to react to unexpected balance disturbances to avoid falls by using different postural responses. Since young people with ID seem to fall more often than peers without ID, it is valuable to investigate if those postural responses are different between the groups. Therefore, young people with and without ID (n=99) were exposed to six backward surface translations and several postural muscle responses were evaluated: muscle synergies and strategies, muscle onset latency, time-to-peak amplitude, and adaptation. The responses of the investigated muscles – the gastrocnemius, the biceps femoris, and the erector spinae L4 level – were measured using electromyography. The results showed that there were no differences between the two groups with respect to synergies or strategies, muscle onset latency, and time-to-peak amplitude. An overall pattern was seen, that young people with ID adapted their muscle response slower in all three muscles than peers without ID, but this pattern was not statistically significant.Studies have shown that people with ID have impaired postural balance, a lower level of physical activity, and lower aerobic capacity compared to people without ID. The association is however not investigated. Therefore, postural balance (postural sway indirectly measured with the subjects standing on a force platform), physical activity (measured with a pedometer), and aerobic capacity (measured with a sub-maximal ergometer cycle test) were used to assess young people with and without ID (n=106). To investigate the subjects’ view of their own health, the subjects completed an adapted questionnaire that addressed their perceived health. The analysis showed no significant associations between postural balance, level of physical activity, and aerobic capacity. The subjects in the ID group, both men and women, had significantly lower aerobic capacity compared to subjects without ID. The answers from the health questionnaire did not correspond to the measured outcomes from the physical tests for young people with ID.In conclusion, ETUGT and MFRT can be used to evaluate change in postural balance over time in young people with mild to moderate ID. The low concurrent validity suggests that the postural balance tests probably challenge various subsystems. Young people with ID have impaired postural balance and perform lower on muscle strength tests than age-matched controls. Postural muscle responses after external perturbations seem to be similar for young people with and without ID, but the ability to adapt muscle responses after repeated perturbations appears to be slower for young people with ID. The studies in the thesis also indicate that young people with ID have reduced level of physical activity and lower aerobic capacity. The lack of association between the different physical functions indicates that they should be evaluated and exercised separately. Young persons with ID might have more difficulty realising the health advantage of being physically active, as they do not seem to make this connection. Because of this, it is important that parents/guardians, school staff, physiotherapists, and others encourage them to participate in physical activity.
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8.
  • Blomqvist, Sven, 1964-, et al. (författare)
  • Postural stability, physical activity, aerobic capacity and their associations for young people with and without intellectual disabilities
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Adapted Physical Activity. - 1803-3857 .- 1803-3857. ; 7:1, s. 22-30
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous studies show that people with intellectual disability (ID) appear to have impaired postural stability, a lower level of physical activity, and lower aerobic capacity compared to persons without ID, limitations that could affect their health. This study investigates these physical functions and their associations in a group of young people with ID compared to an age-matched group without ID. In total, this cross-sectional study included 106 high school students (16-20 years): 57 students with mild to moderate ID and 49 age-matched students without ID (control group). Tests were performed for postural stability, level of physical activity, and aerobic capacity. Both females and males with ID had significantly lower estimated maximum oxygen uptake (l O2/min) (p< 0.001 for females and p=0.004 for males) and a lower aerobic capacity expressed relative to body weight (ml O2/ kg*min) (p< 0.001 for females and p=0.012 for males) compared to age-matched peers. Analyses of associations were made using the Pearson’s correlation coefficient and multivariate linear regression analysis. No significant associations could be found. Physical status appears impaired for young people with ID and functions, such as postural stability, should be evaluated separately.
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9.
  • Blomqvist, Sven, et al. (författare)
  • Postural stability, physical activity, aerobic capacity and their associations for young people with and without intellectual disabilities
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Adapted Physical Activity. - 1803-3857 .- 1803-3857. ; 7:1, s. 22-30
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Previous studies show that people with intellectual disability (ID) appear to have impaired postural stability, a lower level of physical activity, and lower aerobic capacity compared to persons without ID, limitations that could affect their health. This study investigates these physical functions and their associations in a group of young people with ID compared to an age-matched group without ID. In total, this cross-sectional study included 106 high school students (16-20 years): 57 students with mild to moderate ID and 49 agematched students without ID (control group). Tests were performed for postural stability, level of physical activity, and aerobic capacity. Both females and males with ID had significantly lower estimated maximum oxygen uptake (l O2/min) (p< 0.001 for females and p=0.004 for males) and a lower aerobic capacity expressed relative to body weight (ml O2/ kg*min) (p< 0.001 for females and p=0.012 for males) compared to age-matched peers. Analyses of associations were made using the Pearson’s correlation coefficient and multivariate linear regression analysis. No significant associations could be found. Physical status appears impaired for young people with ID and functions, such as postural stability, should be evaluated separately
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10.
  • Blomqvist, Sven, 1964-, et al. (författare)
  • Test-retest reliability, smallest real difference and concurrent validity of six different balance tests on young people with mild to moderate intellectual disability
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Physiotherapy. - 0031-9406 .- 1873-1465. ; 98:4, s. 313-319
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES:Some studies have reported that people with intellectual disability may have reduced balance ability compared with the population in general. However, none of these studies involved adolescents, and the reliability and validity of balance tests in this population are not known. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of six different balance tests and to investigate their concurrent validity.DESIGN:Test-retest reliability assessment.SETTINGS:All subjects were recruited from a special school for people with intellectual disability in Bollnäs, Sweden.PARTICIPANTS:Eighty-nine adolescents (35 females and 54 males) with mild to moderate intellectual disability with a mean age of 18 years (range 16 to 20 years).INTERVENTIONS:All subjects followed the same test protocol on two occasions within an 11-day period.MAIN OUTCOMES:Balance test performances.RESULTS:Intraclass correlation coefficients greater than 0.80 were achieved for four of the balance tests: Extended Timed Up and Go Test, Modified Functional Reach Test, One-leg Stance Test and Force Platform Test. The smallest real differences ranged from 12% to 40%; less than 20% is considered to be low. Concurrent validity among these balance tests varied between no and low correlation.CONCLUSION:The results indicate that these tests could be used to evaluate changes in balance ability over time in people with mild to moderate intellectual disability. The low concurrent validity illustrates the importance of knowing more about the influence of various sensory subsystems that are significant for balance among adolescents with intellectual disability.
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