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  • Hemminki, Kari, et al. (författare)
  • Risk for multiple sclerosis in relatives and spouses of patients diagnosed with autoimmune and related conditions
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Neurogenetics. - Springer. - 1364-6745. ; 10:1, s. 5-11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the era of complex disease genetics, the consideration of familial risks is important in the assessment of the likely success of these studies. In the present article, we study familial risks for multiple sclerosis (MS) among parents and offspring, singleton siblings, twins, and spouses when a family member was diagnosed with MS or any of 33 other autoimmune diseases. The availability of a Multigeneration Register in Sweden provides a reliable access to families throughout the last century. The diseases in individual family members were obtained through linkage to the Hospital Discharge Register. With a total patient population of 425,102 of whom 11,154 were diagnosed with MS, this is the largest population-based family study on these diseases to date. Standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated for family member of MS patients compared to those lacking an affected family member. SIR for MS was 5.94 (6.12 when parents were aged <73 years) in offspring of affected parents, 6.25 in singleton siblings, 9.09 in twins, and 1.50 (nonsignificant) in spouses; the SIRs did not depend on the gender. The SIRs for MS were 1.84 when a parent was diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 1.14 with parental asthma. The overall risk of MS was 1.21 when a parent was diagnosed with any autoimmune disease. The genes, so far associated with MS, explain little of the familial aggregation of MS, calling for further efforts in gene identification. The shared familial risks of MS with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and asthma suggest shared genetic basis.
  • Carlsson, Axel C., et al. (författare)
  • Differences and time trends in drug treatment of atrial fibrillation in men and women and doctors' adherence to warfarin therapy recommendations
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. - Springer. - 1432-1041. ; 69:2, s. 245-253
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Little is known about prescription trends in atrial fibrillation (AF) in primary health care in Sweden. The aim was to study time trends in pharmacotherapy, in men and women with AF. We also aimed at studying doctors' adherence to CHADS2 for prescribing warfarin. CHADS2 assesses stroke risk by presence of known risk factors, i.e., congestive heart failure, hypertension, age > 75 years, diabetes, previous stroke and transient ischemic attack. Data were obtained from primary health care records that contained individual clinical data. In total, 371,036 patients were included in the sample from 2002, and 424,329 patients were included in the sample from 2007. The study population consisted of individuals aged 45+ years who were diagnosed with AF in 2002 (1,330 men and 1,096 women) and 2007 (2,748 men and 2,234 women). The pharmacotherapies prescribed in 2002 and 2007 were analyzed separately in men and women. Logistic regression was used to calculate the association between the CHADS2 score and prescribed warfarin treatment. Selective beta-blockers, anti-coagulant therapy and lipid-lowering drugs were prescribed more frequently in 2007 than in 2002. In 2007, antithrombotic and RAS-blocking agents were prescribed more frequently to men, whereas beta-1 selective beta-blockers were prescribed more frequently to women. There was no consistent association between the CHADS2 score and prescribed warfarin treatment. Pharmacotherapy of AF has improved over time, though CHADS2 guidelines need to be implemented systematically in primary health care in Sweden to decrease the risk of stroke and improve quality of life in patients with AF.
  • Carlsson, Axel C, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of prescribed antihypertensives and other cardiovascular drugs on mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation and hypertension: a cohort study from Sweden.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Hypertension Research. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1348-4214. ; 37:6, s. 553-559
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although antihypertensive drugs are known to reduce mortality in individuals with hypertension, the effects of different cardiovascular pharmacotherapies on mortality among patients with hypertension and atrial fibrillation (AF) have been less thoroughly explored. To study mortality rates in men and women separately with hypertension and AF prescribed different cardiovascular pharmacotherapies. A cohort of men (n=2809) and women (n=2793) aged >45 years diagnosed with hypertension and AF were selected using patient records. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox regression, with all-cause mortality as the outcome. Analysis was performed on the whole population and after stratification by age and sex. Independent factors were prescribed pharmacotherapies. Adjustments were made for a propensity score comprising age, comorbidities, education and marital status. The higher the number of antihypertensive drugs prescribed, the lower the mortality rate (P-value for trend 0.005). Individuals prescribed 4-5 antihypertensive drugs had a lower risk of mortality than those prescribed 0-1 drugs (HR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.45-0.86). The HRs for the following drug classes were: loop diuretics 1.39 (95% CI: 1.08-1.78), non-selective β-blockers 0.68 (95% CI: 0.53-0.88), angiotensin receptor blockers 0.75 (95% CI: 0.56-0.99) and statins 0.68 (95% CI: 0.53-0.88). AF patients with hypertension prescribed statins, non-selective β-blockers and angiotensin receptor blockers had low relative mortality risks, suggesting that these prescribed pharmacotherapies were beneficial. This needs to be further explored in other clinical settings.Hypertension Research advance online publication, 6 March 2014; doi:10.1038/hr.2014.32.
  • Carlsson, Axel C., et al. (författare)
  • Neighborhood socioeconomic status at the age of 40 years and ischemic stroke before the age of 50 years : A nationwide cohort study from Sweden
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Stroke. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 1747-4930. ; 12:8, s. 815-826
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: We aimed to study the association between neighborhood socioeconomic status at the age of 40 years and risk of ischemic stroke before the age of 50 years. Methods: All individuals in Sweden were included if their 40th birthday occurred between 1998 and 2010. National registers were used to categorize neighborhood socioeconomic status into high, middle, and low and to retrieve information on incident ischemic strokes. Hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were estimated. Results: A total of 1,153,451 adults (women 48.9%) were followed for a mean of 5.5 years (SD 3.5 years), during which 1777 (0.30%) strokes among men and 1374 (0.24%) strokes among women were recorded. After adjustment for sex, marital status, education level, immigrant status, region of residence, and neighborhood services, there was a lower risk of stroke in residents from high-socioeconomic status neighborhoods (hazard ratio 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.78–0.96), and an increased risk of stroke in adults from low-socioeconomic status neighborhoods (hazard ratio 1.16, 95% confidence interval 1.06–1.27), compared to their counterparts living in middle-socioeconomic status neighborhoods. After further adjustment for hospital diagnoses of hypertension, diabetes, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation prior to the age of 40, the higher risk in neighborhoods with low socioeconomic status was attenuated, but remained significant (hazard ratio 1.12, 95% confidence interval 1.02–1.23). Conclusions: In a nationwide study of individuals between 40 and 50 years, we found that the risk of ischemic stroke differed depending on neighborhood socioeconomic status, which calls for increased efforts to prevent cardiovascular diseases in low socioeconomic status neighborhoods.
  • Carlsson, Axel C, et al. (författare)
  • Neighbourhood socioeconomic status and coronary heart disease in individuals between 40 and 50 years.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Heart. - BMJ Publishing Group. - 1355-6037. ; 102:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: The incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) has decreased in general but not among younger middle-aged adults. We performed a cohort study of the association between neighbourhood socioeconomic status (SES) at the age of 40 and risk of MI before the age of 50 years. METHODS: All individuals in Sweden were included in the year of their 40th birthday, if it occurred between 1998 and 2010. National registers were used to categorise neighbourhood SES into high, middle and low, and to retrieve information on incident MI and coronary heart disease (CHD). Cox regression models, adjusted for marital status, education level, immigrant status and region of residence, provided an estimate of the HRs and 95% CIs for MI or CHD. RESULTS: Out of 587 933 men and 563 719 women, incident MI occurred in 2877 (0.48%) men and 932 (0.17%) women; and CHD occurred in 4400 (0.74%) men and 1756 (0.31%) women during a mean follow-up of 5.5 years. Using individuals living in middle-SES neighbourhoods as referents, living in high-SES neighbourhoods was associated with lower risk of MI in both sexes (HR (95% CI): men: 0.72 (0.64 to 0.82), women: 0.66 (0.53 to 0.81)); living in low-SES neighbourhoods was associated with a higher risk of MI (HR (95% CI): men: 1.31 (1.20 to 1.44), women: 1.28 (1.08 to 1.50)). Similar risk estimates for CHD were found. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study suggest an increased risk of MI and CHD among residents from low-SES neighbourhoods and a lower risk in those from high-SES neighbourhoods compared with residents in middle-SES neighbourhoods.
  • Cederroth, Christopher R., et al. (författare)
  • Association of Genetic vs Environmental Factors in Swedish Adoptees with Clinically Significant Tinnitus
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: JAMA Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery. - American Medical Association. - 2168-6181. ; 145:3, s. 222-229
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Importance: No effective treatments are currently available for severe tinnitus, which affects 1% of the population and lowers the quality of life. The factors that contribute to the transition from mild to severe tinnitus are poorly known. Before performing genetic analyses and determining the mechanisms involved in the development of severe tinnitus, its heritability needs to be determined. Objectives: To examine whether clinically significant tinnitus is associated with genetic factors and to evaluate the genetic risk in the transmission of tinnitus using adoptees. Design, Setting, and Participants: Data from adoptees and their biological and adoptive parents from Swedish nationwide registers were collected from January 1, 1964, to December 31, 2015, and used to separate genetic from environmental factors in familial clustering. In all, 11 060 adoptees, 19 015 adoptive parents, and 17 025 biological parents were investigated. The study used a cohort design and a case-control approach to study genetic and nongenetic factors in tinnitus among adoptees. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was odds ratio (OR) of tinnitus in adoptees with at least 1 affected biological parent compared with adoptees without any affected biological parent using logistic regression. The secondary outcome was OR in adoptees with at least 1 affected adoptive parent compared with adoptees without any affected adoptive parent. Results: A total of 1029 patients (440 [42.8%] male; mean [SD] age, 62 [14] years) with tinnitus were identified. The prevalence of diagnosed tinnitus was 2.2%. The OR for tinnitus was 2.22 for adoptees (95% CI, 1.03-4.81) of biological parents diagnosed with tinnitus, whereas the OR was 1.00 (95% CI, 0.43-2.32) for adoptees from adoptive parents diagnosed with tinnitus. Mean (SE) heritability determined using tetrachoric correlations was 31% (14%). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings suggest that genetic factors are associated with the familial clustering of clinically significant tinnitus with no shared-environment association, revealing that the transition from negligible to severe tinnitus may be associated with genetic factors. These findings may provide insight for future genetic analyses that focus on severe tinnitus..
  • Faskunger, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Risk of obesity in immigrants compared with Swedes in two deprived neighbourhoods
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: BMC Public Health. - BioMed Central (BMC). - 1471-2458. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Despite a strong social gradient in the prevalence of obesity, there is little scientific understanding of obesity in people settled in deprived neighbourhoods. Few studies are actually based on objectively measured data using random sampling of residents in deprived neighbourhoods. In addition, most studies use a crude measure, the body mass index, to estimate obesity. This is of concern because it may cause inaccurate estimations of the true prevalence and give the wrong picture of the factors associated with obesity. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of, and analyse the sociodemographic factors associated with, three indices of obesity in different ethnic groups settled in two deprived neighbourhoods in Sweden. Methods: Height and weight, waist circumference and body fat percentage were objectively measured in a random sample (n = 289). Sociodemographic data were obtained through a survey. Established cut-offs were used to determine obesity. Country of birth was categorized as Swedish, Other European, and Middle Eastern. Odds ratios were estimated by unconditional logistic regression. Results: One third of the sample was classified as obese overall, with 39.0% of women being abdominally obese. After adjusting for age, we found higher odds of obesity in Middle Eastern women than in Swedish women regardless of outcome with odds ratios ranging between 2.74 and 5.53. Men of other European origin had higher odds of BMI obesity than Swedish men. Most associations between country of birth and obesity remained in the full model. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the magnitude of the obesity problem and the need for prevention programmes targeting native and immigrant adults in deprived neighbourhoods in Sweden. The initiatives should also focus on particular groups, e. g. immigrant women and those experiencing economic difficulties. Further studies are needed on behavioural and environmental factors influencing the risk of obesity in residents settled in deprived neighbourhoods.
  • Friberg, Danielle, et al. (författare)
  • Sibling risk of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and adenotonsillar hypertrophy
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Sleep. - Asoociated Professional Sleep Societies. - 0161-8105. ; 32:8, s. 83-1077
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: To estimate sibling risk of hospitalization for children with sleep disordered breathing (SDB), diagnosed with (1) obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), or (2) adenotonsillar hypertrophy in the total Swedish population.DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Using the MigMed database at the Karolinska Institute, we divided the population of Sweden aged 0-18 years into sibling groups based on a shared mother and father and presence of a primary hospital diagnosis of OSAS or adenotonsillar hypertrophy for each individual born between 1978 and 1986, during the follow-up period 1997-2004. Individuals with at least one affected sibling were identified and the incidence rates were computed, using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Reference groups were boys and girls with unaffected siblings of 2 or more.RESULTS: After accounting for socioeconomic status, age, and geographic region, boys with at least one sibling with OSAS had an increased risk of having OSAS (SIR, 33.2; 95% CI, 16.5-64.8), and in girls the SIR was 40.5 (19.4-81.4). For hypertrophy of the tonsils or hypertrophy of the adenoids and tonsils the corresponding SIRs were 4.53 (3.0-6.8) for boys and 4.94 (3.3-7.4) for girls.CONCLUSIONS: The study indicate an increased sibling risk of sleep disordered breathing in children, which may be due to heritable genes and/or shared environment such as increased awareness among family members or referring doctors. Caregivers should ask parents if siblings have similar symptoms, and thus offer them early treatment.
  • Hemminki, Kari, et al. (författare)
  • Cancer risks in ulcerative colitis patients
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136. ; 123:6, s. 21-1417
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Patients diagnosed with ulcerative colitis (UC) are known to be at an increased risk of colorectal and liver cancers and leukemia. UC is an autoimmune disease, which may present a wider spectrum of cancers. We wanted to examine the risk of cancer in a large population of UC patients in order to reach high statistical power. A UC research database was constructed by identifying UC patients from the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register and cancer patients from the Cancer Registry. Follow-up of 27,606 UC patients hospitalized for the first time during the years 1964-2004 identified 2,058 patients with cancer. Standardized incidence ratios were calculated for cancer in UC patients by comparing to subjects without hospitalization for UC. The novel tumor sites in UC patients included small intestinal (carcinoid), pancreatic, breast and prostate cancers, nonthyroid endocrine gland tumors, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma. A total of 11 sites showed an increased risk, which remained at 6 sites when tumors diagnosed in the year of UC hospitalization were excluded; even chronic myeloid leukemia was in excess. Cancer risks depended on the age at first hospitalization for UC. The SIRs for colon, rectal, liver and pancreatic cancers declined by age at hospitalization for UC, while for endocrine tumors the older patients were at higher risk. Our large study identified novel subsequent cancers in UC patients. However, some of these, including small intestinal carcinoids, prostate cancers and nonthyroid endocrine tumors, may be in excess because of intensified medical surveillance of the patients.
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