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1.
  • Ahola, Virpi, et al. (författare)
  • The Glanville fritillary genome retains an ancient karyotype and reveals selective chromosomal fusions in Lepidoptera
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous studies have reported that chromosome synteny in Lepidoptera has been well conserved, yet the number of haploid chromosomes varies widely from 5 to 223. Here we report the genome (393 Mb) of the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia; Nymphalidae), a widely recognized model species in metapopulation biology and eco-evolutionary research, which has the putative ancestral karyotype of n=31. Using a phylogenetic analyses of Nymphalidae and of other Lepidoptera, combined with orthologue-level comparisons of chromosomes, we conclude that the ancestral lepidopteran karyotype has been n=31 for at least 140 My. We show that fusion chromosomes have retained the ancestral chromosome segments and very few rearrangements have occurred across the fusion sites. The same, shortest ancestral chromosomes have independently participated in fusion events in species with smaller karyotypes. The short chromosomes have higher rearrangement rate than long ones. These characteristics highlight distinctive features of the evolutionary dynamics of butterflies and moths.
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2.
  • Somervuo, Panu, et al. (författare)
  • Transcriptome analysis reveals signature of adaptation to landscape fragmentation
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 9:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We characterize allelic and gene expression variation between populations of the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia) from two fragmented and two continuous landscapes in northern Europe. The populations exhibit significant differences in their life history traits, e.g. butterflies from fragmented landscapes have higher flight metabolic rate and dispersal rate in the field, and higher larval growth rate, than butterflies from continuous landscapes. In fragmented landscapes, local populations are small and have a high risk of local extinction, and hence the long-term persistence at the landscape level is based on frequent re-colonization of vacant habitat patches, which is predicted to select for increased dispersal rate. Using RNA-seq data and a common garden experiment, we found that a large number of genes (1,841) were differentially expressed between the landscape types. Hexamerin genes, the expression of which has previously been shown to have high heritability and which correlate strongly with larval development time in the Glanville fritillary, had higher expression in fragmented than continuous landscapes. Genes that were more highly expressed in butterflies from newly-established than old local populations within a fragmented landscape were also more highly expressed, at the landscape level, in fragmented than continuous landscapes. This result suggests that recurrent extinctions and re-colonizations in fragmented landscapes select a for specific expression profile. Genes that were significantly up-regulated following an experimental flight treatment had higher basal expression in fragmented landscapes, indicating that these butterflies are genetically primed for frequent flight. Active flight causes oxidative stress, but butterflies from fragmented landscapes were more tolerant of hypoxia. We conclude that differences in gene expression between the landscape types reflect genomic adaptations to landscape fragmentation.
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3.
  • Andrews, B. J., et al. (författare)
  • Quantitative human cell encyclopedia
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: ; 9:443
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Scientists gathered to discuss the necessity, feasibility, and challenges of generating a quantitative catalog of the components in human cells that is essential for our understanding of human physiology in health and disease and to support future breakthroughs in treating diseases. This report summarizes the discussion that emerged at the Human Quantitative Dynamics Workshop held in Bethesda, MD, USA, in December 2015.
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