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Sökning: WFRF:(Svensson Jan Olof)

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  • Mukonzo, K, et al. (författare)
  • A novel polymorphism in ABCB1 gene, CYP2B6*6 and sex predict single-dose efavirenz population pharmacokinetics in Ugandans.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: British journal of clinical pharmacology. - 1365-2125. ; 68:5, s. 690-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • center dot Efavirenz is metabolized by highly polymorphic enzymes, CYP2B6 and CYP3A. The effect of the different variant alleles on efavirenz population pharmacokinetics has not yet been fully explored. center dot CYP2B6*6 influences efavirenz steady-state pharmacokinetics. Together with sex it explains 11% of the between-subject variability in apparent oral clearance, but predictions could potentially be improved if additional alleles causing reduced drug metabolism were identified. center dot ABCB1 (3435C -> T) may have effect on efavirenz single-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS center dot A new polymorphism in ABCB1 gene (rs3842) and CYP2B6*11 in addition to sex and CYP2B6*6 genotype predict efavirenz single-dose pharmacokinetics. center dot A combined population pharmacogenetic/pharmacokinetic modelling approach allows determination and simulation of determinant factors for efavirenz single-dose pharmacokinetics based on data on gender, biochemical variables and genetic factors in relevant genes (a total of 30 SNPs in CYP2B6, ABCB1 and CYP3A4 genes) in Ugandan population. AIMS Efavirenz exhibits pharmacokinetic variability causing varied clinical response. The aim was to develop an integrated population pharmacokinetic/pharmacogenetic model and investigate the impact of genetic variations, sex, demographic and biochemical variables on single-dose efavirenz pharmacokinetics among Ugandan subjects, using nonmem. METHODS Efavirenz plasma concentrations (n = 402) from 121 healthy subjects were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Subjects were genotyped for 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of which six were novel SNPs in CYP2B6, CYP3A5 and ABCB1. The efavirenz pharmacokinetics was described by a two-compartment model with zero- followed by first-order absorption. RESULTS Apparent oral clearance (95% confidence interval) was 4 l h l-1 (3.5, 4.5) in extensive metabolizers. In the final model, incorporating multiple covariates, statistical significance was found only for CYP2B6*6 and CYP2B6*11 on apparent oral clearance as well as ABCB1 (rs3842) on the relative bioavailability. Subjects homozygous for CYP2B6*6 (G516T, A785G) and *11 displayed 21 and 20% lower apparent oral clearance, respectively. Efavirenz relative bioavailability was 26% higher in subjects homozygous for ABCB1 (rs3842). The apparent peripheral volume of distribution was twofold higher in women compared with men. CONCLUSIONS The model identified the four factors CYP2B6*6, CYP2B6*11, a novel variant allele in ABCB1 (rs3842) and sex as major predictors of efavirenz plasma exposure in a healthy Ugandan population after single-dose administration. Use of mixed-effects modelling allowed the analysis and integration of multiple pharmacogenetic and demographic covariates in a pharmacokinetic population model.
  • Bostrom, Pontus, et al. (författare)
  • The SNARE protein SNAP23 and the SNARE-interacting protein Munc18c in human skeletal muscle are implicated in insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 1939-327X. ; 59:8, s. 1870-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE-Our previous studies suggest that the SNARE protein synaptosomal-associated protein of 23 kDa (SNAP23) is involved in the link between increased lipid levels and insulin resistance in cardiomyocytes. The objective was to determine whether SNAP23 may also be involved in the known association between lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle and insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes in humans, as well as to identify a potential regulator of SNAP23. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-We analyzed skeletal muscle biopsies from patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy, insulin-sensitive control subjects for expression (mRNA and protein) and intracellular localization (subcellular fractionation and immunohistochemistry) of SNAP23, and for expression of proteins known to interact with SNARE proteins. Insulin resistance was determined by a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp Potential mechanisms for regulation of SNAP23 were also investigated in the skeletal muscle cell line L6. RESULTS-We showed increased SNAP23 levels in skeletal muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes compared with that from lean control subjects Moreover, SNAP23 was redistributed from the plasma membrane to the microsomal/cytosolic compartment in the patients with the type 2 diabetes Expression of the SNARE-interacting protein Munc18c was higher in skeletal muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes Studies in L6 cells showed that Munc18c promoted the expression of SNAP23. CONCLUSIONS-We have translated our previous in vitro results into humans by showing that there is a change in the distribution of SNAP23 to the interior of the cell in skeletal muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes. We also showed that Munc18c is a potential regulator of SNAP23. Diabetes 59: 1870-1878, 2010
  • Albin, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • Situation for carers of the elderly in Sweden
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Studies of Community Welfare: Chiiki Fukushi Kenkyu. - Nihon Seimei Saiseikai Osaka. ; :38, s. 72-83
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In most societies informal care of the elderly (often given by a relative) plays an important role, this article describes the situation and support for carers that exist in Sweden. The description is partly based on the results from the evaluation of a project (“Anhörig 300”) aimed to develop support for carers in the County of Kronoberg as well as from information and documents. Four different typical situations for carers are identified and is an indication of how different situations for carers can be. In the future the support for carers must be paid attention to and further developed. The National Development Plan for the Nursing and Care for elderly in Sweden suggest increased support for carers as a supplement to the public sector elderly care. It is important to involve voluntary organizations to break isolation and loneliness among carers.
  • Axelsson, Robert, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of Multi-level Social Learning for Sustainable Landscapes : Perspective of a Development Initiative in Bergslagen, Sweden
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Ambio. - Springer Netherlands. - 0044-7447. ; 42:2, s. 241-253
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To implement policies about sustainable landscapes and rural development necessitates social learning about states and trends of sustainability indicators, norms that define sustainability, and adaptive multi-level governance. We evaluate the extent to which social learning at multiple governance levels for sustainable landscapes occur in 18 local development initiatives in the network of Sustainable Bergslagen in Sweden. We mapped activities over time, and interviewed key actors in the network about social learning. While activities resulted in exchange of experiences and some local solutions, a major challenge was to secure systematic social learning and make new knowledge explicit at multiple levels. None of the development initiatives used a systematic approach to secure social learning, and sustainability assessments were not made systematically. We discuss how social learning can be improved, and how a learning network of development initiatives could be realized.
  • Boström, Pontus, 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • Hypoxia converts human macrophages into triglyceride-loaded foam cells.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology. - 1524-4636. ; 26:8, s. 1871-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Atherosclerotic lesions have regions that are hypoxic. Because the lesion contains macrophages that are loaded with lipid, we investigated whether hypoxia can influence the accumulation of lipids in these cells. METHODS AND RESULTS: Exposure of human macrophages to hypoxia for 24 hours resulted in an increased formation of cytosolic lipid droplets and an increased accumulation of triglycerides. Exposure of the macrophages to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) increased the accumulation of cytosolic lipid droplets because of an increase in cellular cholesterol esters. The accumulation of lipid droplets in oxLDL-treated cells was further increased after hypoxia, caused by an increased level of triglycerides. Expression analyses combined with immunoblot or RT-PCR demonstrated that hypoxia increased the expression of several genes that could promote the accumulation of lipid droplets. Hypoxia increased the mRNA and protein levels of adipocyte differentiation-related protein (ADRP). It is well known that an increased expression of ADRP increases the formation of lipid droplets. Hypoxia decreased the expression of enzymes involved in beta-oxidation (acyl-coenzyme A synthetase and acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase) and increased the expression of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase, an important enzyme in the fatty acid biosynthesis. Moreover, exposure to hypoxia decreased the rate of beta-oxidation, whereas the accumulation of triglycerides increased. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that exposure of human macrophages to hypoxia causes an accumulation of triglyceride-containing cytosolic lipid droplets. This indicates that the hypoxia present in atherosclerotic lesions can contribute to the formation of the lipid-loaded macrophages that characterize the lesion and to the accumulation of triglycerides in such lesions.
  • Dahlberg, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Den nya rödlistan har 746 svampar
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Svensk mykologisk tidskrift. - Sveriges Mykologiska Förening. - 1653-0357. ; 31:2, s. 37-47
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The new Red List that was recently presented by the Swedish Species Information Centre (Gärdenfors 2010) includes 746 species of fungi considered to be threatened. Compared to the previous Red List published in 2005, 36 species have been down-listed whereas 150 species have been added, thus the list has increased by 114. The changes are above all due to increased knowledge of taxonomy, ecology and distribution. In the present paper members of the Species Specialist Group for Fungi 2006-2010 summarize the background and results of the red-listing process and present the habitats in which the red-listed species occur.
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