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  • Boy, M., et al. (författare)
  • Interactions between the atmosphere, cryosphere, and ecosystems at northern high latitudes
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - : COPERNICUS GESELLSCHAFT MBH. - 1680-7316 .- 1680-7324. ; 19:3, s. 2015-2061
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Nordic Centre of Excellence CRAICC (Cryosphere-Atmosphere Interactions in a Changing Arctic Climate), funded by NordForsk in the years 2011-2016, is the largest joint Nordic research and innovation initiative to date, aiming to strengthen research and innovation regarding climate change issues in the Nordic region. CRAICC gathered more than 100 scientists from all Nordic countries in a virtual centre with the objectives of identifying and quantifying the major processes controlling Arctic warming and related feedback mechanisms, outlining strategies to mitigate Arctic warming, and developing Nordic Earth system modelling with a focus on short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs), including natural and anthropogenic aerosols. The outcome of CRAICC is reflected in more than 150 peer-reviewed scientific publications, most of which are in the CRAICC special issue of the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. This paper presents an overview of the main scientific topics investigated in the centre and provides the reader with a state-of-the-art comprehensive summary of what has been achieved in CRAICC with links to the particular publications for further detail. Faced with a vast amount of scientific discovery, we do not claim to completely summarize the results from CRAICC within this paper, but rather concentrate here on the main results which are related to feedback loops in climate change-cryosphere interactions that affect Arctic amplification.
  • Chen, X., et al. (författare)
  • A genome-wide association study of IgM antibody against phosphorylcholine: shared genetics and phenotypic relationship to chronic lymphocytic leukemia
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - : Oxford University Press. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 27:10, s. 1809-1818
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Phosphorylcholine (PC) is an epitope on oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), apoptotic cells and several pathogens like Streptococcus pneumoniae. Immunoglobulin M against PC (IgM anti-PC) has the ability to inhibit uptake of oxLDL by macrophages and increase clearance of apoptotic cells. From our genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in four European-ancestry cohorts, six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 11q24.1 were discovered (in 3002 individuals) and replicated (in 646 individuals) to be associated with serum level of IgM anti-PC (the leading SNP rs35923643-G, combined beta = 0.19, 95% confidence interval 0.13-0.24, P = 4.3 x 10-11). The haplotype tagged by rs35923643-G (or its proxy SNP rs735665-A) is also known as the top risk allele for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and a main increasing allele for general IgM. By using summary GWAS results of IgM anti-PC and CLL in the polygenic risk score (PRS) analysis, PRS on the basis of IgM anti-PC risk alleles positively associated with CLL risk (explained 0.6% of CLL variance, P = 1.2 x 10-15). Functional prediction suggested that rs35923643-G might impede the binding of Runt-related transcription factor 3, a tumor suppressor playing a central role in the immune regulation of cancers. Contrary to the expectations from the shared genetics between IgM anti-PC and CLL, an inverse relationship at the phenotypic level was found in a nested case-control study (30 CLL cases with 90 age- and sex-matched controls), potentially reflecting reverse causation. The suggested function of the top variant as well as the phenotypic association between IgM anti-PC and CLL risk needs replication and motivates further studies.
  • Abbott, J. K., et al. (författare)
  • Patterns of differentiation in a colour polymorphism and in neutral markers reveal rapid genetic changes in natural damselfly populations
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Molecular Ecology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0962-1083 .- 1365-294X. ; 17:6, s. 1597-1604
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The existence and mode of selection operating on heritable adaptive traits can be inferred by comparing population differentiation in neutral genetic variation between populations (often using F-ST values) with the corresponding estimates for adaptive traits. Such comparisons indicate if selection acts in a diversifying way between populations, in which case differentiation in selected traits is expected to exceed differentiation in neutral markers [F-ST (selected) > F-ST (neutralfl, or if negative frequency-dependent selection maintains genetic polymorphisms and pulls populations towards a common stable equilibrium [FST (selected) < F-ST (neutral)]. Here, we compared F-ST values for putatively neutral data (obtained using amplified fragment length polymorphism) with estimates of differentiation in morph frequencies in the colour-polymorphic damselfly Ischnura elegans. We found that in the first year (2000), population differentiation in morph frequencies was significantly greater than differentiation in neutral loci, while in 2002 (only 2 years and 2 generations later), population differentiation in morph frequencies had decreased to a level significantly lower than differentiation in neutral loci. Genetic drift as an explanation for population differentiation in morph frequencies could thus be rejected in both years. These results indicate that the type and/or strength of selection on morph frequencies in this system can change substantially between years. We suggest that an approach to a common equilibrium morph frequency across all populations, driven by negative frequency-dependent selection, is the cause of these temporal changes. We conclude that inferences about selection obtained by comparing F-ST values from neutral and adaptive genetic variation are most useful when spatial and temporal data are available from several populations and time points and when such information is combined with other ecological sources of data.
  • Abbott, Jessica K., et al. (författare)
  • Phenotypic and genetic variation in emergence and development time of a trimorphic damselfly
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Journal of Evolutionary Biology. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 1010-061X .- 1420-9101. ; 18:6, s. 1464-1470
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although colour polymorphisms in adult organisms of many taxa are often adaptive in the context of sexual selection or predation, genetic correlations between colour and other phenotypic traits expressed early in ontogeny could also play an important role in polymorphic systems. We studied phenotypic and genetic variation in development time among female colour morphs in the polymorphic damselfly Ischnura elegans in the field and by raising larvae in a common laboratory environment. In the field, the three different female morphs emerged at different times. Among laboratory-raised families, we found evidence of a significant correlation between maternal morph and larval development time in both sexes. This suggests that the phenotypic correlation between morph and emergence time in the field has a parallel in a genetic correlation between maternal colour and offspring development time. Maternal colour morph frequencies could thus potentially change as correlated responses to selection on larval emergence dates. The similar genetic correlation in male offspring suggests that sex-limitation in this system is incomplete, which may lead to an ontogenetic sexual conflict between selection for early male emergence (protandry) and emergence times associated with maternal morph.
  • Abbott, Jessica, et al. (författare)
  • Ontogeny of sexual dimorphism and phenotypic integration in heritable morphs
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Evolutionary Ecology. - : Springer. - 1573-8477 .- 0269-7653. ; 22:1, s. 103-121
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this study we investigated the developmental basis of adult phenotypes in a non-model organism, a polymorphic damselfly (Ischnura elegans) with three female colour morphs. This polymorphic species presents an ideal opportunity to study intraspecific variation in growth trajectories, morphological variation in size and shape during the course of ontogeny, and to relate these juvenile differences to the phenotypic differences of the discrete adult phenotypes; the two sexes and the three female morphs. We raised larvae of different families in individual enclosures in the laboratory, and traced morphological changes during the course of ontogeny. We used principal components analysis to examine the effects of Sex, Maternal morph, and Own morph on body size and body shape. We also investigated the larval fitness consequences of variation in size and shape by relating these factors to emergence success. Females grew faster than males and were larger as adults, and there was sexual dimorphism in body shape in both larval and adult stages. There were also significant effects of both maternal morph and own morph on growth rate and body shape in the larval stage. There were significant differences in body shape, but not body size, between the adult female morphs, indicating phenotypic integration between colour, melanin patterning, and body shape. Individuals that emerged successfully grew faster and had different body shape in the larval stage, indicating internal (non-ecological) selection on larval morphology. Overall, morphological differences between individuals at the larval stage carried over to the adult stage. Thus, selection in the larval stage can potentially result in correlated responses in adult phenotypes and vice versa.
  • Ahlberg, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • "Vi klimatforskare stödjer Greta och skolungdomarna"
  • Ingår i: Dagens nyheter (DN debatt). - 1101-2447.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • DN DEBATT 15/3. Sedan industrialiseringens början har vi använt omkring fyra femtedelar av den mängd fossilt kol som får förbrännas för att vi ska klara Parisavtalet. Vi har bara en femtedel kvar och det är bråttom att kraftigt reducera utsläppen. Det har Greta Thunberg och de strejkande ungdomarna förstått. Därför stödjer vi deras krav, skriver 270 klimatforskare.
  • Almqvist, Erik G, et al. (författare)
  • Increased plasma concentrations of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in patients with mild primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Clinical endocrinology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0300-0664 .- 1365-2265. ; 65:6, s. 760-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is associated with heart disease. The aims of the present study were to evaluate how cardiac function and secretion of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) correlate in patients with mild PHPT, and how the plasma level of NT-proBNP is influenced by cure of the parathyroid disease. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: Forty-two patients with PHPT without symptoms of heart disease were examined before and 1 year after curative parathyroidectomy. MEASUREMENTS: Plasma or serum concentrations of NT-proBNP, calcium, PTH, creatinine, oestradiol, testosterone and SHBG were measured. Cardiac function was evaluated by equilibrium radionuclide angiography (ERNA). RESULTS: At baseline, NT-proBNP levels correlated negatively with systolic function [left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), P < 0.001]. Twelve per cent of the patients had NT-proBNP levels above normal reference values preoperatively. One year postoperatively, the corresponding proportion was 21%. The mean plasma concentration of NT-proBNP increased after parathyroidectomy (P < 0.01) in parallel with a dip in diastolic function (peak filling rate, P < 0.05) and a falling trend in systolic function (LVEF, P = 0.08). The postoperative percentage changes in circulating NT-proBNP and total oestradiol correlated positively (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with mild PHPT and normal renal function may have high levels of circulating NT-proBNP despite the absence of symptomatic heart disease. Cure of the parathyroid disease is followed by a further increase in NT-proBNP secretion in parallel with ERNA measures, indicating subclinical changes in heart function. These results are in line with data indicating an association between PHPT and increased risk of premature death.
  • Amombo Noa, Francoise Mystere, 1988, et al. (författare)
  • Metal-Organic Frameworks with Hexakis(4-carboxyphenyl)benzene: Extensions to Reticular Chemistry and Introducing Foldable Nets
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Chemical Society. - 1520-5126 .- 0002-7863. ; 142:20, s. 9471-9481
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nine metal-organic frameworks have been prepared with the hexagon-shaped linker 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis(4-carboxyphenyl)-benzene (H(6)cpb) by solvothermal reactions in dimethylformamide (dmf) or dimethylacetamide (dmac) with acetic acid or formic acid as modulators: [Bi-2(cpb)(acetato)(2)(dmf)(2)]center dot 2dmf CTH-6 forms a rtl-net; 2(H2NMe2)[Cu-2(cpb)] CTH-7 forms a kgd-net; [Fe-4(cpb)-(acetato)(2)(dmf)(4)] CTH-8 and [Co-4(cpb)(acetato)(2)(dmf)(4)] CTH-9 are isostructural and form yav-nets; 2(HNEt3)[Fe-2(cpb)] CTH-10 and the two polymorphs of 2(H2NMe2)[Zn-2(cpb)]center dot 1.5dmac, Zn-MOF-888 and CTH-11, show kgd-nets; [Cu-2(cpb)-(acetato)(2)(dmf)(2)]center dot 2dmf, CTH-12, forms a mixed coordination and hydrogen-bonded sql-net; and 2(H2NMe2)[Zn-2(cpb)] CTH-13, a similarly mixed yav-net. Surface area values (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, BET) range from 34 m(2) g(-1) for CTH-12 to 303 m(2) g(-1) for CTH-9 for samples activated at 120 degrees C in dynamic vacuum. All compounds show normal (10-fold higher) molar CO2 versus N-2 uptake at 298 K, except the 19-fold CO2 uptake for CTH-12 containing Cu(II) dinuclear paddle-wheels. We also show how perfect hexagons and triangles can combine to a new 3D topology laf, a model of which gave us the idea of foldable network topologies, as the laf-net can fold into a 2D form while retaining the local geometry around each vertex. Other foldable nets identified are cds, cds-a, ths, sqc163, clh, jem, and tfc covering the basic polygons and their combinations. The impact of this concept on "breathing" MOFs is discussed. I-2 sorption, both from gas phase and from MeOH solution, into CTH-7 were studied by time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) on dried crystals. I-2 was shown to have penetrated the crystals, as layers were consecutively peeled off by the ion beam. We suggest ToF-SIMS to be a method for studying sorption depth profiles of MOFs.
  • Carlsson, Georg, et al. (författare)
  • Perennial species mixtures for multifunctional production of biomass on marginal land
  • Ingår i: GCB Bioenergy. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 1757-1693 .- 1757-1707. ; 9:1, s. 191-201
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Multifunctional agriculture provides noncommodity functions and services along with food, feed and bioenergy feedstocks, for example by preserving or promoting biodiversity, improving soil fertility, mitigating climate change and environmental degradation, and contributing to the socio-economic viability of rural areas. Producing biomass for bioenergy from low-input perennial species mixtures on marginal land has the potential to support biodiversity and soil carbon sequestration in synergy with greenhouse gas mitigation. We compared biomass production in species-rich mixtures of perennial grasses, legumes and forbs with pure-stand grasses and relatively species-poor mixtures under different nitrogen fertilization regimes. Field experiments were performed on different types of marginal land, that is agricultural field margins and land with poor soil fertility, at four sites in southernmost and western Sweden. Biomass production was measured for three years in perennial grasses grown as pure stands, in legume-grass mixtures, and legume-grass-forb mixtures across a species richness gradient. In unfertilized species-rich mixtures, average biomass yields per experimental site and year were in the range from 3 to 9 metric ton DM ha−1 yr−1. While the most productive pure-stand grasses fertilized with 60–120 kg N ha−1 yr−1 often produced higher biomass yields than unfertilized mixtures, these differences were generally smaller than the variations between years and sites. Calculations of climate impact using the harvested biomass for conversion to biogas as vehicle fuel showed that the average greenhouse gas emissions per energy unit were about 50% lower in unfertilized systems than in treatments fertilized with 100–120 kg N ha−1 yr−1. Our findings thereby show that unfertilized species-rich perennial plant mixtures on marginal land provide resource-efficient biomass production and contribute to the mitigation of climate change. Perennial species mixtures managed with low inputs thus promote synergies between productivity and biodiversity in the perspective of climate-smart and multifunctional biomass production.
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