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  • Block, Keith I., et al. (författare)
  • Designing a broad-spectrum integrative approach for cancer prevention and treatment
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Seminars in Cancer Biology. - : Academic Press. - 1044-579X .- 1096-3650. ; 35, s. S276-S304
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Targeted therapies and the consequent adoption of "personalized" oncology have achieved notable successes in some cancers; however, significant problems remain with this approach. Many targeted therapies are highly toxic, costs are extremely high, and most patients experience relapse after a few disease-free months. Relapses arise from genetic heterogeneity in tumors, which harbor therapy-resistant immortalized cells that have adopted alternate and compensatory pathways (i.e., pathways that are not reliant upon the same mechanisms as those which have been targeted). To address these limitations, an international task force of 180 scientists was assembled to explore the concept of a low-toxicity "broadspectrum" therapeutic approach that could simultaneously target many key pathways and mechanisms. Using cancer hallmark phenotypes and the tumor microenvironment to account for the various aspects of relevant cancer biology, interdisciplinary teams reviewed each hallmark area and nominated a wide range of high-priority targets (74 in total) that could be modified to improve patient outcomes. For these targets, corresponding low-toxicity therapeutic approaches were then suggested, many of which were phytochemicals. Proposed actions on each target and all of the approaches were further reviewed for known effects on other hallmark areas and the tumor microenvironment Potential contrary or procarcinogenic effects were found for 3.9% of the relationships between targets and hallmarks, and mixed evidence of complementary and contrary relationships was found for 7.1%. Approximately 67% of the relationships revealed potentially complementary effects, and the remainder had no known relationship. Among the approaches, 1.1% had contrary, 2.8% had mixed and 62.1% had complementary relationships. These results suggest that a broad-spectrum approach should be feasible from a safety standpoint. This novel approach has potential to be relatively inexpensive, it should help us address stages and types of cancer that lack conventional treatment, and it may reduce relapse risks. A proposed agenda for future research is offered. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Faraci, M., et al. (författare)
  • Gonadal Function after Busulfan Compared with Treosulfan in Children and Adolescents Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. - 1083-8791. ; 25:9, s. 1786-1791
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gonadal impairment is an important late effect with a significant impact on quality of life of transplanted patients. The aim of this study was to compare gonadal function after busulfan (Bu) or treosulfan (Treo) conditioning regimens in pre- and postpubertal children. This retrospective, multicenter study included children transplanted in pediatric European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) centers between 1992 and 2012 who did not receive gonadotoxic chemoradiotherapy before the transplant. We evaluated 137 patients transplanted in 25 pediatric EBMT centers. Median age at transplant was 11.04 years (range, 5 to 18); 89 patients were boys and 48 girls. Eighty-nine patients were prepubertal at transplant and 48 postpubertal. One hundred eighteen children received Bu and 19 Treo. A higher proportion of girls treated with Treo in the prepubertal stage reached spontaneous puberty compared with those treated with Bu (P = .02). Spontaneous menarche was more frequent after Treo than after Bu (P < .001). Postpubertal boys and girls treated with Treo had significantly lower luteinizing hormone levels (P = .03 and P = .04, respectively) compared with the Bu group. Frequency of gonadal damage associated with Treo was significantly lower than that observed after Bu. These results need to be confirmed in a larger population. © 2019
  • Ferrua, Francesca, et al. (författare)
  • Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for CD40 ligand deficiency: results from an EBMT/ESID-IEWP-SCETIDE-PIDTC Study.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. - 1097-6825. ; 143:6, s. 2238-2253
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CD40 ligand (CD40L) deficiency, an X-linked primary immunodeficiency, causes recurrent sinopulmonary, Pneumocystis and Cryptosporidium infections. Long-term survival with supportive therapy is poor. Currently, the only curative treatment is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).We performed an international collaborative study to improve patients' management, aiming to individualize risk factors and determine optimal HSCT characteristics.We retrospectively collected data on 130 patients who underwent HSCT for CD40L deficiency between 1993-2015. We analyzed outcome and variables relevance with respect to survival and cure.Overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were 78.2%, 58.1% and 72.3% 5 years post-HSCT. Results were better in transplants performed ≥2000 and in children <10 years old at HSCT. Pre-existing organ damage negatively influenced outcome. Sclerosing cholangitis was the most important risk factor. After 2000, superior OS was achieved with matched donors. Use of myeloablative regimens and HSCT ≤2 years from diagnosis associated with higher OS and DFS. EFS was best with matched sibling donors, myeloablative conditioning (MAC) and bone marrow-derived stem cells. Most rejections occurred after reduced intensity or non-myeloablative conditioning, which associated with poor donor cell engraftment. Mortality occurred mainly early after HSCT, predominantly from infections. Among survivors who ceased immunoglobulin replacement, T-lymphocyte chimerism was ≥50% donor in 85.2%.HSCT is curative in CD40L deficiency, with improved outcome if performed before organ damage development. MAC is associated with better OS, EFS and DFS. Prospective studies are required to compare risks of HSCT with those of life-long supportive therapy.
  • Gunther, A. C., et al. (författare)
  • Pain rather than induced emotions and ICU sound increases skin conductance variability in healthy volunteers
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. - : Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc.. - 0001-5172 .- 1399-6576. ; 60:8, s. 1111-1120
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundAssessing pain in critically ill patients is difficult. Skin conductance variability (SCV), induced by the sympathetic response to pain, has been suggested as a method to identify pain in poorly communicating patients. However, SCV, a derivate of conventional skin conductance, could potentially also be sensitive to emotional stress. The purpose of the study was to investigate if pain and emotional stress can be distinguished with SCV. MethodsIn a series of twelve 1-min sessions with SCV recording, 18 healthy volunteers were exposed to standardized electric pain stimulation during blocks of positive, negative, or neutral emotion, induced with pictures from the International Affective PictureSystem (IAPS). Additionally, authentic intensive care unit (ICU) sound was included in half of the sessions. All possible combinations of pain and sound occurred in each block of emotion, and blocks were presented in randomized order. ResultsPain stimulation resulted in increases in the number of skin conductance fluctuations (NSCF) in all but one participant. During pain-free baseline sessions, the median NSCF was 0.068 (interquartile range 0.013-0.089) and during pain stimulation median NSCF increased to 0.225 (interquartile range 0.146-0.3175). Only small increases in NSCF were found during negative emotions. Pain, assessed with the numeric rating scale, during the sessions with pain stimulation was not altered significantly by other ongoing sensory input. ConclusionIn healthy volunteers, NSCF appears to reflect ongoing autonomous reactions mainly to pain and to a lesser extent, reactions to emotion induced with IAPS pictures or ICU sound.
  • Naeser, Y., et al. (författare)
  • TRIM study protocol - a prospective randomized multicenter Trial to assess the Role of Imaging during follow-up after radical surgery of stage IIB-C and III cutaneous malignant Melanoma
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: BMC Cancer. - : BMC. - 1471-2407. ; 20:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundThe incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) is increasing worldwide. In Sweden, over 4600 cases were diagnosed in 2018. The prognosis after radical surgery varies considerably with tumor stage. In recent years, new treatment options have become available for metastatic CMM. Early onset of treatment seems to improve outcome, which suggests that early detection of recurrent disease should be beneficial. Consequently, in several countries imaging is a part of the routine follow-up program after surgery of high risk CMM. However, imaging has drawbacks, including resources required (costs, personnel, equipment) and the radiation exposure. Furthermore, many patients experience anxiety in waiting for the imaging results and investigations of irrelevant findings is another factor that also could cause worry and lead to decreased quality of life. Hence, the impact of imaging in this setting is important to address and no randomized study has previously been conducted. The Swedish national guidelines stipulate follow-up for 3years by clinical examinations only.MethodsThe TRIM study is a prospective randomized multicenter trial evaluating the potential benefit of imaging and blood tests during follow-up after radical surgery for high-risk CMM, compared to clinical examinations only. Primary endpoint is overall survival (OS) at 5years. Secondary endpoints are survival from diagnosis of relapse and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Eligible for inclusion are patients radically operated for CMM stage IIB-C or III with sufficient renal function for iv contrast-enhanced CT and who are expected to be fit for treatment in case of recurrence. The planned number of patients is >1300. Patients are randomized to clinical examinations for 3years +/- whole-body imaging with CT or FDG-PET/CT and laboratory tests including S100B protein and LDH. This academic study is supported by the Swedish Melanoma Study Group.DiscussionThis is the first randomized prospective trial on the potential benefit of imaging as a part of the follow-up scheme after radical surgery for high-risk CMM.ResultsThe first patient was recruited in June 2017 and as of April 2020, almost 500 patients had been included at 19 centers in Sweden.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov, NCT 03116412. Registered 17 April 2017, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT03116412
  • Pottel, Hans, et al. (författare)
  • Development and Validation of a Modified Full Age Spectrum Creatinine-Based Equation to Estimate Glomerular Filtration Rate : A Cross-sectional Analysis of Pooled Data
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Annals of Internal Medicine. - : American College of Physicians. - 0003-4819 .- 1539-3704. ; 174:2, s. 183-191
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The Chronic Kidney Disease in Children Study (CKiD) equation for children and the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation for adults are recommended serum creatinine (SCr)-based calculations for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR). However, these equations, as well as their combination, have limitations, notably the problem of implausible changes in GFR during the transition from adolescence to adulthood and overestimation of GFR in young adults. The full age spectrum (FAS) equation addresses these issues but overestimates GFR when SCr levels are low. OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a modified FAS SCr-based equation combining design features of the FAS and CKD-EPI equations. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis with separate pooled data sets for development and validation. SETTING: Research and clinical studies (n = 13) with measured GFR available. PATIENTS: 11 251 participants in 7 studies (development and internal validation data sets) and 8378 participants in 6 studies (external validation data set). MEASUREMENTS: Clearance of an exogenous marker (reference method), SCr level, age, sex, and height were used to develop a new equation to estimate GFR. RESULTS: The new European Kidney Function Consortium (EKFC) equation is a FAS equation with low bias (-1.2 mL/min/1.73 m2 [95% CI, -2.7 to 0.0 mL/min/1.73 m2] in children and -0.9 mL/min/1.73 m2 [CI, -1.2 to -0.5 mL/min/1.73 m2] in adults) across the FAS (2 to 90 years) and SCr range (40 to 490 µmol/L [0.45 to 5.54 mg/dL]) and with fewer estimation errors exceeding 30% (6.5% [CI, 3.8% to 9.1%] in children and 3.1% [CI, 2.5% to 3.6%] in adults) compared with the CKiD and CKD-EPI equations. LIMITATION: No Black patients were included. CONCLUSION: The new EKFC equation shows improved accuracy and precision compared with commonly used equations for estimating GFR from SCr levels. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Swedish Research Council (Vetenskapsrådet).
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