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Sökning: WFRF:(Sundström Görel)

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  • Bonner, Mark T. L., et al. (författare)
  • Why does nitrogen addition to forest soils inhibit decomposition?
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Soil Biology and Biochemistry. - : Elsevier. - 0038-0717 .- 1879-3428. ; 137
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Enrichment of forest soils with inorganic nitrogen (N) tends to inhibit oxidative enzyme expression by microbes and reduces plant litter and soil organic matter decomposition rates. Without further explanation than is currently presented in the scientific literature, we argue that upregulation of oxidative enzymes seems a more competitive response to prolonged N enrichment at high rates than the observed downregulation. Thus, as it stands, observed responses are inconsistent with predicted responses. In this article, we present a hypothesis that resolves this conflict. We suggest that high rates of N addition alter the competitive balance between enzymatic lignin mineralisation and non-enzymatic lignin oxidation. Using metatransciptomics and chemical assays to examine boreal forest soils, we found that N addition suppressed peroxidase activity, but not iron reduction activity (involved in non-enzymatic lignin oxidation). Our hypothesis seems positioned as a parsimonious and empirically consistent working model that warrants further testing.
  • Delhomme, N., et al. (författare)
  • Serendipitous Meta-Transcriptomics : The Fungal Community of Norway Spruce (Picea abies)
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. - 1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking) ; 10:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • After performing de novo transcript assembly of >1 billion RNA-Sequencing reads obtained from 22 samples of different Norway spruce (Picea abies) tissues that were not surface sterilized, we found that assembled sequences captured a mix of plant, lichen, and fungal transcripts. The latter were likely expressed by endophytic and epiphytic symbionts, indicating that these organisms were present, alive, and metabolically active. Here, we show that these serendipitously sequenced transcripts need not be considered merely as contamination, as is common, but that they provide insight into the plant's phyllosphere. Notably, we could classify these transcripts as originating predominantly from Dothideomycetes and Leotiomycetes species, with functional annotation of gene families indicating active growth and metabolism, with particular regards to glucose intake and processing, as well as gene regulation.
  • Dreborg, Susanne, et al. (författare)
  • Evolution of vertebrate opioid receptors
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 105:40, s. 15487-15492
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The opioid peptides and receptors have prominent roles in pain transmission and reward mechanisms in mammals. The evolution of the opioid receptors has so far been little studied, with only a few reports on species other than tetrapods. We have investigated species representing a broader range of vertebrates and found that the four opioid receptor types (delta, kappa, mu, and NOP) are present in most of the species. The gene relationships were deduced by using both phylogenetic analyses and chromosomal location relative to 20 neighboring gene families in databases of assembled genomes. The combined results show that the vertebrate opioid receptor gene family arose by quadruplication of a large chromosomal block containing at least 14 other gene families. The quadruplication seems to coincide with, and, therefore, probably resulted from, the two proposed genome duplications in early vertebrate evolution. We conclude that the quartet of opioid receptors was already present at the origin of jawed vertebrates approximately 450 million years ago. A few additional opioid receptor gene duplications have occurred in bony fishes. Interestingly, the ancestral receptor gene duplications coincide with the origin of the four opioid peptide precursor genes. Thus, the complete vertebrate opioid system was already established in the first jawed vertebrates.
  • Fällmar, Helena, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • Neuropeptide Y/peptide YY receptor Y2 duplicate in zebrafish with unique introns displays distinct peptide binding properties
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part B. - 1096-4959 .- 1879-1107. ; 160:4, s. 166-173
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The neuropeptide Y-family peptides and receptors are involved in a broad range of functions including appetite regulation. Both the peptide genes and the receptor genes are known to have duplicated in early vertebrate evolution. The ancestral jawed vertebrate had 7 NPY receptors but the number varies between 4 and 7 in extant vertebrates. Herein we describe the identification of an additional NPY receptor in two fish species, zebrafish and medaka. They cluster together with the Y2 receptors in phylogenetic analyses and seem to be orthologous to each other that is why we have named them Y2-2. Their genes differ from Y2 in having introns in the coding region. Binding studies with zebrafish Y2-2 receptors show that the three endogenous peptides NPY, PYYa and PYYb have similar affinities, 0.15-0.66nM. This is in contrast to the Y2 receptor where they differed considerably from one another. N-terminally truncated NPY binds poorly and the Y2 antagonist BIIE0246 binds well to Y2-2, results that are reversed in comparison to Y2. Zebrafish Y2-2 mRNA was detected by PCR in the intestine and the eye, but not in the brain. In conclusion, we have found a novel Y2-like NPY/PYY receptor that probably arose in early teleost fish evolution.
  • Gao, Jiangning, et al. (författare)
  • ACES : a machine learning toolbox for clustering analysis and visualization
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: BMC Genomics. - : BMC. - 1471-2164 .- 1471-2164. ; 19
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Studies that aim at explaining phenotypes or disease susceptibility by genetic or epigenetic variants often rely on clustering methods to stratify individuals or samples. While statistical associations may point at increased risk for certain parts of the population, the ultimate goal is to make precise predictions for each individual. This necessitates tools that allow for the rapid inspection of each data point, in particular to find explanations for outliers.Results: ACES is an integrative cluster- and phenotype-browser, which implements standard clustering methods, as well as multiple visualization methods in which all sample information can be displayed quickly. In addition, ACES can automatically mine a list of phenotypes for cluster enrichment, whereby the number of clusters and their boundaries are estimated by a novel method. For visual data browsing, ACES provides a 2D or 3D PCA or Heat Map view. ACES is implemented in Java, with a focus on a user-friendly, interactive, graphical interface.Conclusions: ACES has been proven an invaluable tool for analyzing large, pre-filtered DNA methylation data sets and RNA-Sequencing data, due to its ease to link molecular markers to complex phenotypes. The source code is available from https://github.com/GrabherrGroup/ACES.
  • Höppner, Marc P., et al. (författare)
  • An Improved Canine Genome and a Comprehensive Catalogue of Coding Genes and Non-Coding Transcripts
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 9:3, s. e91172-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, is a well-established model system for mapping trait and disease loci. While the original draft sequence was of good quality, gaps were abundant particularly in promoter regions of the genome, negatively impacting the annotation and study of candidate genes. Here, we present an improved genome build, canFam3.1, which includes 85 MB of novel sequence and now covers 99.8% of the euchromatic portion of the genome. We also present multiple RNA-Sequencing data sets from 10 different canine tissues to catalog similar to 175,000 expressed loci. While about 90% of the coding genes previously annotated by EnsEMBL have measurable expression in at least one sample, the number of transcript isoforms detected by our data expands the EnsEMBL annotations by a factor of four. Syntenic comparison with the human genome revealed an additional similar to 3,000 loci that are characterized as protein coding in human and were also expressed in the dog, suggesting that those were previously not annotated in the EnsEMBL canine gene set. In addition to,20,700 high-confidence protein coding loci, we found,4,600 antisense transcripts overlapping exons of protein coding genes, similar to 7,200 intergenic multi-exon transcripts without coding potential, likely candidates for long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) and,11,000 transcripts were reported by two different library construction methods but did not fit any of the above categories. Of the lincRNAs, about 6,000 have no annotated orthologs in human or mouse. Functional analysis of two novel transcripts with shRNA in a mouse kidney cell line altered cell morphology and motility. All in all, we provide a much-improved annotation of the canine genome and suggest regulatory functions for several of the novel non-coding transcripts.
  • Krogvold, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Function of Isolated Pancreatic Islets From Patients at Onset of Type 1 Diabetes : Insulin Secretion Can Be Restored After Some Days in a Nondiabetogenic Environment In Vitro: Results From the DiViD Study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 64:7, s. 2506-2512
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The understanding of the etiology of type 1 diabetes (T1D) remains limited. One objective of the Diabetes Virus Detection (DiViD) study was to collect pancreatic tissue from living subjects shortly after the diagnosis of T1D. Here we report the insulin secretion ability by in vitro glucose perifusion and explore the expression of insulin pathway genes in isolated islets of Langerhans from these patients. Whole-genome RNA sequencing was performed on islets from six DiViD study patients and two organ donors who died at the onset of T1D, and the findings were compared with those from three nondiabetic organ donors. All human transcripts involved in the insulin pathway were present in the islets at the onset of T1D. Glucose-induced insulin secretion was present in some patients at the onset of T1D, and a perfectly normalized biphasic insulin release was obtained after some days in a nondiabetogenic environment in vitro. This indicates that the potential for endogenous insulin production is good, which could be taken advantage of if the disease process was reversed at diagnosis.
  • Lagman, David, et al. (författare)
  • Expansion of transducin subunit gene families in early vertebrate tetraploidizations
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Genomics. - 0888-7543 .- 1089-8646. ; 100:4, s. 203-211
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hundreds of gene families expanded in the early vertebrate tetraploidizations including many gene families in the phototransduction cascade. We have investigated the evolution of the heterotrimeric G-proteins of photoreceptors, the transducins, in relation to these events using both phylogenetic analyses and synteny comparisons. Three alpha subunit genes were identified in amniotes and the coelacanth, GNAT1-3; two of these were identified in amphibians and teleost fish, GNAT1 and GNAT2. Most tetrapods have four beta genes, GNB1-4, and teleosts have additional duplicates. Finally, three gamma genes were identified in mammals, GNGT1, GNG11 and GNGT2. Of these, GNGT1 and GNGT2 were found in the other vertebrates. In frog and zebrafish additional duplicates of GNGT2 were identified. Our analyses show all three transducin families expanded during the early vertebrate tetraploidizations and the beta and gamma families gained additional copies in the teleost-specific genome duplication. This suggests that the tetraploidizations contributed to visual specialisations.
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