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Sökning: WFRF:(Tardif Jean Claude)

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1.
  • Wood, Andrew R, et al. (författare)
  • Defining the role of common variation in the genomic and biological architecture of adult human height.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 46:11, s. 1173-1186
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Using genome-wide data from 253,288 individuals, we identified 697 variants at genome-wide significance that together explained one-fifth of the heritability for adult height. By testing different numbers of variants in independent studies, we show that the most strongly associated ∼2,000, ∼3,700 and ∼9,500 SNPs explained ∼21%, ∼24% and ∼29% of phenotypic variance. Furthermore, all common variants together captured 60% of heritability. The 697 variants clustered in 423 loci were enriched for genes, pathways and tissue types known to be involved in growth and together implicated genes and pathways not highlighted in earlier efforts, such as signaling by fibroblast growth factors, WNT/β-catenin and chondroitin sulfate-related genes. We identified several genes and pathways not previously connected with human skeletal growth, including mTOR, osteoglycin and binding of hyaluronic acid. Our results indicate a genetic architecture for human height that is characterized by a very large but finite number (thousands) of causal variants.
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2.
  • Stitziel, Nathan O., et al. (författare)
  • Coding variation in ANGPTL4, LPL, and SVEP1 and the risk of coronary disease
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - : Massachusetts Medical Society. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 374:12, s. 1134-1144
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The discovery of low-frequency coding variants affecting the risk of coronary artery disease has facilitated the identification of therapeutic targets. METHODS: Through DNA genotyping, we tested 54,003 coding-sequence variants covering 13,715 human genes in up to 72,868 patients with coronary artery disease and 120,770 controls who did not have coronary artery disease. Through DNA sequencing, we studied the effects of loss-of-function mutations in selected genes. RESULTS: We confirmed previously observed significant associations between coronary artery disease and low-frequency missense variants in the genes LPA and PCSK9. We also found significant associations between coronary artery disease and low-frequency missense variants in the genes SVEP1 (p.D2702G; minor-allele frequency, 3.60%; odds ratio for disease, 1.14; P = 4.2×10-10) and ANGPTL4 (p.E40K; minorallele frequency, 2.01%; odds ratio, 0.86; P = 4.0×10-8), which encodes angiopoietin-like 4. Through sequencing of ANGPTL4, we identified 9 carriers of loss-of-function mutations among 6924 patients with myocardial infarction, as compared with 19 carriers among 6834 controls (odds ratio, 0.47; P = 0.04); carriers of ANGPTL4 loss-of-function alleles had triglyceride levels that were 35% lower than the levels among persons who did not carry a loss-of-function allele (P = 0.003). ANGPTL4 inhibits lipoprotein lipase; we therefore searched for mutations in LPL and identified a loss-of-function variant that was associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease (p.D36N; minor-allele frequency, 1.9%; odds ratio, 1.13; P = 2.0×10-4) and a gain-of-function variant that was associated with protection from coronary artery disease (p.S447∗; minor-allele frequency, 9.9%; odds ratio, 0.94; P = 2.5×10-7). CONCLUSIONS: We found that carriers of loss-of-function mutations in ANGPTL4 had triglyceride levels that were lower than those among noncarriers; these mutations were also associated with protection from coronary artery disease. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others).
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3.
  • Webb, Thomas R., et al. (författare)
  • Systematic Evaluation of Pleiotropy Identifies 6 Further Loci Associated With Coronary Artery Disease
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American College of Cardiology. - : ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. - 0735-1097 .- 1558-3597. ; 69:7, s. 823-836
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND Genome-wide association studies have so far identified 56 loci associated with risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). Many CAD loci show pleiotropy; that is, they are also associated with other diseases or traits. OBJECTIVES This study sought to systematically test if genetic variants identified for non-CAD diseases/traits also associate with CAD and to undertake a comprehensive analysis of the extent of pleiotropy of all CAD loci. METHODS In discovery analyses involving 42,335 CAD cases and 78,240 control subjects we tested the association of 29,383 common (minor allele frequency >5%) single nucleotide polymorphisms available on the exome array, which included a substantial proportion of known or suspected single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with common diseases or traits as of 2011. Suggestive association signals were replicated in an additional 30,533 cases and 42,530 control subjects. To evaluate pleiotropy, we tested CAD loci for association with cardiovascular risk factors (lipid traits, blood pressure phenotypes, body mass index, diabetes, and smoking behavior), as well as with other diseases/traits through interrogation of currently available genome-wide association study catalogs. RESULTS We identified 6 new loci associated with CAD at genome-wide significance: on 2q37 (KCNJ13-GIGYF2), 6p21 (C2), 11p15 (MRVI1-CTR9), 12q13 (LRP1), 12q24 (SCARB1), and 16q13 (CETP). Risk allele frequencies ranged from 0.15 to 0.86, and odds ratio per copy of the risk allele ranged from 1.04 to 1.09. Of 62 new and known CAD loci, 24 (38.7%) showed statistical association with a traditional cardiovascular risk factor, with some showing multiple associations, and 29 (47%) showed associations at p < 1 x 10(-4) with a range of other diseases/traits. CONCLUSIONS We identified 6 loci associated with CAD at genome-wide significance. Several CAD loci show substantial pleiotropy, which may help us understand the mechanisms by which these loci affect CAD risk. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier on behalf of the American College of Cardiology Foundation.
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4.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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6.
  • Erzurumluoglu, A. Mesut, et al. (författare)
  • Meta-analysis of up to 622,409 individuals identifies 40 novel smoking behaviour associated genetic loci
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 25:10, s. 2392-2409
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Smoking is a major heritable and modifiable risk factor for many diseases, including cancer, common respiratory disorders and cardiovascular diseases. Fourteen genetic loci have previously been associated with smoking behaviour-related traits. We tested up to 235,116 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) on the exome-array for association with smoking initiation, cigarettes per day, pack-years, and smoking cessation in a fixed effects meta-analysis of up to 61 studies (up to 346,813 participants). In a subset of 112,811 participants, a further one million SNVs were also genotyped and tested for association with the four smoking behaviour traits. SNV-trait associations with P < 5 × 10-8 in either analysis were taken forward for replication in up to 275,596 independent participants from UK Biobank. Lastly, a meta-analysis of the discovery and replication studies was performed. Sixteen SNVs were associated with at least one of the smoking behaviour traits (P < 5 × 10-8) in the discovery samples. Ten novel SNVs, including rs12616219 near TMEM182, were followed-up and five of them (rs462779 in REV3L, rs12780116 in CNNM2, rs1190736 in GPR101, rs11539157 in PJA1, and rs12616219 near TMEM182) replicated at a Bonferroni significance threshold (P < 4.5 × 10-3) with consistent direction of effect. A further 35 SNVs were associated with smoking behaviour traits in the discovery plus replication meta-analysis (up to 622,409 participants) including a rare SNV, rs150493199, in CCDC141 and two low-frequency SNVs in CEP350 and HDGFRP2. Functional follow-up implied that decreased expression of REV3L may lower the probability of smoking initiation. The novel loci will facilitate understanding the genetic aetiology of smoking behaviour and may lead to the identification of potential drug targets for smoking prevention and/or cessation.
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7.
  • Tardif, Jean-Claude, et al. (författare)
  • Genotype-Dependent Effects of Dalcetrapib on Cholesterol Efflux and Inflammation Concordance With Clinical Outcomes
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - : LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. - 1942-325X .- 1942-3268. ; 9:4, s. 340-348
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background-Dalcetrapib effects on cardiovascular outcomes are determined by adenylate cyclase 9 gene polymorphisms. Our aim was to determine whether these clinical end point results are also associated with changes in reverse cholesterol transport and inflammation. Methods and Results-Participants of the dal-OUTCOMES and dal-PLAQUE-2 trials were randomly assigned to receive dalcetrapib or placebo in addition to standard care. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein was measured at baseline and at end of study in 5243 patients from dal-OUTCOMES also genotyped for the rs1967309 polymorphism in adenylate cyclase 9. Cholesterol efflux capacity of high-density lipoproteins from J774 macrophages after cAMP stimulation was determined at baseline and 12 months in 171 genotyped patients from dal-PLAQUE-2. Treatment with dalcetrapib resulted in placebo-adjusted geometric mean percent increases in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein from baseline to end of trial of 18.1% (P=0.0009) and 18.7% (P=0.00001) in participants with the GG and AG genotypes, respectively, but the change was -1.0% (P=0.89) in those with the protective AA genotype. There was an interaction between the treatment arm and the genotype groups (P=0.02). Although the mean change in cholesterol efflux was similar among study arms in patients with GG genotype (mean: 7.8% and 7.4%), increases were 22.3% and 3.5% with dalcetrapib and placebo for those with AA genotype (P=0.005). There was a significant genetic effect for change in efflux for dalcetrapib (P=0.02), but not with placebo. Conclusions-Genotype-dependent effects on C-reactive protein and cholesterol efflux are supportive of dalcetrapib benefits on atherosclerotic cardiovascular outcomes in patients with the AA genotype at polymorphism rs1967309.
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8.
  • Tardif, Jean-Claude, et al. (författare)
  • Pharmacogenomic determinants of the cardiovascular effects of dalcetrapib.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - 1942-325X .- 1942-3268. ; 8:2, s. 372-382
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Dalcetrapib did not improve clinical outcomes, despite increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 30%. These results differ from other evidence supporting high-density lipoprotein as a therapeutic target. Responses to dalcetrapib may vary according to patients' genetic profile.METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a pharmacogenomic evaluation using a genome-wide approach in the dal-OUTCOMES study (discovery cohort, n=5749) and a targeted genotyping panel in the dal-PLAQUE-2 imaging trial (support cohort, n=386). The primary endpoint for the discovery cohort was a composite of cardiovascular events. The change from baseline in carotid intima-media thickness on ultrasonography at 6 and 12 months was evaluated as supporting evidence. A single-nucleotide polymorphism was found to be associated with cardiovascular events in the dalcetrapib arm, identifying the ADCY9 gene on chromosome 16 (rs1967309; P=2.41×10(-8)), with 8 polymorphisms providing P<10(-6) in this gene. Considering patients with genotype AA at rs1967309, there was a 39% reduction in the composite cardiovascular endpoint with dalcetrapib compared with placebo (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.41-0.92). In patients with genotype GG, there was a 27% increase in events with dalcetrapib versus placebo. Ten single-nucleotide polymorphism in the ADCY9 gene, the majority in linkage disequilibrium with rs1967309, were associated with the effect of dalcetrapib on intima-media thickness (P<0.05). Marker rs2238448 in ADCY9, in linkage disequilibrium with rs1967309 (r(2)=0.8), was associated with both the effects of dalcetrapib on intima-media thickness in dal-PLAQUE-2 (P=0.009) and events in dal-OUTCOMES (P=8.88×10(-8); hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.58-0.78).CONCLUSIONS: The effects of dalcetrapib on atherosclerotic outcomes are determined by correlated polymorphisms in the ADCY9 gene.CLINICAL TRIAL INFORMATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT00658515 and NCT01059682.
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9.
  • Brazel, David M., et al. (författare)
  • Exome Chip Meta-analysis Fine Maps Causal Variants and Elucidates the Genetic Architecture of Rare Coding Variants in Smoking and Alcohol Use
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Biological Psychiatry. - : Elsevier. - 0006-3223 .- 1873-2402. ; 85:11, s. 946-955
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Smoking and alcohol use have been associated with common genetic variants in multiple loci. Rare variants within these loci hold promise in the identification of biological mechanisms in substance use. Exome arrays and genotype imputation can now efficiently genotype rare nonsynonymous and loss of function variants. Such variants are expected to have deleterious functional consequences and to contribute to disease risk.METHODS: We analyzed ∼250,000 rare variants from 16 independent studies genotyped with exome arrays and augmented this dataset with imputed data from the UK Biobank. Associations were tested for five phenotypes: cigarettes per day, pack-years, smoking initiation, age of smoking initiation, and alcoholic drinks per week. We conducted stratified heritability analyses, single-variant tests, and gene-based burden tests of nonsynonymous/loss-of-function coding variants. We performed a novel fine-mapping analysis to winnow the number of putative causal variants within associated loci.RESULTS: Meta-analytic sample sizes ranged from 152,348 to 433,216, depending on the phenotype. Rare coding variation explained 1.1% to 2.2% of phenotypic variance, reflecting 11% to 18% of the total single nucleotide polymorphism heritability of these phenotypes. We identified 171 genome-wide associated loci across all phenotypes. Fine mapping identified putative causal variants with double base-pair resolution at 24 of these loci, and between three and 10 variants for 65 loci. Twenty loci contained rare coding variants in the 95% credible intervals.CONCLUSIONS: Rare coding variation significantly contributes to the heritability of smoking and alcohol use. Fine-mapping genome-wide association study loci identifies specific variants contributing to the biological etiology of substance use behavior.
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10.
  • Justice, Anne E., et al. (författare)
  • Protein-coding variants implicate novel genes related to lipid homeostasis contributing to body-fat distribution
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 51:3, s. 452-469
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Body-fat distribution is a risk factor for adverse cardiovascular health consequences. We analyzed the association of body-fat distribution, assessed by waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index, with 228,985 predicted coding and splice site variants available on exome arrays in up to 344,369 individuals from five major ancestries (discovery) and 132,177 European-ancestry individuals (validation). We identified 15 common (minor allele frequency, MAF >= 5%) and nine low-frequency or rare (MAF < 5%) coding novel variants. Pathway/gene set enrichment analyses identified lipid particle, adiponectin, abnormal white adipose tissue physiology and bone development and morphology as important contributors to fat distribution, while cross-trait associations highlight cardiometabolic traits. In functional follow-up analyses, specifically in Drosophila RNAi-knockdowns, we observed a significant increase in the total body triglyceride levels for two genes (DNAH10 and PLXND1). We implicate novel genes in fat distribution, stressing the importance of interrogating low-frequency and protein-coding variants.
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