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Sökning: WFRF:(Tamminen A.)

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1.
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2.
  • Hassler, B., et al. (författare)
  • Past changes in the vertical distribution of ozone - Part 1: Measurement techniques, uncertainties and availability
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques. - 1867-1381 .- 1867-8548. ; 7:5, s. 1395--1427
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Peak stratospheric chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and other ozone depleting substance (ODS) concentrations were reached in the mid- to late 1990s. Detection and attribution of the expected recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer in an atmosphere with reduced ODSs as well as efforts to understand the evolution of stratospheric ozone in the presence of increasing greenhouse gases are key current research topics. These require a critical examination of the ozone changes with an accurate knowledge of the spatial (geographical and vertical) and temporal ozone response. For such an examination, it is vital that the quality of the measurements used be as high as possible and measurement uncertainties well quantified.In preparation for the 2014 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion, the SPARC/IO3C/IGACO-O3/NDACC (SI2N) Initiative was designed to study and document changes in the global ozone profile distribution. This requires assessing long-term ozone profile data sets in regards to measurement stability and uncertainty characteristics. The ultimate goal is to establish suitability for estimating long-term ozone trends to contribute to ozone recovery studies. Some of the data sets have been improved as part of this initiative with updated versions now available.This summary presents an overview of stratospheric ozone profile measurement data sets (ground and satellite based) available for ozone recovery studies. Here we document measurement techniques, spatial and temporal coverage, vertical resolution, native units and measurement uncertainties. In addition, the latest data versions are briefly described (including data version updates as well as detailing multiple retrievals when available for a given satellite instrument). Archive location information for each data set is also given.
3.
  • Sofieva, V. F., et al. (författare)
  • Harmonized dataset of ozone profiles from satellite limb and occultation measurements
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Earth System Science Data. - 1866-3516 .- 1866-3508. ; 5:2, s. 349-363
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this paper, we present a HARMonized dataset of OZone profiles (HARMOZ) based on limb and occultation measurements from Envisat (GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY), Odin (OSIRIS, SMR) and SCISAT (ACE-FTS) satellite instruments. These measurements provide high-vertical-resolution ozone profiles covering the altitude range from the upper troposphere up to the mesosphere in years 2001–2012. HARMOZ has been created in the framework of the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative project.The harmonized dataset consists of original retrieved ozone profiles from each instrument, which are screened for invalid data by the instrument teams. While the original ozone profiles are presented in different units and on different vertical grids, the harmonized dataset is given on a common pressure grid in netCDF (network common data form)-4 format. The pressure grid corresponds to vertical sampling of ~ 1 km below 20 km and 2–3 km above 20 km. The vertical range of the ozone profiles is specific for each instrument, thus all information contained in the original data is preserved. Provided altitude and temperature profiles allow the representation of ozone profiles in number density or mixing ratio on a pressure or altitude vertical grid. Geolocation, uncertainty estimates and vertical resolution are provided for each profile. For each instrument, optional parameters, which are related to the data quality, are also included.For convenience of users, tables of biases between each pair of instruments for each month, as well as bias uncertainties, are provided. These tables characterize the data consistency and can be used in various bias and drift analyses, which are needed, for instance, for combining several datasets to obtain a long-term climate dataset.This user-friendly dataset can be interesting and useful for various analyses and applications, such as data merging, data validation, assimilation and scientific research.The dataset is available at http://www.esa-ozone-cci.org/?q=node/161 or at doi:10.5270/esa-ozone_cci-limb_occultation_profiles-2001_2012-v_1-201308.
4.
  • Laeng, A., et al. (författare)
  • Validation of MIPAS IMK/IAA V5R_O3_224 ozone profiles
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques. - 1867-1381 .- 1867-8548. ; 7:11, s. 3971-3987
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the results of an extensive validation program of the most recent version of ozone vertical profiles retrieved with the IMK/IAA (Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research/Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia) MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding) research level 2 processor from version 5 spectral level 1 data. The time period covered corresponds to the reduced spectral resolution period of the MIPAS instrument, i.e., January 2005-April 2012. The comparison with satellite instruments includes all post-2005 satellite limb and occultation sensors that have measured the vertical profiles of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone: ACE-FTS, GOMOS, HALOE, HIRDLS, MLS, OSIRIS, POAM, SAGE II, SCIAMACHY, SMILES, and SMR. In addition, balloon-borne MkIV solar occultation measurements and ground-based Umkehr measurements have been included, as well as two nadir sensors: IASI and SBUV. For each reference data set, bias determination and precision assessment are performed. Better agreement with reference instruments than for the previous data version, V5R_O3_220 (Laeng et al., 2014), is found: the known high bias around the ozone vmr (volume mixing ratio) peak is significantly reduced and the vertical resolution at 35 km has been improved. The agreement with limb and solar occultation reference instruments that have a known small bias vs. ozonesondes is within 7% in the lower and middle stratosphere and 5% in the upper troposphere. Around the ozone vmr peak, the agreement with most of the satellite reference instruments is within 5 %; this bias is as low as 3% for ACE-FTS, MLS, OSIRIS, POAM and SBUV.
5.
  • Rahpoe, N., et al. (författare)
  • Relative drifts and biases between six ozone limb satellite measurements from the last decade
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques. - 1867-1381 .- 1867-8548. ; 8:10, s. 4369-4381
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • As part of European Space Agency's (ESA) climate change initiative, high vertical resolution ozone profiles from three instruments all aboard ESA's Envisat (GOMOS, MIPAS, SCIAMACHY) and ESA's third party missions (OSIRIS, SMR, ACE-FTS) are to be combined in order to create an essential climate variable data record for the last decade. A prerequisite before combining data is the examination of differences and drifts between the data sets. In this paper, we present a detailed analysis of ozone profile differences based on pairwise collocated measurements, including the evolution of the differences with time. Such a diagnosis is helpful to identify strengths and weaknesses of each data set that may vary in time and introduce uncertainties in long-term trend estimates. The analysis reveals that the relative drift between the sensors is not statistically significant for most pairs of instruments. The relative drift values can be used to estimate the added uncertainty in physical trends. The added drift uncertainty is estimated at about 3 % decade-1 (1s). Larger differences and variability in the differences are found in the lowermost stratosphere (below 20 km) and in the mesosphere.
6.
  • Aaltonen, Kirsimari, et al. (författare)
  • High cyclin B1 expression is associated with poor survival in breast cancer
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 100:7, s. 1055-60
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cyclin B1 regulates the G(2)-M transition of the cell cycle. Cyclin B1 expression is higher in premalignant and malignant than normal breast lesions. Correlation of cyclin B1 expression with other histopathological variables and prognostic role in breast cancer are not fully understood. Traditionally used prognostic criteria identify large subset of patients to receive adjuvant chemotherapy and to be exposed to adverse effects. A reliable and simple method helping prognostic evaluation in breast cancer is needed. We analysed cyclin B1 expression on 1348 invasive breast cancers and studied correlations with other histopathological variables and survival. High cyclin B1 correlated with high tumour grade, large tumour size and positive nodal status, oestrogen and progesterone receptor negativity, positive HER2 and p53 status, young age at diagnosis, and high cyclin E, cyclin A and Ki67 expression. Among patients not given adjuvant chemotherapy high cyclin B1 was a strong predictor of shorter overall and metastasis-free survival (RR 3.74, P<0.0005 and RR 3.51, P<0.0005, respectively), and remained as an independent prognostic factor also in multivariate analysis (RR 1.80, P=0.04 and RR 2.31, P=0.02, respectively). This study suggests high cyclin B1 associates with aggressive phenotype and is an independent prognostic factor in breast cancer.
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7.
  • Barreiro, A, et al. (författare)
  • Relative importance of the different negative effects of the toxic haptophyte Prymnesium parvum on Rhodomonas salina and Brachionus plicatilis
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Aquatic Microbial Ecology. - 0948-3055. ; 38:3, s. 259-267
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to determine the relative importance of the different processes/mechanisms by which the toxic haptophyte Prymnesium parvum, cultured under different nutrient conditions, affects non-toxic phytoplankton competitors and microzooplankton grazers. P. parvum was cultured under steady-state growth in different nutrient conditions: nitrogen depleted (-N), phosphorus depleted (-P) and balanced nitrogen and phosphorus (+NP). Cells from each nutrient condition and culture cell-free filtrates, alone and combined with non-toxic prey (Rhodomonas salina), were used as food for the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. An additional experiment was carried out to test the effect of P. parvum cells and culture cell-free filtrate on R. salina. The highest haemolytic activity values were achieved by -P F parvum cultures, followed by -N. However, the negative effect of R parvum on R. salina and rotifers did not correlate with haemolytic activity but with the number of P. parvum cells. -N-cultured P. parvum were the most toxic for both R. salina and rotifers, followed by +NP. Therefore, haemolytic activity is not a good indicator of the total potential toxicity of R parvum. The growth rate of R. salina was negatively affected by cell-free filtrates but the effect of P, parvum predation was greater. Rotifers fed on both toxic and non-toxic algae, indicating that they did not select against the toxic alga. The P. parvum cell-free filtrate had an effect on B. plicatilis, although this was weak, B, plicatilis was also indirectly affected by P. parvum due to the negative effects of the toxic alga on their prey (R. salina). However, the greatest negative effect of P. parvum on the rotifers was due to ingestion of the toxic cells. Therefore, the phytoplankton competitor R. salina is more affected by P. parvum predation and the grazer B. plicatilis is more affected by ingestion of the toxic cells, the effects of excreted compounds being secondary.
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9.
  • Oulasvirta, A., et al. (författare)
  • Comparing two approaches to context : Realism and constructivism
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Critical Computing - Between Sense and Sensibility : Proceedings of the 4th Decennial Aarhus Conference. - 1595932038 - 9781595932037 ; s. 195-198
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During the last few years, there have been debates over what is context and how computers should act upon it. Two disparate camps of thought can be recognized. First, Realism, having its roots in natural sciences, believes that contexts exist out there and that, if properly instrumented and programmed, computers can correctly recognize and adapt to them. Second, Constructivism, having its roots in human and social sciences, believes that contexts are human creations, mental and social, and that computers ought to provide resources for managing them. We reveal some fundamental differences between the two in three different application domains. We show that despite the deep-going controversies, both camps benefit from considering the alternative approach and a middle ground can be found.
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