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1.
  • Husebye, Einar, et al. (författare)
  • Influence of microbial species on small intestinal myoelectric activity and transit in germ-free rats
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Physiology: Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. - American Physiological Society. - 1522-1547. ; 280:3, s. 368-380
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The effect of an intestinal microflora consisting of selected microbial species on myoelectric activity of small intestine was studied using germ-free rat models, with recording before and after specific intestinal colonization, in the unanesthetized state. Intestinal transit, neuropeptides in blood (RIA), and neuromessengers in the intestinal wall were determined. Clostridium tabificum vp 04 promoted regular spike burst activity, shown by a reduction of the migrating myoelectric complex (MMC) period from 30.5 +/- 3.9 min in the germ-free state to 21.2 +/- 0.14 min (P< 0.01). Lactobacillus acidophilus A10 and Bifidobacterium bifidum B11 reduced the MMC period from 27.9 +/- 4.5 to 21.5 +/- 2.1 min (P< 0.02) and accelerated small intestinal transit (P< 0.05). Micrococcus luteus showed an inhibitory effect, with an MMC period of 35.9 +/- 9.3 min compared with 27.7 +/- 6.3 min in germ-free rats (P< 0.01). Inhibition was indicated also for Escherichia coli X7 gnotobiotic rats. No consistent changes in slow wave frequency were observed. The concentration of neuropeptide Y in blood decreased after introduction of conventional intestinal microflora, suggesting reduced inhibitory control. Intestinal bacteria promote or suppress the initiation and aboral migration of the MMC depending on the species involved. Bacteria with primitive fermenting metabolism (anaerobes) emerge as important promoters of regular spike burst activity in small intestine.
2.
  • Jarhult, Johannes, et al. (författare)
  • First Report on Metastasizing Small Bowel Carcinoids in First-Degree Relatives in Three Generations
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Neuroendocrinology. - Karger. - 0028-3835. ; 91:4, s. 318-323
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background/Aims: There is an established association between the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) syndrome and foregut carcinoids. Some registry studies also indicate that offspring to carcinoid patients run an increased risk of developing a carcinoid tumor themselves. However, there are only scattered reports of gastrointestinal carcinoids in two generations. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics as well as the histopathological, immunohistochemical (IHC) and genetic data of metastasizing ileal carcinoids in three consecutive first-degree relatives. Methods: The histopathological and IHC analyses were performed on newly cut sections of the tumor specimens and included growth pattern, proliferation index (Ki67) as well as expression of established neuroendocrine markers and recently introduced cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART). The genetic analyses were focused on establishing whether a connection with the MEN 1 syndrome existed in this family, by means of mutation screening using polymerase chain reaction, multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification, and genotyping using fluorescent-labeled microsatellite markers. Results: Histopathology and IHC revealed that the tumors were virtually identical, with only minor differences in proliferation index and expression of CART. Genetic analyses indicated that the inheritance of the small bowel carcinoids in the family was not linked to the MEN1 gene. Conclusion: Metastasizing small bowel carcinoids have been found in first-degree relatives in three consecutive generations. All three tumors were very similar when characterized by histopathology and IHC. Based on clinical findings and genetic analyses, it seems unlikely, although not completely excluded, that inheritance was linked to the MEN 1 syndrome. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel
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3.
  • Jönsson, Tommy, et al. (författare)
  • A Paleolithic diet confers higher insulin sensitivity, lower C-reactive protein and lower blood pressure than a cereal-based diet in domestic pigs.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Nutrition & Metabolism. - Karger. - 1743-7075. ; 3:Article nr. 39
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A Paleolithic diet has been suggested to be more in concordance with human evolutionary legacy than a cereal based diet. This might explain the lower incidence among hunter-gatherers of diseases of affluence such as type 2 diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to experimentally study the long-term effect of a Paleolithic diet on risk factors for these diseases in domestic pigs. We examined glucose tolerance, post-challenge insulin response, plasma C-reactive protein and blood pressure after 15 months on Paleolithic diet in comparison with a cereal based swine feed.
4.
  • Ma, Zuheng, et al. (författare)
  • Evidence for Presence and Functional Effects of Kv1.1 Channels in beta-Cells: General Survey and Results from mceph/mceph Mice
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 6:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Voltage-dependent K+ channels (Kv) mediate repolarisation of beta-cell action potentials, and thereby abrogate insulin secretion. The role of the Kv1.1 K+ channel in this process is however unclear. We tested for presence of Kv1.1 in different species and tested for a functional role of Kv1.1 by assessing pancreatic islet function in BALB/cByJ (wild-type) and megencephaly (mceph/mceph) mice, the latter having a deletion in the Kv1.1 gene. Methodology/Principal Findings: Kv1.1 expression was detected in islets from wild-type mice, SD rats and humans, and expression of truncated Kv1.1 was detected in mceph/mceph islets. Full-length Kv1.1 protein was present in islets from wildtype mice, but, as expected, not in those from mceph/mceph mice. Kv1.1 expression was localized to the beta-cell population and also to alpha-and delta-cells, with evidence of over-expression of truncated Kv1.1 in mceph/mceph islets. Blood glucose, insulin content, and islet morphology were normal in mceph/mceph mice, but glucose-induced insulin release from batch-incubated islets was (moderately) higher than that from wild-type islets. Reciprocal blocking of Kv1.1 by dendrotoxin-K increased insulin secretion from wild-type but not mceph/mceph islets. Glucose-induced action potential duration, as well as firing frequency, was increased in mceph/mceph mouse beta-cells. This duration effect on action potential in beta-cells from mceph/mceph mice was mimicked by dendrotoxin-K in beta-cells from wild-type mice. Observations concerning the effects of both the mceph mutation, and of dendrotoxin-K, on glucose-induced insulin release were confirmed in pancreatic islets from Kv1.1 null mice. Conclusion/Significance: Kv1.1 channels are expressed in the beta-cells of several species, and these channels can influence glucose-stimulated insulin release.
5.
6.
  • Ahrén, Bo, et al. (författare)
  • DPP-4 inhibition improves glucose tolerance and increases insulin and GLP-1 responses to gastric glucose in association with normalized islet topography in mice with beta-cell-specific overexpression of human islet amyloid polypeptide.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Regulatory Peptides. - Elsevier. - 1873-1686. ; 143:1-3, s. 97-103
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) is currently explored as a novel therapy of type 2 diabetes. The strategy has been shown to improve glycemia in most, but not all, rodent forms of glucose intolerance. In this study, we explored the effects of DPP-4 inhibition in mice with [beta-cell overexpression of human islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP). We therefore administered the orally active and highly selective DPP-4 inhibitor, vildagliptin (3 pmol/mouse daily) to female mice with [beta-cell overexpression of human IAPP. Controls were given plain water, and a series of untreated wildtype mice was also included. After five weeks, an intravenous glucose tolerance test showed improved glucose disposal and a markedly enhanced insulin response in mice treated with vildagliptin. After eight weeks, a gastric tolerance test showed that vildagliptin improved glucose tolerance and markedly (approximately ten-fold) augmented the insulin response in association with augmented (approximately five-fold) levels of intact glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Furthermore, after nine weeks, islets were isolated. Islets from vildagliptin-treated mice showed augmented glucose-stimulated insulin response and a normalization of the islet insulin content, which was reduced by approximately 50% in transgenic controls versus wildtype animals. Double immunostaining of pancreatic islets for insulin and glucagon revealed that transgenic islets displayed severely disturbed intra-islet topography with frequently observed centrally located a-cells. Treatment with vildagliptin restored the islet topography. We therefore conclude that DPP-4 inhibition improves islet function and islet topography in mice with [beta-cell specific transgenic overexpression of human IAPP. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
7.
8.
  • Ahrén, Bo, et al. (författare)
  • Neuropeptides and the regulation of islet function.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 1939-327X. ; 55:Suppl 2, s. 98-107
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The pancreatic islets are richly innervated by autonomic nerves. The islet parasympathetic nerves emanate from intrapancreatic ganglia, which are controlled by preganglionic vagal nerves. The islet sympathetic nerves are postganglionic with the nerve cell bodies located in ganglia outside the pancreas. The sensory nerves originate from dorsal root ganglia near the spinal cord. Inside the islets, nerve terminals run close to the endocrine cells. In addition to the classic neurotransmitters acetylcholine and norepinephrine, several neuropeptides exist in the islet nerve terminals. These neuropeptides are vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, gastrin-releasing polypeptide, and cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript in parasympathetic nerves; neuropeptide Y and galanin in the sympathetic nerves; and calcitonin gene-related polypeptide in sensory nerves. Activation of the parasympathetic nerves and administration of their neurotransmitters stimulate insulin and glucagon secretion, whereas activation of the sympathetic nerves and administration of their neurotransmitters inhibit insulin but stimulate glucagon secretion. The autonomic nerves contribute to the cephalic phase of insulin secretion, to glucagon secretion during hypoglycemia, to pancreatic polypeptide secretion, and to the inhibition of insulin secretion, which is seen during stress. In rodent models of diabetes, the number of islet autonomic nerves is upregulated. This review focuses on neural regulation of islet function, with emphasis on the neuropeptides.
9.
  • Andersson, K, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of a-fluoromethylhistidine-evoked histamine depletion on ultrastructure of endocrine cells in acid-producing mucosa of stomach in mouse, rat and hamster
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Cell and Tissue Research. - Springer. - 1432-0878. ; 286:3, s. 84-375
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The oxyntic mucosa of the mammalian stomach is rich in endocrine cells, such as ECL cells, A-like cells, somatostatin cells, D1/P cells and, in some species, enterochromaffin cells. The various endocrine cell types can be distinguished on the basis of their characteristic cytoplasmic granules and vesicles. The ECL cells contain numerous large secretory vesicles and relatively few, small electron-dense granules and small clear microvesicles. We have suggested that in the rat the ECL cells contain most of the gastric histamine with the secretory vesicles as the major histamine storage site in these cells. alpha-Fluoromethylhistidine is an irreversible inhibitor of histidine decarboxylase, the histamine-forming enzyme. We have previously shown that this enzyme inhibitor depletes histamine from the ECL cells in the rat and reduces the number of secretory vesicles in the cytoplasm. In the present study, we have examined whether alpha-fluoromethylhistidine affects the ECL cells in other species and whether it affects other types of endocrine cells in the oxyntic mucosa of the rat. Mice, rats and hamsters were treated with the inhibitor (3 mg/kg per h) via minipumps subcutaneously for 24 h. This treatment lowered the oxyntic mucosal histamine concentration by 65-90% and the number and volume density of the secretory vesicles by 85-95% in the ECL cells of the three species examined. In contrast, the number and volume density of granules and microvesicles were not greatly affected. No evidence was found for an effect of alpha-fluoromethylhistidine on A-like cells, somatostatin cells or D1/P cells of the rat stomach, suggesting that, unlike the ECL cells, they do not contain histamine.
  •  
10.
  • Andersson, K, et al. (författare)
  • Enterochromaffin-like cells in the rat stomach: effect of depletion. A chemical, histochemical and electron-microscopic study
  • 1992
  • Ingår i: Cell and Tissue Research. - Springer. - 1432-0878. ; 270:1, s. 7-13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the rat, gastric histamine is stored predominantly in the enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells, which are located basally in the oxyntic mucosa. The functional significance of histamine in the ECL cells is a matter of speculation. In this study the effect of depletion of histamine on the properties and ultrastructure of the ECL cells was examined. Histamine synthesis was inhibited with alpha-fluoromethylhistidine (3 mg.kg-1.h-1) given via osmotic minipumps over a period of 24 h. The treatment reduced the histidine decarboxylase activity (approximately 20% remaining) and histamine concentration (less than 20% remaining) in the oxyntic mucosa, as well as the intensity of histamine- and chromogranin A-immunostaining in the ECL cells, compared to control rats. The cytoplasmic (secretory) granules/vesicles were greatly reduced in number and size following alpha-fluoromethylhistidine administration. The histamine immunostaining of the mast cells, which occurs at the mucosal surface and in the submucosa, appeared unaffected. We conclude that ECL cell histamine accounts for at least 80% of the total oxyntic mucosal histamine in the rat and that it represents a more mobile pool than mast cell histamine. The reduction in the number and size of the ECL cell granules/vesicles following histamine depletion is in accord with the idea that they represent the storage site for histamine.
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