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Sökning: WFRF:(Svenningsson Birgitta)

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  • Kerminen, V-M, et al. (författare)
  • Cloud condensation nuclei production associated with atmospheric nucleation: a synthesis based on existing literature and new results
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - : Copernicus Gesellschaft mbH. - 1680-7324 .- 1680-7316. ; 12:24, s. 12037-12059
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper synthesizes the available scientific information connecting atmospheric nucleation with subsequent cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) formation. We review both observations and model studies related to this topic, and discuss the potential climatic implications. We conclude that CCN production associated with atmospheric nucleation is both frequent and widespread phenomenon in many types of continental boundary layers, and probably also over a large fraction of the free troposphere. The contribution of nucleation to the global CCN budget spans a relatively large uncertainty range, which, together with our poor understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions, results in major uncertainties in the radiative forcing by atmospheric aerosols. In order to better quantify the role of atmospheric nucleation in CCN formation and Earth System behavior, more information is needed on (i) the factors controlling atmospheric CCN production and (ii) the properties of both primary and secondary CCN and their interconnections. In future investigations, more emphasis should be put on combining field measurements with regional and large-scale model studies.
  • Manninen, H. E., et al. (författare)
  • EUCAARI ion spectrometer measurements at 12 European sites - analysis of new particle formation events
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - : Copernicus Gesellschaft mbH. - 1680-7324 .- 1680-7316. ; 10:16, s. 7907-7927
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present comprehensive results on continuous atmospheric cluster and particle measurements in the size range similar to 1-42 nm within the European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions (EUCAARI) project. We focused on characterizing the spatial and temporal variation of new particle formation events and relevant particle formation parameters across Europe. Different types of air ion and cluster mobility spectrometers were deployed at 12 field sites across Europe from March 2008 to May 2009. The measurements were conducted in a wide variety of environments, including coastal and continental locations as well as sites at different altitudes (both in the boundary layer and the free troposphere). New particle formation events were detected at all of the 12 field sites during the year-long measurement period. From the data, nucleation and growth rates of newly formed particles were determined for each environment. In a case of parallel ion and neutral cluster measurements, we could also estimate the relative contribution of ion-induced and neutral nucleation to the total particle formation. The formation rates of charged particles at 2 nm accounted for 1-30% of the corresponding total particle formation rates. As a significant new result, we found out that the total particle formation rate varied much more between the different sites than the formation rate of charged particles. This work presents, so far, the most comprehensive effort to experimentally characterize nucleation and growth of atmospheric molecular clusters and nanoparticles at ground-based observation sites on a continental scale.
  • Rastak, N., et al. (författare)
  • Seasonal variation of aerosol water uptake and its impact on the direct radiative effect at Ny-Alesund, Svalbard
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - : Copernicus Gesellschaft mbH. - 1680-7324 .- 1680-7316. ; 14:14, s. 7445-7460
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this study we investigated the impact of water uptake by aerosol particles in ambient atmosphere on their optical properties and their direct radiative effect (ADRE, W m(-2)) in the Arctic at Ny-Alesund, Svalbard, during 2008. To achieve this, we combined three models, a hygroscopic growth model, a Mie model and a radiative transfer model, with an extensive set of observational data. We found that the seasonal variation of dry aerosol scattering coefficients showed minimum values during the summer season and the beginning of fall (July-August-September), when small particles (< 100 nm in diameter) dominate the aerosol number size distribution. The maximum scattering by dry particles was observed during the Arctic haze period (March-April-May) when the average size of the particles was larger. Considering the hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles in the ambient atmosphere had a significant impact on the aerosol scattering coefficients: the aerosol scattering coefficients were enhanced by on average a factor of 4.30 +/- 2.26 (mean +/- standard deviation), with lower values during the haze period (March-April-May) as compared to summer and fall. Hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles was found to cause 1.6 to 3.7 times more negative ADRE at the surface, with the smallest effect during the haze period (March-April-May) and the highest during late summer and beginning of fall (July-August-September).
  • Silvergren, Sanna, et al. (författare)
  • Hygroscopic growth and cloud forming potential of Arctic aerosol based on observed chemical and physical characteristics (a 1 year study 2007-2008)
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 2169-8996 .- 2169-897X. ; 119:24, s. 14080-14097
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aerosol particle samples were collected, and the particle size distribution was measured during 1 year at the Zeppelin station (474 m asl) on Svalbard. The chemical constituents, hygroscopicity, and cloud forming properties of the aerosol were analyzed. The aerosol contained mostly sulfate and nitrate during the summer, whereas from September to February the main components were sodium and chloride. The highest concentration (20%) of water-soluble organic matter was sampled in December. The hygroscopic growth factors for the water-soluble fraction were 1.56-2.01 at 90% relative humidity, peaking in October, when the measured supersaturations needed for cloud drop formation were also the lowest. Sea-salt components showed a positive correlation with the cloud forming capability, whereas the organic content had no correlation. The hygroscopicity factors, or kappa values, were determined in three ways for each month: (1)kappa(H-TDMA) from measurements of the hygroscopic growth of particles produced from atomization of the filter extracts, (2)kappa(CCNC) from measurements of the critical supersaturation as a function of size for these particles, and (3)kappa(chem) was modeled based on the organic and inorganic composition of the filter samples. Using the measured particle size distributions and the critical activation diameters from the Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter (CCNC) measurements, it was found that the number of CCN varied more with supersaturation during the summer months. The best agreement between all three kappa values was in December and January. Comparisons with earlier studies do not suggest any trend in the Arctic aerosol seasonal variability over the last decade.
  • Swietlicki, E., et al. (författare)
  • Hygroscopic properties of submicrometer atmospheric aerosol particles measured with H-TDMA instruments in various environments : a review
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Tellus. Series B, Chemical and physical meteorology. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0280-6509 .- 1600-0889. ; 60:3, s. 432-469
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The hygroscopic properties play a vital role for the direct and indirect effects of aerosols on climate, as well as the health effects of particulate matter (PM) by modifying the deposition pattern of inhaled particles in the humid human respiratory tract. Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (H-TDMA) instruments have been used in field campaigns in various environments globally over the last 25 yr to determine the water uptake on submicrometre particles at subsaturated conditions. These investigations have yielded valuable and comprehensive information regarding the particle hygroscopic properties of the atmospheric aerosol, including state of mixing. These properties determine the equilibrium particle size at ambient relative humidities and have successfully been used to calculate the activation of particles at water vapour supersaturation. This paper summarizes the existing published H-TDMA results on the size-resolved submicrometre aerosol particle hygroscopic properties obtained from ground-based measurements at multiple marine, rural, urban and free tropospheric measurement sites. The data is classified into groups of hygroscopic growth indicating the external mixture, and providing clues to the sources and processes controlling the aerosol. An evaluation is given on how different chemical and physical properties affect the hygroscopic growth.
  • Wittbom, C., et al. (författare)
  • Effect of solubility limitation on hygroscopic growth and cloud drop activation of SOA particles produced from traffic exhausts
  • Ingår i: Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry. - : Springer. - 0167-7764 .- 1573-0662. ; 75:4, s. 359-383
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hygroscopicity measurements of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles often show inconsistent results between the supersaturated and subsaturated regimes, with higher activity as cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) than indicated by hygroscopic growth. In this study, we have investigated the discrepancy between the two regimes in the Lund University (LU) smog chamber. Various anthropogenic SOA were produced from mixtures of different precursors: anthropogenic light aromatic precursors (toluene and m-xylene), exhaust from a diesel passenger vehicle spiked with the light aromatic precursors, and exhaust from two different gasoline-powered passenger vehicles. Three types of seed particles were used: soot aggregates from a diesel vehicle, soot aggregates from a flame soot generator and ammonium sulphate (AS) particles. The hygroscopicity of seed particles with condensed, photochemically produced, anthropogenic SOA was investigated with respect to critical supersaturation (sc) and hygroscopic growth factor (gf) at 90% relative humidity. The hygroscopicity parameter κ was calculated for the two regimes: κsc and κgf, from measurements of sc and gf, respectively. The two κ showed significant discrepancies, with a κgf /κsc ratio closest to one for the gasoline experiments with ammonium sulphate seed and lower for the soot seed experiments. Empirical observations of sc and gf were compared to theoretical predictions, using modified Köhler theory where water solubility limitations were taken into account. The results indicate that the inconsistency between measurements in the subsaturated and supersaturated regimes may be explained by part of the organic material in the particles produced from anthropogenic precursors having a limited solubility in water.
  • Ahlberg, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of salt seed particle surface area, composition and phase on secondary organic aerosol mass yields in oxidation flow reactors
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - : Copernicus Gesellschaft mbH. - 1680-7316. ; 19:4, s. 2701-2712
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Atmospheric particulate water is ubiquitous, affecting particle transport and uptake of gases. Yet, research on the effect of water on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mass yields is not consistent. In this study, the SOA mass yields of an α-pinene and m-xylene mixture, at a concentration of 60 μgm-3, were examined using an oxidation flow reactor operated at a relative humidity (RH) of 60% and a residence time of 160 s. Wet or dried ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate seed particles were used. By varying the amount of seed particle surface area, the underestimation of SOA formation induced by the short residence time in flow reactors was confirmed. Starting at a SOA mass concentration of 5 μgm-3, the maximum yield increased by a factor of 2 with dry seed particles and on average a factor of 3.2 with wet seed particles. Hence, wet particles increased the SOA mass yield by 60% compared to the dry experiment. Maximum yield in the reactor was achieved using a surface area concentration of 1600 μm2 cm-3. This corresponded to a condensational lifetime of 20 s for low-volatility organics. The O V C ratio of SOA on wet ammonium sulfate was significantly higher than when using ammonium nitrate or dry ammonium sulfate seed particles, probably due to differences in heterogeneous chemistry.
  • Ahlberg, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • No particle mass enhancement from induced atmospheric ageing at a rural site in northern Europe
  • Ingår i: Atmosphere. - : MDPI AG. - 2073-4433. ; 10:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A large portion of atmospheric aerosol particles consists of secondary material produced by oxidation reactions. The relative importance of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) can increase with improved emission regulations. A relatively simple way to study potential particle formation in the atmosphere is by using oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) which simulate atmospheric ageing. Here we report on the first ambient OFR ageing experiment in Europe, coupled with scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and proton transfer reaction (PTR)-MS measurements. We found that the simulated ageing did not produce any measurable increases in particle mass or number concentrations during the two months of the campaign due to low concentrations of precursors. Losses in the reactor increased with hydroxyl radical (OH) exposure and with increasing difference between ambient and reactor temperatures, indicating fragmentation and evaporation of semivolatile material.
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