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Sökning: WFRF:(Szallasi Zoltan)

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1.
  • Biswas, Dhruva, et al. (författare)
  • A clonal expression biomarker associates with lung cancer mortality
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Medicine. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1078-8956 .- 1546-170X. ; 25:10, s. 1540-1548
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An aim of molecular biomarkers is to stratify patients with cancer into disease subtypes predictive of outcome, improving diagnostic precision beyond clinical descriptors such as tumor stage1. Transcriptomic intratumor heterogeneity (RNA-ITH) has been shown to confound existing expression-based biomarkers across multiple cancer types2–6. Here, we analyze multi-region whole-exome and RNA sequencing data for 156 tumor regions from 48 patients enrolled in the TRACERx study to explore and control for RNA-ITH in non-small cell lung cancer. We find that chromosomal instability is a major driver of RNA-ITH, and existing prognostic gene expression signatures are vulnerable to tumor sampling bias. To address this, we identify genes expressed homogeneously within individual tumors that encode expression modules of cancer cell proliferation and are often driven by DNA copy-number gains selected early in tumor evolution. Clonal transcriptomic biomarkers overcome tumor sampling bias, associate with survival independent of clinicopathological risk factors, and may provide a general strategy to refine biomarker design across cancer types.
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2.
  • Draghi, Arianna, et al. (författare)
  • Rapid Identification of the Tumor-Specific Reactive TIL Repertoire via Combined Detection of CD137, TNF, and IFNγ, Following Recognition of Autologous Tumor-Antigens
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Immunology. - : Frontiers Media S. A.. - 1664-3224. ; 12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Detecting the entire repertoire of tumor-specific reactive tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) is essential for investigating their immunological functions in the tumor microenvironment. Current in vitro assays identifying tumor-specific functional activation measure the upregulation of surface molecules, de novo production of antitumor cytokines, or mobilization of cytotoxic granules following recognition of tumor-antigens, yet there is no widely adopted standard method. Here we established an enhanced, yet simple, method for identifying simultaneously CD8+ and CD4+ tumor-specific reactive TILs in vitro, using a combination of widely known and available flow cytometry assays. By combining the detection of intracellular CD137 and de novo production of TNF and IFNγ after recognition of naturally-presented tumor antigens, we demonstrate that a larger fraction of tumor-specific and reactive CD8+ TILs can be detected in vitro compared to commonly used assays. This assay revealed multiple polyfunctionality-based clusters of both CD4+ and CD8+ tumor-specific reactive TILs. In situ, the combined detection of TNFRSF9, TNF, and IFNG identified most of the tumor-specific reactive TIL repertoire. In conclusion, we describe a straightforward method for efficient identification of the tumor-specific reactive TIL repertoire in vitro, which can be rapidly adopted in most cancer immunology laboratories.
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3.
  • Fluckiger, Aurelie, et al. (författare)
  • Cross-reactivity between tumor MHC class I-restricted antigens and an enterococcal bacteriophage
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 369:6506, s. 936-942
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intestinal microbiota have been proposed to induce commensal-specific memory T cells that cross-react with tumor-associated antigens. We identified major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-binding epitopes in the tail length tape measure protein (TMP) of a prophage found in the genome of the bacteriophage Enterococcus hirae. Mice bearing E. hirae harboring this prophage mounted a TMP-specific H-2K(b)-restricted CD8(+) T lymphocyte response upon immunotherapy with cyclophosphamide or anti-PD-1 antibodies. Administration of bacterial strains engineered to express the TMP epitope improved immunotherapy in mice. In renal and lung cancer patients, the presence of the enterococcal prophage in stools and expression of a TMP-cross-reactive antigen by tumors correlated with long-term benefit of PD-1 blockade therapy. In melanoma patients, T cell clones recognizing naturally processed cancer antigens that are cross-reactive with microbial peptides were detected.
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4.
  • Gokuldass, Aishwarya, et al. (författare)
  • Qualitative analysis of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes across human tumor types reveals a higher proportion of bystander CD8+ T cells in non-melanoma cancers compared to melanoma
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Cancers. - : MDPI AG. - 2072-6694. ; 12:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Human intratumoral T cell infiltrates can be defined by quantitative or qualitative features, such as their ability to recognize autologous tumor antigens. In this study, we reproduced the tumor-T cell interactions of individual patients to determine and compared the qualitative characteristics of intratumoral T cell infiltrates across multiple tumor types. Methods: We employed 187 pairs of unselected tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and autologous tumor cells from patients with melanoma, renal-, ovarian-cancer or sarcoma, and single-cell RNA sequencing data from a pooled cohort of 93 patients with melanoma or epithelial cancers. Measures of TIL quality including the proportion of tumor-reactive CD8+ and CD4+ TILs, and TIL response polyfunctionality were determined. Results: Tumor-specific CD8+ and CD4+ TIL responses were detected in over half of the patients in vitro, and greater CD8+ TIL responses were observed in melanoma, regardless of previous anti-PD-1 treatment, compared to renal cancer, ovarian cancer and sarcoma. The proportion of tumor-reactive CD4+ TILs was on average lower and the differences less pronounced across tumor types. Overall, the proportion of tumor-reactive TILs in vitro was remarkably low, implying a high fraction of TILs to be bystanders, and highly variable within the same tumor type. In situ analyses, based on eight single-cell RNA-sequencing datasets encompassing melanoma and five epithelial cancers types, corroborated the results obtained in vitro. Strikingly, no strong correlation between the proportion of CD8+ and CD4+ tumor-reactive TILs was detected, suggesting the accumulation of these responses in the tumor microenvironment to follow non-overlapping biological pathways. Additionally, no strong correlation between TIL responses and tumor mutational burden (TMB) in melanoma was observed, indicating that TMB was not a major driving force of response. No substantial differences in polyfunctionality across tumor types were observed. Conclusions: These analyses shed light on the functional features defining the quality of TIL infiltrates in cancer. A significant proportion of TILs across tumor types, especially non-melanoma, are bystander T cells. These results highlight the need to develop strategies focused on the tumor-reactive TIL subpopulation.
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5.
  • Gokuldass, Aishwarya, et al. (författare)
  • Transcriptomic signatures of tumors undergoing T cell attack
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy. - : Springer. - 0340-7004.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Studying tumor cell–T cell interactions in the tumor microenvironment (TME) can elucidate tumor immune escape mechanisms and help predict responses to cancer immunotherapy. Methods: We selected 14 pairs of highly tumor-reactive tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and autologous short-term cultured cell lines, covering four distinct tumor types, and co-cultured TILs and tumors at sub-lethal ratios in vitro to mimic the interactions occurring in the TME. We extracted gene signatures associated with a tumor-directed T cell attack based on transcriptomic data of tumor cells. Results: An autologous T cell attack induced pronounced transcriptomic changes in the attacked tumor cells, partially independent of IFN-γ signaling. Transcriptomic changes were mostly independent of the tumor histological type and allowed identifying common gene expression changes, including a shared gene set of 55 transcripts influenced by T cell recognition (Tumors undergoing T cell attack, or TuTack, focused gene set). TuTack scores, calculated from tumor biopsies, predicted the clinical outcome after anti-PD-1/anti-PD-L1 therapy in multiple tumor histologies. Notably, the TuTack scores did not correlate to the tumor mutational burden, indicating that these two biomarkers measure distinct biological phenomena. Conclusions: The TuTack scores measure the effects on tumor cells of an anti-tumor immune response and represent a comprehensive method to identify immunologically responsive tumors. Our findings suggest that TuTack may allow patient selection in immunotherapy clinical trials and warrant its application in multimodal biomarker strategies.
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  • Resultat 1-7 av 7

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