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Sökning: WFRF:(Swanson C)

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  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)
  • Klionsky, Daniel J., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy in higher eukaryotes
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - : Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8627 .- 1554-8635. ; 4:2, s. 151-175
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,1 and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoring macroautophagy in different organisms. Recent reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose.2,3 There are many useful and convenient methods that can be used to monitor macroautophagy in yeast, but relatively few in other model systems, and there is much confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure macroautophagy in higher eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers of autophagosomes versus those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway; thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from fully functional autophagy that includes delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of the methods that can be used by investigators who are attempting to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as by reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that investigate these processes. This set of guidelines is not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to verify an autophagic response.
  • Zhang, Y., et al. (författare)
  • Galaxies in X-ray selected clusters and groups in Dark Energy Survey data - II. Hierarchical Bayesian modelling of the red-sequence galaxy luminosity function
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: ; 488:1, s. 1-17
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Using similar to 100 X-ray selected clusters in the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data, we constrain the luminosity function ( LF) of cluster red-sequence galaxies as a function of redshift. This is the first homogeneous optical/X-ray sample large enough to constrain the evolution of the LF simultaneously in redshift ( 0.1 < z < 1.05) and cluster mass ( 13.5 <= log(10)( M-200crit) similar to< 15.0). We pay particular attention to completeness issues and the detection limit of the galaxy sample. We then apply a hierarchical Bayesian model to fit the cluster galaxy LFs via a Schechter function, including its characteristic break ( m*) to a faint end power-law slope ( alpha). Our method enables us to avoid known issues in similar analyses based on stacking or binning the clusters. We find weak and statistically insignificant (similar to 1.9 sigma) evolution in the faint end slope alpha versus redshift. We also find no dependence in alpha or m* with the X-ray inferred cluster masses. However, the amplitude of the LF as a function of cluster mass is constrained to similar to 20 per cent precision. As a by-product of our algorithm, we utilize the correlation between the LF and cluster mass to provide an improved estimate of the individual cluster masses as well as the scatter in true mass given the X-ray inferred masses. This technique can be applied to a larger sample of X-ray or optically selected clusters from the Dark Energy Survey, significantly improving the sensitivity of the analysis.
  • Alavi, A., et al. (författare)
  • Workshop on hypoglycemia and the brain
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics. - : Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.. - 1520-9156. ; 3:3, s. 469-516
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Adcox, K, et al. (författare)
  • PHENIX detector overview
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors, and Associated Equipment. - : Elsevier. - 0167-5087. ; 499:2-3, s. 469-479
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The PHENIX detector is designed to perform a broad study of A-A, p-A, and p-p collisions to investigate nuclear matter under extreme conditions. A wide variety of probes, sensitive to all timescales, are used to study systematic variations with species and energy as well as to measure the spin structure of the nucleon. Designing for the needs of the heavy-ion and polarized-proton programs has produced a detector with unparalleled capabilities. PHENIX measures electron and muon pairs, photons, and hadrons with excellent energy and momentum resolution. The detector consists of a large number of subsystems that are discussed in other papers in this volume. The overall design parameters of the detector are presented. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Gutierrez, C. P., et al. (författare)
  • DES16C3cje : A low-luminosity, long-lived supernova
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 496:1, s. 95-110
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present DES16C3cje, a low-luminosity, long-lived type II supernova (SN II) at redshift 0.0618, detected by the Dark Energy Survey (DES). DES16C3cje is a unique SN. The spectra are characterized by extremely narrow photospheric lines corresponding to very low expansion velocities of less than or similar to 1500 km s(-1), and the light curve shows an initial peak that fades after 50 d before slowly rebrightening over a further 100 d to reach an absolute brightness of M-r similar to 15.5 mag. The decline rate of the late-time light curve is then slower than that expected from the powering by radioactive decay of Co-56, but is comparable to that expected from accretion power. Comparing the bolometric light curve with hydrodynamical models, we find that DES16C3cje can be explained by either (i) a low explosion energy (0.11 foe) and relatively large Ni-56 production of 0.075 M-circle dot from an similar to 15 M-circle dot red supergiant progenitor typical of other SNe II, or (ii) a relatively compact similar to 40 M-circle dot star, explosion energy of 1 foe, and 0.08 M-circle dot of Ni-56. Both scenarios require additional energy input to explain the late-time light curve, which is consistent with fallback accretion at a rate of similar to 0.5 x 10(-)(8) M-circle dot s(-1).
  • Scolnic, D., et al. (författare)
  • How Many Kilonovae Can Be Found in Past, Present, and Future Survey Data Sets?
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters. - 2041-8205 .- 2041-8213. ; 852:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The discovery of a kilonova (KN) associated with the Advanced LIGO (aLIGO)/Virgo event GW170817 opens up new avenues of multi-messenger astrophysics. Here, using realistic simulations, we provide estimates of the number of KNe that could be found in data from past, present, and future surveys without a gravitational-wave trigger. For the simulation, we construct a spectral time-series model based on the DES-GW multi-band light curve from the single known KN event, and we use an average of BNS rates from past studies of 103Gpc(-3) yr(-1), consistent with the one event found so far. Examining past and current data sets from transient surveys, the number of KNe we expect to find for ASAS-SN, SDSS, PS1, SNLS, DES, and SMT is between 0 and 0.3. We predict the number of detections per future survey to be 8.3 from ATLAS, 10.6 from ZTF, 5.5/69 from LSST (the Deep Drilling/Wide Fast Deep), and 16.0 from WFIRST. The maximum redshift of KNe discovered for each survey is z = 0.8 for WFIRST, z = 0.25 for LSST, and z = 0.04 for ZTF and ATLAS. This maximum redshift for WFIRST is well beyond the sensitivity of aLIGO and some future GW missions. For the LSST survey, we also provide contamination estimates from Type Ia and core-collapse supernovae: after light curve and template-matching requirements, we estimate a background of just two events. More broadly, we stress that future transient surveys should consider how to optimize their search strategies to improve their detection efficiency and to consider similar analyses for GW follow-up programs.
  • Albert, A. (författare)
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 834:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We search for excess gamma-ray emission coincident with the positions of confirmed and candidate Milky Way satellite galaxies using six years of data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Our sample of 45 stellar systems includes 28 kinematically confirmed dark-matter-dominated dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) and 17 recently discovered systems that have photometric characteristics consistent with the population of known dSphs. For each of these targets, the relative predicted gamma-ray flux due to dark matter annihilation is taken from kinematic analysis if available, and estimated from a distance-based scaling relation otherwise, assuming that the stellar systems are DM-dominated dSphs. LAT data coincident with four of the newly discovered targets show a slight preference (each similar to 2 sigma local) for gamma-ray emission in excess of the background. However, the ensemble of derived gamma-ray flux upper limits for individual targets is consistent with the expectation from analyzing random blank-sky regions, and a combined analysis of the population of stellar systems yields no globally significant excess (global significance < 1 sigma). Our analysis has increased sensitivity compared to the analysis of 15 confirmed dSphs by Ackermann et al. The observed constraints on the DM annihilation cross section are statistically consistent with the background expectation, improving by a factor of similar to 2 for large DM masses (m(DM, b<(b)over bar>) greater than or similar to 1 TeV and m(DM, tau+tau-) greater than or similar to 70 GeV) and weakening by a factor of similar to 1.5 at lower masses relative to previously observed limits.
  • Drlica-Wagner, A. (författare)
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters. - 2041-8205 .- 2041-8213. ; 809:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Due to their proximity, high dark-matter (DM) content, and apparent absence of non-thermal processes, Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies (dSphs) are excellent targets for the indirect detection of DM. Recently, eight new dSph candidates were discovered using the first year of data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We searched for gamma-ray emission coincident with the positions of these new objects in six years of Fermi Large Area Telescope data. We found no significant excesses of gamma-ray emission. Under the assumption that the DES candidates are dSphs with DM halo properties similar to the known dSphs, we computed individual and combined limits on the velocity-averaged DM annihilation cross section for these new targets. If the estimated DM content of these dSph candidates is confirmed, they will constrain the annihilation cross section to lie below the thermal relic cross section for DM particles with masses less than or similar to 20 GeV annihilating via the b (b) over bar or pi(+)pi(-) channels.
  • Eriksson, Anna-Lena, 1971, et al. (författare)
  • SHBG gene promoter polymorphisms in men are associated with serum sex hormone-binding globulin, androgen and androgen metabolite levels, and hip bone mineral density.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - : Oxford University Press. - 0021-972X .- 1945-7197. ; 91:12, s. 5029-37
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CONTEXT: SHBG regulates free sex steroid levels, which in turn regulate skeletal homeostasis. Twin studies have demonstrated that genetic factors largely account for interindividual variation in SHBG levels. Glucuronidated androgen metabolites have been proposed as markers of androgenic activity. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate whether polymorphisms in the SHBG gene promoter [(TAAAA)(n) microsatellite and rs1799941 single-nucleotide polymorphism] are associated with serum levels of SHBG, sex steroids, or bone mineral density (BMD) in men. DESIGN AND STUDY SUBJECTS: We conducted a population-based study of two cohorts of Swedish men: elderly men (MrOS Sweden; n congruent with 3000; average age, 75.4 yr) and young adult men (GOOD study; n = 1068; average age, 18.9 yr). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We measured serum levels of SHBG, testosterone, estradiol, dihydrotestosterone, 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol glucuronides, androsterone glucuronide, and BMD determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: In both cohorts, (TAAAA)(n) and rs1799941 genotypes were associated with serum levels of SHBG (P < 0.001), dihydrotestosterone (P < 0.05), and 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol glucuronides (P < 0.05). In the elderly men, they were also associated with testosterone and BMD at all hip bone sites. The genotype associated with high levels of SHBG was also associated with high BMD. Interestingly, male mice overexpressing human SHBG had increased cortical bone mineral content in the femur, suggesting that elevated SHBG levels may cause increased bone mass. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that polymorphisms in the SHBG promoter predict serum levels of SHBG, androgens, and glucuronidated androgen metabolites, and hip BMD in men.
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