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1.
  • Mukonzo, K, et al. (författare)
  • A novel polymorphism in ABCB1 gene, CYP2B6*6 and sex predict single-dose efavirenz population pharmacokinetics in Ugandans.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: British journal of clinical pharmacology. - 1365-2125. ; 68:5, s. 690-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • center dot Efavirenz is metabolized by highly polymorphic enzymes, CYP2B6 and CYP3A. The effect of the different variant alleles on efavirenz population pharmacokinetics has not yet been fully explored. center dot CYP2B6*6 influences efavirenz steady-state pharmacokinetics. Together with sex it explains 11% of the between-subject variability in apparent oral clearance, but predictions could potentially be improved if additional alleles causing reduced drug metabolism were identified. center dot ABCB1 (3435C -> T) may have effect on efavirenz single-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS center dot A new polymorphism in ABCB1 gene (rs3842) and CYP2B6*11 in addition to sex and CYP2B6*6 genotype predict efavirenz single-dose pharmacokinetics. center dot A combined population pharmacogenetic/pharmacokinetic modelling approach allows determination and simulation of determinant factors for efavirenz single-dose pharmacokinetics based on data on gender, biochemical variables and genetic factors in relevant genes (a total of 30 SNPs in CYP2B6, ABCB1 and CYP3A4 genes) in Ugandan population. AIMS Efavirenz exhibits pharmacokinetic variability causing varied clinical response. The aim was to develop an integrated population pharmacokinetic/pharmacogenetic model and investigate the impact of genetic variations, sex, demographic and biochemical variables on single-dose efavirenz pharmacokinetics among Ugandan subjects, using nonmem. METHODS Efavirenz plasma concentrations (n = 402) from 121 healthy subjects were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Subjects were genotyped for 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of which six were novel SNPs in CYP2B6, CYP3A5 and ABCB1. The efavirenz pharmacokinetics was described by a two-compartment model with zero- followed by first-order absorption. RESULTS Apparent oral clearance (95% confidence interval) was 4 l h l-1 (3.5, 4.5) in extensive metabolizers. In the final model, incorporating multiple covariates, statistical significance was found only for CYP2B6*6 and CYP2B6*11 on apparent oral clearance as well as ABCB1 (rs3842) on the relative bioavailability. Subjects homozygous for CYP2B6*6 (G516T, A785G) and *11 displayed 21 and 20% lower apparent oral clearance, respectively. Efavirenz relative bioavailability was 26% higher in subjects homozygous for ABCB1 (rs3842). The apparent peripheral volume of distribution was twofold higher in women compared with men. CONCLUSIONS The model identified the four factors CYP2B6*6, CYP2B6*11, a novel variant allele in ABCB1 (rs3842) and sex as major predictors of efavirenz plasma exposure in a healthy Ugandan population after single-dose administration. Use of mixed-effects modelling allowed the analysis and integration of multiple pharmacogenetic and demographic covariates in a pharmacokinetic population model.
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3.
  • Shah, Sonia, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association and Mendelian randomisation analysis provide insights into the pathogenesis of heart failure
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 11:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A small proportion of HF cases are attributable to monogenic cardiomyopathies and existing genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have yielded only limited insights, leaving the observed heritability of HF largely unexplained. We report results from a GWAS meta-analysis of HF comprising 47,309 cases and 930,014 controls. Twelve independent variants at 11 genomic loci are associated with HF, all of which demonstrate one or more associations with coronary artery disease (CAD), atrial fibrillation, or reduced left ventricular function, suggesting shared genetic aetiology. Functional analysis of non-CAD-associated loci implicate genes involved in cardiac development (MYOZ1, SYNPO2L), protein homoeostasis (BAG3), and cellular senescence (CDKN1A). Mendelian randomisation analysis supports causal roles for several HF risk factors, and demonstrates CAD-independent effects for atrial fibrillation, body mass index, and hypertension. These findings extend our knowledge of the pathways underlying HF and may inform new therapeutic strategies.
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4.
  • Svensson, Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor regulates human periodontal ligament cell production of pro-inflammatory cytokines
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Inflammation Research. - Birkhaüser. - 1023-3830. ; 66:9, s. 823-831
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Regulation of immune-like cell properties of periodontal ligament (PDL) cells is not understood. We investigate the importance of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) for production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in human PDL cells. Materials and methods: PDL cells were isolated from teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons. Cellular location of SLPI was investigated by immunocytochemistry. Cytokine transcript and protein expression were assessed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. SLPI gene activity was knocked-down by siRNA. NF-κB signaling was assessed by measuring IκBα, and phosphorylated p65 and p105 protein expression. Results: PDL cells showed cytoplasmic expression of SLPI. Cellular expression level of SLPI negatively correlated to LPS-induced stimulation of IL-6 and MCP-1. Both SLPI gene activity and protein were reduced by about 70% in PDL cells treated with SLPI siRNA compared to cells treated with non-coding construct. Treatment with SLPI siRNA was associated with up-regulation of both basal and LPS-stimulated IL-6, MCP-1 and TLRs mRNA expression. The up-regulation of MCP-1 transcript in SLPI siRNA-treated cells was confirmed on protein level. SLPI siRNA-treatment enhanced the phosphorylated NF-κB p105 protein expression. Conclusions: SLPI regulates PDL cell pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and modulates NF-κB signaling, suggesting that SLPI governs the immune cell-like properties of PDL cells.
5.
  • Zheng, Hou-Feng, et al. (författare)
  • Whole-genome sequencing identifies EN1 as a determinant of bone density and fracture
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 526:7571, s. 112-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The extent to which low-frequency (minor allele frequency (MAF) between 1-5%) and rare (MAF <= 1%) variants contribute to complex traits and disease in the general population is mainly unknown. Bone mineral density (BMD) is highly heritable, a major predictor of osteoporotic fractures, and has been previously associated with common genetic variants(1-8), as well as rare, population specific, coding variants(9). Here we identify novel non-coding genetic variants with large effects on BMD (n(total) = 53,236) and fracture (n(total) = 508,253) in individuals of European ancestry from the general population. Associations for BMD were derived from whole-genome sequencing (n = 2,882 from UK10K (ref. 10); a population-based genome sequencing consortium), whole-exome sequencing (n = 3,549), deep imputation of genotyped samples using a combined UK10K/1000 Genomes reference panel (n = 26,534), and de novo replication genotyping (n = 20,271). We identified a low-frequency non-coding variant near a novel locus, EN1, with an effect size fourfold larger than the mean of previously reported common variants for lumbar spine BMD8 (rs11692564(T), MAF51.6%, replication effect size510.20 s.d., P-meta = 2 x 10(-14)), which was also associated with a decreased risk of fracture (odds ratio = 0.85; P = 2 x 10(-11); ncases = 98,742 and ncontrols = 409,511). Using an En1cre/flox mouse model, we observed that conditional loss of En1 results in low bone mass, probably as a consequence of high bone turnover. We also identified a novel low frequency non-coding variant with large effects on BMD near WNT16 (rs148771817(T), MAF = 1.2%, replication effect size +10.41 s.d., P-meta = 1 x 10(-11)). In general, there was an excess of association signals arising from deleterious coding and conserved non-coding variants. These findings provide evidence that low-frequency non-coding variants have large effects on BMD and fracture, thereby providing rationale for whole-genome sequencing and improved imputation reference panels to study the genetic architecture of complex traits and disease in the general population.
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6.
  • Aidoukovitch, Alexandra, et al. (författare)
  • Antimicrobial peptide LL-37 and its pro-form, hCAP18, in desquamated epithelial cells of human whole saliva
  • ????
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Oral Sciences. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 0909-8836.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is active against oral bacteria and has been demonstrated to be present in human saliva, but its distribution in different fractions of saliva is not known. LL-37 is formed from its intracellular pro-form, hCAP18, in an extracellular enzymatic reaction catalyzed by proteinase 3 and kallikrein 5. Here, we prepared cell-containing and cell-free fractions of unstimulated human whole saliva by centrifugation after depolymerization of mucins with dithiothreitol, and measured the levels of hCAP18/LL-37 in these fractions using ELISA. Cellular expression of hCAP18/LL-37 was determined by western blotting and immunocytochemistry. The ELISA analyses demonstrated that both cells and cell-free saliva contained hCAP18/LL-37. Western blot analysis of cell-pellet homogenates showed a strong band corresponding to hCAP18 at the correct molecular weight and a weak band corresponding to LL-37. Phase-contrast and light microscopy revealed that the cells consisted of desquamated epithelial cells. These cells expressed cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for hCAP18/LL-37. The peripheral part of the cytoplasm, corresponding to the plasma membrane, was particularly rich in hCAP18/LL-37 immunoreactivity. No immunoreactivity was observed after omission of the primary antibody. We conclude that desquamated epithelial cells of human whole saliva contain antimicrobial hCAP18/LL-37, suggesting that these cells may take part in the innate immune system by harboring and releasing these peptides.
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7.
  • Aidoukovitch, Alexandra, et al. (författare)
  • Strontium chloride promotes cell proliferation in a human osteoblast cell line
  • 2014
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Strontium ranelate (SrRan) is the active component of drugs currently used for reducing the risk of fractures in patients suffering from osteoporosis. Despite extensive use, the underlying mechanisms of action of Sr2+ are not fully understood. In the present study, we assess the impact of SrCl2 on human osteoblast activity and proliferation. Cultures of the human osteoblast-like cell line MG63 were treated for 72 h in presence of 0.1 mM, 1 mM, 5 mM and 10 mM SrCl2 or vehicle, used in control groups. Cells were counted manually using a Bürker chamber. Total protein content was determined by colorimetric analysis performed by a microplate reader using Bio-Rad protein assay. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was determined enzymatically and normalized to total protein content in each sample. Cell viability was assessed using the MTT assay. Treatment with 5 mM SrCl2 for 72 h enhanced total MG63 cell protein content by 37% compared to controls (p<0.01). A lower concentration (0.1 mM) of SrCl2 had no effect on total protein. Incubation with 5 mM SrCl2 for 72 h increased MG63 cell number by 38% compared to controls (p<0.001). The SrCl2-induced increase in cell number was associated with enhanced (+14% compared to controls, p<0.05) cell viability. Treatment with a higher concentration (10 mM) of SrCl2 enhanced cell number similar to 5 mM SrCl2 (+54% compared to controls, p<0.05). Treatment with 0.1 or 5 mM SrCl2 for 72 h had no effect (p>0.05) on MG63 cell ALP activity, while 1 mM SrCl2 reduced ALP activity as well as total protein content by about 25% compared to controls (p<0.05). The current results demonstrate that treatment with SrCl2 for 72 h, at concentrations higher than 1 mM promotes cell proliferation in human osteoblast-like cells, suggesting that Sr2+ may enhance bone formation through this mechanism.
8.
  • Aidoukovitch, Alexandra, et al. (författare)
  • The host defense peptide LL-37 is internalized by human periodontal ligament cells and prevents LPS-induced MCP-1 production
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Periodontal Research. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 0022-3484. ; 54:6, s. 662-670
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The human host defense peptide LL-37 both shows antimicrobial effects and modulates host cell properties. Here, we assess the effects of synthesized LL-37 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells and investigates underlying mechanisms. Background: LL-37 has been detected in the periodontal tissues, but its functional importance for PDL cell innate immune responses is not known. Methods: Human PDL cells were obtained from premolars extracted on orthodontic indications. Cellular pro-inflammatory monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) mRNA expression was determined using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. MCP-1 protein production was assessed by western blot and ELISA. Internalization of LL-37 by PDL cells was visualized by immunocytochemistry. Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cell (NF-κB) activity was assessed by western blot of phosphorylated p65, phosphorylated p105, and IκBα proteins. Binding of LL-37 to PDL cell DNA was determined by isolation and purification of DNA and dot blot for LL-37 immunoreactivity. Results: Treatment with LL-37 (1 µmol/L) for 24 hours prevented LPS-induced stimulation of MCP-1 expression analyzed both on transcript and on protein levels. Stimulation with LL-37 (1 µmol/L) for 24 hours had no effect on toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR4 transcript expression, suggesting that LL-37 acts downstream of the TLRs. Preincubation with LL-37 for 60 minutes followed by stimulation with LPS for 24 hours in the absence of LL-37 completely prevented LPS-evoked MCP-1 transcript expression, implying that LL-37 acts intracellularly and not via binding and neutralization of LPS. In PDL cells stimulated with LL-37 for 60 minutes, the peptide was internalized as demonstrated by immunocytochemistry, suggesting an intracellular mechanism of action. LL-37 immunoreactivity was observed both in the cytosol and in the nucleus. Downregulation of LPS-induced MCP-1 by LL-37 was not mediated by reduction in NF-κB activity as shown by unaltered expression of phosphorylated p65, phosphorylated p105, and IκBα NF-κB proteins in the presence of LL-37. Immunoreactivity for LL-37 was observed in PDL cell DNA treated with but not without 0.1 and 1 µmol/L LL-37 for 60 minutes in vitro. Conclusion: LL-37 abolishes LPS-induced MCP-1 production in human PDL cells through an intracellular, NF-κB-independent mechanism which probably involves direct interaction between LL-37 and DNA.
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9.
  • Anders, Emma, et al. (författare)
  • Globular C1q receptor (p33) binds and stabilizes pro-inflammatory MCP-1 : a novel mechanism for regulation of MCP-1 production and function
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - Portland Press Limited. - 0264-6021. ; 475:4, s. 775-786
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The protein gC1qR (globular C1q receptor), also named p33, was originally identified as a binding partner of the globular heads of C1q in the complement system. gC1qR/p33 is abundantly expressed in many cell types, but the functional importance of this protein is not completely understood. Here, we investigate the impact of gC1qR/p33 on the production and function of the pathophysiologically important chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Knockdown of gC1qR/p33 negatively regulated the production of MCP-1, but had no effect on the expression of transcript for MCP-1 in human periodontal ligament cells, suggesting a translational/post-translational mechanism of action. Laser scanning confocal microscopy showed considerable cytosolic co-localization of gC1qR/p33 and MCP-1, and co-immunoprecipitation disclosed direct physical interaction between gC1qR/p33 and MCP-1. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed a high-affinity binding (KD = 10.9 nM) between gC1qR/p33 and MCP-1. Using a transwell migration assay, we found that recombinant gC1qR/p33 enhances MCP-1-induced migration of human THP-1 monocytes, pointing to a functional importance of the interaction between gC1qR/p33 and MCP-1. An in vitro assay revealed a rapid turnover of the MCP-1 protein and that gC1qR/ p33 stabilizes MCP-1, hence preventing its degradation. We propose that endogenous gC1qR/p33 physically interacts with MCP-1 causing stabilization of the MCP-1 protein and stimulation of its activity in human periodontal ligament cells, suggesting a novel gC1qR/p33-mediated pro-inflammatory mechanism of action.
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10.
  • Crouse, David F., et al. (författare)
  • The Set MHT
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: 14th International Conference on Information Fusion, Fusion 2011; Chicago, IL; 5 July 2011 through 8 July 2011. - 978-145770267-9
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract—We introduce the Set MHT, a tracking algorithmthat maintains multiple hypotheses and produces “smooth”estimates without the track coalescence often associated withMinimum Mean Squared Error (MMSE) estimation or thejitter associated with Maximum Likelihood (ML) estimation.It does this by utilizing Minimum Mean Optimal SubpatternAssignment (MMOSPA) estimation techniques coupled with atheoretically-grounded approach for probabilistically determiningthe identities of the state estimates. Unlike traditional MHTalgorithms, the Set MHT does not “forget” uncertainty in targetidentities, i.e. display an unjustifiably high confidence level inthe target identities, as a result of pruning out competinghypotheses. Rather, it uses merging techniques while avoiding theshortcomings of traditional Gaussian mixture reduction trackers.
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