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  • Boy, M., et al. (författare)
  • Interactions between the atmosphere, cryosphere, and ecosystems at northern high latitudes
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - : COPERNICUS GESELLSCHAFT MBH. - 1680-7316 .- 1680-7324. ; 19:3, s. 2015-2061
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Nordic Centre of Excellence CRAICC (Cryosphere-Atmosphere Interactions in a Changing Arctic Climate), funded by NordForsk in the years 2011-2016, is the largest joint Nordic research and innovation initiative to date, aiming to strengthen research and innovation regarding climate change issues in the Nordic region. CRAICC gathered more than 100 scientists from all Nordic countries in a virtual centre with the objectives of identifying and quantifying the major processes controlling Arctic warming and related feedback mechanisms, outlining strategies to mitigate Arctic warming, and developing Nordic Earth system modelling with a focus on short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs), including natural and anthropogenic aerosols. The outcome of CRAICC is reflected in more than 150 peer-reviewed scientific publications, most of which are in the CRAICC special issue of the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. This paper presents an overview of the main scientific topics investigated in the centre and provides the reader with a state-of-the-art comprehensive summary of what has been achieved in CRAICC with links to the particular publications for further detail. Faced with a vast amount of scientific discovery, we do not claim to completely summarize the results from CRAICC within this paper, but rather concentrate here on the main results which are related to feedback loops in climate change-cryosphere interactions that affect Arctic amplification.
  • Ahlberg, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • "Vi klimatforskare stödjer Greta och skolungdomarna"
  • Ingår i: Dagens nyheter (DN debatt). - 1101-2447.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • DN DEBATT 15/3. Sedan industrialiseringens början har vi använt omkring fyra femtedelar av den mängd fossilt kol som får förbrännas för att vi ska klara Parisavtalet. Vi har bara en femtedel kvar och det är bråttom att kraftigt reducera utsläppen. Det har Greta Thunberg och de strejkande ungdomarna förstått. Därför stödjer vi deras krav, skriver 270 klimatforskare.
  • Eriksson, Axel, et al. (författare)
  • Particulate PAH Emissions from Residential Biomass Combustion: Time-Resolved Analysis with Aerosol Mass Spectrometry
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Environmental Science & Technology. - : The American Chemical Society (ACS). - 1520-5851 .- 0013-936X. ; 48:12, s. 7143-7150
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Time-resolved emissions of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and total organic particulate matter (OA) from a wood log stove and an adjusted pellet stove were investigated with high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry (ANIS). The highest OA emissions were found during the addition of log wood on glowing embers, that is, slow burning pyrolysis conditions. These emissions contained about 1% PAHs (of OA). The highest PAH emissions were found during fast burning under hot air starved combustion conditions, in both stoves. In the latter case, PAHs contributed up to 40% of OA, likely due to thermal degradation of other condensable species. The distribution of PAHs was also shifted toward larger molecules in these emissions. ANIS signals attributed to PAHs were found at molecular weights up to 600 Da. The vacuum aerodynamic size distribution was found to be bimodal with a smaller mode (D-va similar to 200 nm) dominating under hot air starved combustion and a larger sized mode dominating under slow burning pyrolysis (D-va similar to 600 nm). Simultaneous reduction of PAHs, OA and total particulate matter from residential biomass combustion may prove to be a challenge for environmental legislation efforts as these classes of emissions are elevated at different combustion conditions.
  • Genberg, J., et al. (författare)
  • Source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosol in southern Sweden
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - : Copernicus Gesellschaft mbH. - 1680-7316 .- 1680-7324. ; 11:22, s. 11387-11400
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A one-year study was performed at the Vavihill background station in southern Sweden to estimate the anthropogenic contribution to the carbonaceous aerosol. Weekly samples of the particulate matter PM10 were collected on quartz filters, and the amounts of organic carbon, elemental carbon, radiocarbon (14C) and levoglucosan were measured. This approach enabled source apportionment of the total carbon in the PM10 fraction using the concentration ratios of the sources. The sources considered in this study were emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and biomass, as well as biogenic sources. During the summer, the carbonaceous aerosol mass was dominated by compounds of biogenic origin (80%), which are associated with biogenic primary and secondary organic aerosols. During the winter months, biomass combustion (32%) and fossil fuel combustion (28%) were the main contributors to the carbonaceous aerosol. Elemental carbon concentrations in winter were about twice as large as during summer, and can be attributed to biomass combustion, probably from domestic wood burning. The contribution of fossil fuels to elemental carbon was stable throughout the year, although the fossil contribution to organic carbon increased during the winter. Thus, the organic aerosol originated mainly from natural sources during the summer and from anthropogenic sources during the winter. The result of this source apportionment was compared with results from the EMEP MSC-W chemical transport model. The model and measurements were generally consistent for total atmospheric organic carbon, however, the contribution of the sources varied substantially. E.g. the biomass burning contributions of OC were underestimated by the model by a factor of 2.2 compared to the measurements.
  • Martinsson, J., et al. (författare)
  • Carbonaceous aerosol source apportionment using the Aethalometer model - evaluation by radiocarbon and levoglucosan analysis at a rural background site in southern Sweden
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. - : Copernicus Gesellschaft mbH. - 1680-7316. ; 17, s. 4265-4281
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • With the present demand on fast and inexpensive aerosol source apportionment methods, the Aethalometer model was evaluated for a full seasonal cycle (June 2014June 2015) at a rural atmospheric measurement station in southern Sweden by using radiocarbon and levoglucosan measurements. By utilizing differences in absorption of UV and IR, the Aethalometer model apportions carbon mass into wood burning (WB) and fossil fuel combustion (FF) aerosol. In this study, a small modification in the model in conjunction with carbon measurements from thermal-optical analysis allowed apportioned non-light-absorbing biogenic aerosol to vary in time. The absorption differences between WB and FF can be quantified by the absorption angstrom ngstrom exponent (AAE). In this study AAE(WB) was set to 1.81 and AAE(FF) to 1.0. Our observations show that the AAE was elevated during winter (1.36 +/- 0.07) compared to summer (1.12 +/- 0.07). Quantified WB aerosol showed good agreement with levoglucosan concentrations, both in terms of correlation (R-2 = 0 : 70) and in comparison to reference emission inventories. WB aerosol showed strong seasonal variation with high concentrations during winter (0.65 mu gm(-3), 56% of total carbon) and low concentrations during summer (0.07 mu gm(-3), 6% of total carbon). FF aerosol showed less seasonal dependence; however, black carbon (BC) FF showed clear diurnal patterns corresponding to traffic rush hour peaks. The presumed non-light-absorbing biogenic carbonaceous aerosol concentration was high during summer (1.04 mu gm(-3), 72% of total carbon) and low during winter (0.13 mu gm(-3), 8% of total carbon). Aethalometer model results were further compared to radiocarbon and levoglucosan source apportionment results. The comparison showed good agreement for apportioned mass of WB and biogenic carbonaceous aerosol, but discrepancies were found for FF aerosol mass. The Aethalometer model overestimated FF aerosol mass by a factor of 1.3 compared to radiocarbon and levoglucosan source apportionment. A performed sensitivity analysis suggests that this discrepancy can be explained by interference of non-light-absorbing biogenic carbon during winter. In summary, the Aethalometer model offers a costeffective yet robust high-time-resolution source apportionment at rural background stations compared to a radiocarbon and levoglucosan alternative.
  • Massling, A., et al. (författare)
  • Results and recommendations from an intercomparison of six Hygroscopicity-TDMA systems
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques. - : Copernicus Gesellschaft mbH. - 1867-1381. ; 4:3, s. 485-497
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The performance of six custom-built Hygrocopicity-Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (H-TDMA) systems was investigated in the frame of an international calibration and intercomparison workshop held in Leipzig, February 2006. The goal of the workshop was to harmonise H-TDMA measurements and develop recommendations for atmospheric measurements and their data evaluation. The H-TDMA systems were compared in terms of the sizing of dry particles, relative humidity (RH) uncertainty, and consistency in determination of number fractions of different hygroscopic particle groups. The experiments were performed in an air-conditioned laboratory using ammonium sulphate particles or an external mixture of ammonium sulphate and soot particles. The sizing of dry particles of the six H-TDMA systems was within 0.2 to 4.2% of the selected particle diameter depending on investigated size and individual system. Measurements of ammonium sulphate aerosol found deviations equivalent to 4.5% RH from the set point of 90% RH compared to results from previous experiments in the literature. Evaluation of the number fraction of particles within the clearly separated growth factor modes of a laboratory generated externally mixed aerosol was done. The data from the H-TDMAs was analysed with a single fitting routine to investigate differences caused by the different data evaluation procedures used for each H-TDMA. The differences between the H-TDMAs were reduced from +12/-13% to +8/-6% when the same analysis routine was applied. We conclude that a common data evaluation procedure to determine number fractions of externally mixed aerosols will improve the comparability of H-TDMA measurements. It is recommended to ensure proper calibration of all flow, temperature and RH sensors in the systems. It is most important to thermally insulate the aerosol humidification unit and the second DMA and to monitor these temperatures to an accuracy of 0.2 degrees C. For the correct determination of external mixtures, it is necessary to take into account size-dependent losses due to diffusion in the plumbing between the DMAs and in the aerosol humidification unit.
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