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Sökning: WFRF:(Tautvaisiene G.)

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1.
  • Smiljanic, R., et al. (författare)
  • The Gaia-ESO Survey: The analysis of high-resolution UVES spectra of FGK-type stars
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Astronomy & Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 570
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. The ongoing Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey is using FLAMES at the VLT to obtain high-quality medium-resolution Giraffe spectra for about 10(5) stars and high-resolution UVES spectra for about 5000 stars. With UVES, the Survey has already observed 1447 FGK-type stars. Aims. These UVES spectra are analyzed in parallel by several state-of-the-art methodologies. Our aim is to present how these analyses were implemented, to discuss their results, and to describe how a final recommended parameter scale is defined. We also discuss the precision (method-to-method dispersion) and accuracy (biases with respect to the reference values) of the final parameters. These results are part of the Gaia-ESO second internal release and will be part of its first public release of advanced data products. Methods. The final parameter scale is tied to the scale defined by the Gaia benchmark stars, a set of stars with fundamental atmospheric parameters. In addition, a set of open and globular clusters is used to evaluate the physical soundness of the results. Each of the implemented methodologies is judged against the benchmark stars to define weights in three different regions of the parameter space. The final recommended results are the weighted medians of those from the individual methods. Results. The recommended results successfully reproduce the atmospheric parameters of the benchmark stars and the expected T-eff-log g relation of the calibrating clusters. Atmospheric parameters and abundances have been determined for 1301 FGK-type stars observed with UVES. The median of the method-to-method dispersion of the atmospheric parameters is 55K for T-eff, 0.13dex for log g and 0.07 dex for [Fe/H]. Systematic biases are estimated to be between 50-100 K for T-eff, 0.10-0.25 dex for log g and 0.05-0.10 dex for [Fe/H]. Abundances for 24 elements were derived: C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Mo, Ba, Nd, and Eu. The typical method-to-method dispersion of the abundances varies between 0.10 and 0.20 dex. Conclusions. The Gaia-ESO sample of high-resolution spectra of FGK-type stars will be among the largest of its kind analyzed in a homogeneous way. The extensive list of elemental abundances derived in these stars will enable significant advances in the areas of stellar evolution and Milky Way formation and evolution.
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2.
  • Casey, A. R., et al. (författare)
  • The Gaia-ESO Survey : Revisiting the Li-rich giant problem
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - : Oxford University Press. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 461:3, s. 3336-3352
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The discovery of lithium-rich giants contradicts expectations from canonical stellar evolution. Here we report on the serendipitous discovery of 20 Li-rich giants observed during the Gaia-ESO Survey, which includes the first nine Li-rich giant stars known towards the CoRoT fields. Most of our Li-rich giants have near-solar metallicities and stellar parameters consistent with being before the luminosity bump. This is difficult to reconcile with deep mixing models proposed to explain lithium enrichment, because these models can only operate at later evolutionary stages: at or past the luminosity bump. In an effort to shed light on the Li-rich phenomenon, we highlight recent evidence of the tidal destruction of close-in hot Jupiters at the sub-giant phase.We note that when coupled with models of planet accretion, the observed destruction of hot Jupiters actually predicts the existence of Li-rich giant stars, and suggests that Li-rich stars should be found early on the giant branch and occur more frequently with increasing metallicity. A comprehensive review of all known Li-rich giant stars reveals that this scenario is consistent with the data. However, more evolved or metal-poor stars are less likely to host close-in giant planets, implying that their Li-rich origin requires an alternative explanation, likely related to mixing scenarios rather than external phenomena.
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3.
  • Bertelli Motta, C., et al. (författare)
  • The Gaia-ESO Survey : Evidence of atomic diffusion in M67?
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - : Oxford University Press. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 478:1, s. 425-438
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Investigating the chemical homogeneity of stars born from the same molecular cloud at virtually the same time is very important for our understanding of the chemical enrichment of the interstellar medium and with it the chemical evolution of the Galaxy. One major cause of inhomogeneities in the abundances of open clusters is stellar evolution of the cluster members. In this work, we investigate variations in the surface chemical composition of member stars of the old open clusterM67 as a possible consequence of atomic diffusion effects taking place during the main-sequence phase. The abundances used are obtained from high-resolution UVES/FLAMES spectra within the framework of the Gaia-ESO Survey. We find that the surface abundances of stars on the main sequence decrease with increasing mass reaching a minimum at the turn-off. After deepening of the convective envelope in subgiant branch stars, the initial surface abundances are restored.We found themeasured abundances to be consistent with the predictions of stellar evolutionary models for a cluster with the age and metallicity of M67. Our findings indicate that atomic diffusion poses a non-negligible constraint on the achievable precision of chemical tagging methods.
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4.
  • Casali, G., et al. (författare)
  • The Gaia-ESO survey : Calibrating a relationship between age and the [C/N] abundance ratio with open clusters
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP SCIENCES S A. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 629
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: In the era of large high-resolution spectroscopic surveys such as Gaia-ESO and APOGEE, high-quality spectra can contribute to our understanding of the Galactic chemical evolution by providing abundances of elements that belong to the different nucleosynthesis channels, and also by providing constraints to one of the most elusive astrophysical quantities: stellar age.Aims: Some abundance ratios, such as [C/N], have been proven to be excellent indicators of stellar ages. We aim at providing an empirical relationship between stellar ages and [C/N] using open star clusters, observed by the Gaia-ESO and APOGEE surveys, as calibrators.Methods: We used stellar parameters and abundances from the Gaia-ESO Survey and APOGEE Survey of the Galactic field and open cluster stars. Ages of star clusters were retrieved from the literature sources and validated using a common set of isochrones. We used the same isochrones to determine for each age and metallicity the surface gravity at which the first dredge-up and red giant branch bump occur. We studied the effect of extra-mixing processes in our sample of giant stars, and we derived the mean [C/N] in evolved stars, including only stars without evidence of extra mixing. By combining the Gaia-ESO and APOGEE samples of open clusters, we derived a linear relationship between [C/N] and (logarithmic) cluster ages.Results: We apply our relationship to selected giant field stars in the Gaia-ESO and APOGEE surveys. We find an age separation between thin-and thick-disc stars and age trends within their populations, with an increasing age towards lower metallicity populations.Conclusions: With this empirical relationship, we are able to provide an age estimate for giant stars in which C and N abundances are measured. For giant stars, the isochrone fitting method is indeed less sensitive than for dwarf stars at the turn-off. Our method can therefore be considered as an additional tool to give an independent estimate of the age of giant stars. The uncertainties in their ages is similar to those obtained using isochrone fitting for dwarf stars.
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5.
  • Randich, S., et al. (författare)
  • The Gaia -ESO Survey : Open clusters in Gaia -DR1: A way forward to stellar age calibration
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 612
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Determination and calibration of the ages of stars, which heavily rely on stellar evolutionary models, are very challenging, while representing a crucial aspect in many astrophysical areas. Aims. We describe the methodologies that, taking advantage of Gaia-DR1 and the Gaia-ESO Survey data, enable the comparison of observed open star cluster sequences with stellar evolutionary models. The final, long-term goal is the exploitation of open clusters as age calibrators. Methods. We perform a homogeneous analysis of eight open clusters using the Gaia-DR1 TGAS catalogue for bright members and information from the Gaia-ESO Survey for fainter stars. Cluster membership probabilities for the Gaia-ESO Survey targets are derived based on several spectroscopic tracers. The Gaia-ESO Survey also provides the cluster chemical composition. We obtain cluster parallaxes using two methods. The first one relies on the astrometric selection of a sample of bona fide members, while the other one fits the parallax distribution of a larger sample of TGAS sources. Ages and reddening values are recovered through a Bayesian analysis using the 2MASS magnitudes and three sets of standard models. Lithium depletion boundary (LDB) ages are also determined using literature observations and the same models employed for the Bayesian analysis. Results. For all but one cluster, parallaxes derived by us agree with those presented in Gaia Collaboration (2017, A&A, 601, A19), while a discrepancy is found for NGC 2516; we provide evidence supporting our own determination. Inferred cluster ages are robust against models and are generally consistent with literature values. Conclusions. The systematic parallax errors inherent in the Gaia DR1 data presently limit the precision of our results. Nevertheless, we have been able to place these eight clusters onto the same age scale for the first time, with good agreement between isochronal and LDB ages where there is overlap. Our approach appears promising and demonstrates the potential of combining Gaia and ground-based spectroscopic datasets.
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6.
  • Stonkute, E., et al. (författare)
  • The Gaia-ESO Survey : the selection function of the Milky Way field stars
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - : Oxford University Press. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 460:1, s. 1131-1146
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Gaia-ESO Survey was designed to target all major Galactic components (i.e. bulge, thin and thick discs, halo and clusters), with the goal of constraining the chemical and dynamical evolution of the Milky Way. This paper presents the methodology and considerations that drive the selection of the targeted, allocated and successfully observed Milky Way field stars. The detailed understanding of the survey construction, specifically the influence of target selection criteria on observed Milky Way field stars is required in order to analyse and interpret the survey data correctly. We present the target selection process for the Milky Way field stars observed with Very Large Telescope/Fibre Large Array Multi Element Spectrograph and provide the weights that characterize the survey target selection. The weights can be used to account for the selection effects in the Gaia-ESO Survey data for scientific studies. We provide a couple of simple examples to highlight the necessity of including such information in studies of the stellar populations in the Milky Way.
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7.
  • Jacobson, H. R., et al. (författare)
  • The Gaia -ESO Survey : Probes of the inner disk abundance gradient
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 591
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. The nature of the metallicity gradient inside the solar circle (RGC <8 kpc) is poorly understood, but studies of Cepheids and a small sample of open clusters suggest that it steepens in the inner disk. Aims. We investigate the metallicity gradient of the inner disk using a sample of inner disk open clusters that is three times larger than has previously been studied in the literature to better characterize the gradient in this part of the disk. Methods. We used the Gaia-ESO Survey (GES) [Fe/H] values and stellar parameters for stars in 12 open clusters in the inner disk from GES-UVES data. Cluster mean [Fe/H] values were determined based on a membership analysis for each cluster. Where necessary, distances and ages to clusters were determined via comparison to theoretical isochrones. Results. The GES open clusters exhibit a radial metallicity gradient of -0.10 ± 0.02 dex kpc-1, consistent with the gradient measured by other literature studies of field red giant stars and open clusters in the range RGC ~ 6-12 kpc. We also measure a trend of increasing [Fe/H] with increasing cluster age, as has also been found in the literature. Conclusions. We find no evidence for a steepening of the inner disk metallicity gradient inside the solar circle as earlier studies indicated. The age-metallicity relation shown by the clusters is consistent with that predicted by chemical evolution models that include the effects of radial migration, but a more detailed comparison between cluster observations and models would be premature.
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8.
  • Magrini, L., et al. (författare)
  • The Gaia -ESO Survey : The origin and evolution of s -process elements
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 617
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Several works have found an increase of the abundances of the s-process neutron-capture elements in the youngest Galactic stellar populations. These trends provide important constraints on stellar and Galactic evolution and they need to be confirmed with large and statistically significant samples of stars spanning wide age and distance intervals. Aims. We aim to trace the abundance patterns and the time evolution of five s-process elements - two belonging to the first peak, Y and Zr, and three belonging to the second peak, Ba, La, and Ce - using the Gaia-ESO IDR5 results for open clusters and disc stars. Methods. From the UVES spectra of cluster member stars, we determined the average composition of clusters with ages >0.1 Gyr. We derived statistical ages and distances of field stars, and we separated them into thin and thick disc populations. We studied the time-evolution and dependence on metallicity of abundance ratios using open clusters and field stars whose parameters and abundances were derived in a homogeneous way. Results. Using our large and homogeneous sample of open clusters, thin and thick disc stars, spanning an age range larger than 10 Gyr, we confirm an increase towards young ages of s-process abundances in the solar neighbourhood. These trends are well defined for open clusters and stars located nearby the solar position and they may be explained by a late enrichment due to significant contribution to the production of these elements from long-living low-mass stars. At the same time, we find a strong dependence of the s-process abundance ratios on the Galactocentric distance and on the metallicity of the clusters and field stars. Conclusions. Our results, derived from the largest and most homogeneous sample of s-process abundances in the literature, confirm the growth with decreasing stellar ages of the s-process abundances in both field and open cluster stars. At the same time, taking advantage of the abundances of open clusters located in a wide Galactocentric range, these results offer a new perspective on the dependence of the s-process evolution on the metallicity and star formation history, pointing to different behaviours at various Galactocentric distances.
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9.
  • Smiljanic, R., et al. (författare)
  • The Gaia -ESO Survey : Sodium and aluminium abundances in giants and dwarfs: Implications for stellar and Galactic chemical evolution
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 589
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Stellar evolution models predict that internal mixing should cause some sodium overabundance at the surface of red giants more massive than ~1.5-2.0 M⊙. The surface aluminium abundance should not be affected. Nevertheless, observational results disagree about the presence and/or the degree of Na and Al overabundances. In addition, Galactic chemical evolution models adopting different stellar yields lead to very different predictions for the behavior of [Na/Fe] and [Al/Fe] versus [Fe/H]. Overall, the observed trends of these abundances with metallicity are not well reproduced. Aims. We readdress both issues, using new Na and Al abundances determined within the Gaia-ESO Survey. Our aim is to obtain better observational constraints on the behavior of these elements using two samples: i) more than 600 dwarfs of the solar neighborhood and of open clusters and ii) low- and intermediate-mass clump giants in six open clusters. Methods. Abundances were determined using high-resolution UVES spectra. The individual Na abundances were corrected for nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium effects. For the Al abundances, the order of magnitude of the corrections was estimated for a few representative cases. For giants, the abundance trends with stellar mass are compared to stellar evolution models. For dwarfs, the abundance trends with metallicity and age are compared to detailed chemical evolution models. Results. Abundances of Na in stars with mass below ~2.0 M⊙, and of Al in stars below ~3.0 M⊙, seem to be unaffected by internal mixing processes. For more massive stars, the Na overabundance increases with stellar mass. This trend agrees well with predictions of stellar evolutionary models. For Al, our only cluster with giants more massive than 3.0 M⊙, NGC 6705, is Al enriched. However, this might be related to the environment where the cluster was formed. Chemical evolution models that well fit the observed [Na/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] trend in solar neighborhood dwarfs cannot simultaneously explain the run of [Al/Fe] with [Fe/H], and vice versa. The comparison with stellar ages is hampered by severe uncertainties. Indeed, reliable age estimates are available for only a half of the stars of the sample. We conclude that Al is underproduced by the models, except for stellar ages younger than about 7 Gyr. In addition, some significant source of late Na production seems to be missing in the models. Either current Na and Al yields are affected by large uncertainties, and/or some important Galactic source(s) of these elements has as yet not been taken into account.
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10.
  • Baratella, M., et al. (författare)
  • The Gaia -ESO Survey : A new approach to chemically characterising young open clusters: I. Stellar parameters, and iron-peak, α -, and proton-capture elements
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 634
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Open clusters are recognised as excellent tracers of Galactic thin-disc properties. At variance with intermediate-age and old open clusters, for which a significant number of studies is now available, clusters younger than ≲ 150 Myr have been mostly overlooked in terms of their chemical composition until recently (with few exceptions). On the other hand, previous investigations seem to indicate an anomalous behaviour of young clusters, which includes (but is not limited to) slightly sub-solar iron (Fe) abundances and extreme, unexpectedly high barium (Ba) enhancements. Aims. In a series of papers, we plan to expand our understanding of this topic and investigate whether these chemical peculiarities are instead related to abundance analysis techniques. Methods. We present a new determination of the atmospheric parameters for 23 dwarf stars observed by the Gaia-ESO survey in five young open clusters (τ < 150 Myr) and one star-forming region (NGC 2264). We exploit a new method based on titanium (Ti) lines to derive the spectroscopic surface gravity, and most importantly, the microturbulence parameter. A combination of Ti and Fe lines is used to obtain effective temperatures. We also infer the abundances of Fe » I, Fe » II, Ti » I, Ti » II, Na » I, Mg » I, Al » I, Si » I, Ca » I, Cr » I, and Ni » I. Results. Our findings are in fair agreement with Gaia-ESO iDR5 results for effective temperatures and surface gravities, but suggest that for very young stars, the microturbulence parameter is over-estimated when Fe lines are employed. This affects the derived chemical composition and causes the metal content of very young clusters to be under-estimated. Conclusions. Our clusters display a metallicity [Fe/H] between +0.04 ± 0.01 and +0.12 ± 0.02; they are not more metal poor than the Sun. Although based on a relatively small sample size, our explorative study suggests that we may not need to call for ad hoc explanations to reconcile the chemical composition of young open clusters with Galactic chemical evolution models.
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 44
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