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Sökning: WFRF:(Testi L.)

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1.
  • Tinetti, Giovanna, et al. (författare)
  • The EChO science case
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Experimental astronomy (Print). - 0922-6435 .- 1572-9508. ; 40:2-3, s. 329-391
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The discovery of almost two thousand exoplanets has revealed an unexpectedly diverse planet population. We see gas giants in few-day orbits, whole multi-planet systems within the orbit of Mercury, and new populations of planets with masses between that of the Earth and Neptune-all unknown in the Solar System. Observations to date have shown that our Solar System is certainly not representative of the general population of planets in our Milky Way. The key science questions that urgently need addressing are therefore: What are exoplanets made of? Why are planets as they are? How do planetary systems work and what causes the exceptional diversity observed as compared to the Solar System? The EChO (Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory) space mission was conceived to take up the challenge to explain this diversity in terms of formation, evolution, internal structure and planet and atmospheric composition. This requires in-depth spectroscopic knowledge of the atmospheres of a large and well-defined planet sample for which precise physical, chemical and dynamical information can be obtained. In order to fulfil this ambitious scientific program, EChO was designed as a dedicated survey mission for transit and eclipse spectroscopy capable of observing a large, diverse and well-defined planet sample within its 4-year mission lifetime. The transit and eclipse spectroscopy method, whereby the signal from the star and planet are differentiated using knowledge of the planetary ephemerides, allows us to measure atmospheric signals from the planet at levels of at least 10(-4) relative to the star. This can only be achieved in conjunction with a carefully designed stable payload and satellite platform. It is also necessary to provide broad instantaneous wavelength coverage to detect as many molecular species as possible, to probe the thermal structure of the planetary atmospheres and to correct for the contaminating effects of the stellar photosphere. This requires wavelength coverage of at least 0.55 to 11 mu m with a goal of covering from 0.4 to 16 mu m. Only modest spectral resolving power is needed, with R similar to 300 for wavelengths less than 5 mu m and R similar to 30 for wavelengths greater than this. The transit spectroscopy technique means that no spatial resolution is required. A telescope collecting area of about 1 m(2) is sufficiently large to achieve the necessary spectro-photometric precision: for the Phase A study a 1.13 m(2) telescope, diffraction limited at 3 mu m has been adopted. Placing the satellite at L2 provides a cold and stable thermal environment as well as a large field of regard to allow efficient time-critical observation of targets randomly distributed over the sky. EChO has been conceived to achieve a single goal: exoplanet spectroscopy. The spectral coverage and signal-to-noise to be achieved by EChO, thanks to its high stability and dedicated design, would be a game changer by allowing atmospheric composition to be measured with unparalleled exactness: at least a factor 10 more precise and a factor 10 to 1000 more accurate than current observations. This would enable the detection of molecular abundances three orders of magnitude lower than currently possible and a fourfold increase from the handful of molecules detected to date. Combining these data with estimates of planetary bulk compositions from accurate measurements of their radii and masses would allow degeneracies associated with planetary interior modelling to be broken, giving unique insight into the interior structure and elemental abundances of these alien worlds. EChO would allow scientists to study exoplanets both as a population and as individuals. The mission can target super-Earths, Neptune-like, and Jupiter-like planets, in the very hot to temperate zones (planet temperatures of 300-3000 K) of F to M-type host stars. The EChO core science would be delivered by a three-tier survey. The EChO Chemical Census: This is a broad survey of a few-hundred exoplanets, which allows us to explore the spectroscopic and chemical diversity of the exoplanet population as a whole. The EChO Origin: This is a deep survey of a subsample of tens of exoplanets for which significantly higher signal to noise and spectral resolution spectra can be obtained to explain the origin of the exoplanet diversity (such as formation mechanisms, chemical processes, atmospheric escape). The EChO Rosetta Stones: This is an ultra-high accuracy survey targeting a subsample of select exoplanets. These will be the bright "benchmark" cases for which a large number of measurements would be taken to explore temporal variations, and to obtain two and three dimensional spatial information on the atmospheric conditions through eclipse-mapping techniques. If EChO were launched today, the exoplanets currently observed are sufficient to provide a large and diverse sample. The Chemical Census survey would consist of > 160 exoplanets with a range of planetary sizes, temperatures, orbital parameters and stellar host properties. Additionally, over the next 10 years, several new ground- and space-based transit photometric surveys and missions will come on-line (e.g. NGTS, CHEOPS, TESS, PLATO), which will specifically focus on finding bright, nearby systems. The current rapid rate of discovery would allow the target list to be further optimised in the years prior to EChO's launch and enable the atmospheric characterisation of hundreds of planets.
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2.
  • Fomalont, E. B., et al. (författare)
  • THE 2014 ALMA LONG BASELINE CAMPAIGN: AN OVERVIEW
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters. - 2041-8213 .- 2041-8205. ; 808:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A major goal of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is to make accurate images with resolutions of tens of milliarcseconds, which at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths requires baselines up to similar to 15 km. To develop and test this capability, a Long Baseline Campaign (LBC) was carried out from 2014 September to late November, culminating in end-to-end observations, calibrations, and imaging of selected Science Verification (SV) targets. This paper presents an overview of the campaign and its main results, including an investigation of the short-term coherence properties and systematic phase errors over the long baselines at the ALMA site, a summary of the SV targets and observations, and recommendations for science observing strategies at long baselines. Deep ALMA images of the quasar 3C 138 at 97 and 241 GHz are also compared to VLA 43 GHz results, demonstrating an agreement at a level of a few percent. As a result of the extensive program of LBC testing, the highly successful SV imaging at long baselines achieved angular resolutions as fine as 19 mas at similar to 350 GHz. Observing with ALMA on baselines of up to 15 km is now possible, and opens up new parameter space for submm astronomy.
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3.
  • Coutens, A., et al. (författare)
  • VLA cm-wave survey of young stellar objects in the Oph A cluster: Constraining extreme UV- And X-ray-driven disk photoevaporation: A pathfinder for Square Kilometre Array studies
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 631
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Observations of young stellar objects (YSOs) in centimeter bands can probe the continuum emission from growing dust grains, ionized winds, and magnetospheric activity that are intimately connected to the evolution of protoplanetary disks and the formation of planets. We carried out sensitive continuum observations toward the Ophiuchus A star-forming region, using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) at 10 GHz over a field-of-view of 6′ and with a spatial resolution of θmaj ×θmin ∼ 0.′′4 × 0.′′2. We achieved a 5 μJy beam-1 rms noise level at the center of our mosaic field of view. Among the 18 sources we detected, 16 were YSOs (three Class 0, five Class I, six Class II, and two Class III) and two were extragalactic candidates. We find that thermal dust emission generally contributed less than 30% of the emission at 10 GHz. The radio emission is dominated by other types of emission, such as gyro-synchrotron radiation from active magnetospheres, free-free emission from thermal jets, free-free emission from the outflowing photoevaporated disk material, and synchrotron emission from accelerated cosmic-rays in jet or protostellar surface shocks. These different types of emission could not be clearly disentangled. Our non-detections for Class II/III disks suggest that extreme UV-driven photoevaporation is insufficient to explain disk dispersal, assuming that the contribution of UV photoevaporating stellar winds to radio flux does not evolve over time. The sensitivity of our data cannot exclude photoevaporation due to the role of X-ray photons as an efficient mechanism for disk dispersal. Deeper surveys using the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will have the capacity to provide significant constraints to disk photoevaporation.
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4.
  • Hoare, M. G., et al. (författare)
  • The cradle of life and the SKA
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of Science - Advancing Astrophysics with the Square Kilometre Array, AASKA 2014, Giardini Naxos, Italy, 9-13 June 2014. - 1824-8039.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We provide an overview of the exciting capabilities of the SKA in the Cradle of Life theme. With the deployment of the high frequency band 5 receivers, the phase 1 of the SKA can conduct headline science in the study of the earliest stages of grain growth in proto-planetary disks. SKA1-MID can map the 2 cm continuum emission at a resolution of 4 au in the nearest systems and therefore begin to probe the distribuion of cm-sized particles across the snow line. This frequency range will also enable deep searches for pre-biotic molecules such as amino acids from pre-stellar cores to the cold, outer regions of proto-planetary disks where cometary material forms. The lowest frequency capabilities of SKA1 can be used to examine the magnetic fields of exo-planets via their auroral radio emission. This gives unique insight into their interiors and could potentially detect exo-moons. Across the full frequency range, the SKA1 will also carry out systematic, volume-limited searches of exo-planet systems for signals from technologically advanced civilizations. The sensitivity of SKA1 means that these only need to be at the level of typical airport radar signals in the nearest systems. Hence, the SKA1 can conduct high impact science from the first steps on the road to planets and life, through areas affecting the habitability of planets, and ultimately, to whether we are alone in the Galaxy. These inspirational themes will greatly help in the effort to bring SKA1 science to a wide audience and to ensure the progression to the full SKA.
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5.
  • Motte, F., et al. (författare)
  • Initial highlights of the HOBYS key program, the Herschel imaging survey of OB young stellar objects
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 518, s. L77-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the initial highlights of the HOBYS key program, which are based on Herschel images of the Rosette molecular complex and maps of the RCW120 H II region. Using both SPIRE at 250/350/500 mu m and PACS at 70/160 mu m or 100/160 mu m, the HOBYS survey provides an unbiased and complete census of intermediate-to high-mass young stellar objects, some of which are not detected by Spitzer. Key core properties, such as bolometric luminosity and mass (as derived from spectral energy distributions), are used to constrain their evolutionary stages. We identify a handful of high-mass prestellar cores and show that their lifetimes could be shorter in the Rosette molecular complex than in nearby low-mass star-forming regions. We also quantify the impact of expanding H II regions on the star formation process acting in both Rosette and RCW 120.
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6.
  • Duarte-Cabral, A., et al. (författare)
  • The SEDIGISM survey: Molecular clouds in the inner Galaxy
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 500:3, s. 3027-3049
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We use the 13CO(2-1) emission from the SEDIGISM (Structure, Excitation, and Dynamics of the Inner Galactic InterStellar Medium) high-resolution spectral-line survey of the inner Galaxy, to extract the molecular cloud population with a large dynamic range in spatial scales, using the Spectral Clustering for Interstellar Molecular Emission Segmentation (SCIMES) algorithm. This work compiles a cloud catalogue with a total of 10 663 molecular clouds, 10 300 of which we were able to assign distances and compute physical properties. We study some of the global properties of clouds using a science sample, consisting of 6664 well-resolved sources and for which the distance estimates are reliable. In particular, we compare the scaling relations retrieved from SEDIGISM to those of other surveys, and we explore the properties of clouds with and without high-mass star formation. Our results suggest that there is no single global property of a cloud that determines its ability to form massive stars, although we find combined trends of increasing mass, size, surface density, and velocity dispersion for the sub-sample of clouds with ongoing high-mass star formation. We then isolate the most extreme clouds in the SEDIGISM sample (i.e. clouds in the tails of the distributions) to look at their overall Galactic distribution, in search for hints of environmental effects. We find that, for most properties, the Galactic distribution of the most extreme clouds is only marginally different to that of the global cloud population. The Galactic distribution of the largest clouds, the turbulent clouds and the high-mass star-forming clouds are those that deviate most significantly from the global cloud population. We also find that the least dynamically active clouds (with low velocity dispersion or low virial parameter) are situated further afield, mostly in the least populated areas. However, we suspect that part of these trends may be affected by some observational biases (such as completeness and survey limitations), and thus require further follow up work in order to be confirmed.
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7.
  • Men'shchikov, A., et al. (författare)
  • Filamentary structures and compact objects in the Aquila and Polaris clouds observed by Herschel
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 518, s. L103-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Our PACS and SPIRE images of the Aquila Rift and part of the Polaris Flare regions, taken during the science demonstration phase of Herschel discovered fascinating, omnipresent filamentary structures that appear to be physically related to compact cores. We briefly describe a new multi-scale, multi-wavelength source extraction method used to detect objects and measure their parameters in our Herschel images. All of the extracted starless cores (541 in Aquila and 302 in Polaris) appear to form in the long and very narrow filaments. With its combination of the far-IR resolution and sensitivity, Herschel directly reveals the filaments in which the dense cores are embedded; the filaments are resolved and have deconvolved widths of similar to 35 '' in Aquila and similar to 59 '' in Polaris (similar to 9000 AU in both regions). Our first results of observations with Herschel enable us to suggest that in general dense cores may originate in a process of fragmentation of complex networks of long, thin filaments, likely formed as a result of an interplay between gravity, interstellar turbulence, and magnetic fields. To unravel the roles of the processes, one has to obtain additional kinematic and polarization information; these follow-up observations are planned.
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8.
  • Richards, A. M. S., et al. (författare)
  • ALMA sub-mm maser and dust distribution of VY Canis Majoris
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 572
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims. Cool, evolved stars have copious, enriched winds. Observations have so far not fully constrained models for the shaping and acceleration of these winds. We need to understand the dynamics better, from the pulsating stellar surface to similar to 10 stellar radii, where radiation pressure on dust is fully effective. Asymmetric nebulae around some red supergiants imply the action of additional forces. Methods. We retrieved ALMA Science Verification data providing images of sub-mm line and continuum emission from VY CMa. This enables us to locate water masers with milli-arcsec accuracy and to resolve the dusty continuum. Results. The 658, 321, and 325 GHz masers lie in irregular, thick shells at increasing distances from the centre of expansion. For the first time this is confirmed as the stellar position, coinciding with a compact peak offset to the NW of the brightest continuum emission. The maser shells overlap but avoid each other on scales of up to 10 au. Their distribution is broadly consistent with excitation models but the conditions and kinematics are complicated by wind collisions, clumping, and asymmetries.
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9.
  • Schuller, F., et al. (författare)
  • The SEDIGISM survey: First Data Release and overview of the Galactic structure
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 500:3, s. 3064-3082
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The SEDIGISM (Structure, Excitation and Dynamics of the Inner Galactic InterstellarMedium) survey used the APEX telescope to map 84 deg(2) of the Galactic plane between l = -60 degrees and +31 degrees in several molecular transitions, including (CO)-C-13(2 - 1) and (CO)-O-18(2 - 1), thus probing the moderately dense (similar to 10(3) cm(-3)) component of the interstellar medium. With an angular resolution of 30 arcsec and a typical 1 sigma sensitivity of 0.8-1.0K at 0.25 km s(-1) velocity resolution, it gives access to a wide range of structures, from individual star-forming clumps to giant molecular clouds and complexes. The coverage includes a good fraction of the first and fourth Galactic quadrants, allowing us to constrain the large-scale distribution of cold molecular gas in the inner Galaxy. In this paper, we provide an updated overview of the full survey and the data reduction procedures used. We also assess the quality of these data and describe the data products that are being made publicly available as part of this First Data Release (DR1). We present integrated maps and position-velocity maps of the molecular gas and use these to investigate the correlation between the molecular gas and the large-scale structural features of the Milky Way such as the spiral arms, Galactic bar and Galactic Centre. We find that approximately 60 per cent of the molecular gas is associated with the spiral arms and these appear as strong intensity peaks in the derived Galactocentric distribution. We also find strong peaks in intensity at specific longitudes that correspond to the Galactic Centre and well-known star-forming complexes, revealing that the 13CO emission is concentrated in a small number of complexes rather than evenly distributed along spiral arms.
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10.
  • Taquet, V, et al. (författare)
  • Seeds of Life in Space (SOLIS) VI. Chemical evolution of sulfuretted species along the outflows driven by the low-mass protostellar binary NGC1333-IRAS4A
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 637
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Low-mass protostars drive powerful molecular outflows that can be observed with millimetre and submillimetre telescopes. Various sulfuretted species are known to be bright in shocks and could be used to infer the physical and chemical conditions throughout the observed outflows. Aims. The evolution of sulfur chemistry is studied along the outflows driven by the NGC1333-IRAS4A protobinary system located in the Perseus cloud to constrain the physical and chemical processes at work in shocks. Methods. We observed various transitions from OCS, CS, SO, and SO2 towards NGC1333-IRAS4A in the 1.3, 2, and 3mm bands using the IRAM NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array and we interpreted the observations through the use of the Paris-Durham shock model. Results. The targeted species clearly show different spatial emission along the two outflows driven by IRAS4A. OCS is brighter on small and large scales along the south outflow driven by IRAS4A1, whereas SO2 is detected rather along the outflow driven by IRAS4A2 that is extended along the north east-south west direction. SO is detected at extremely high radial velocity up to +25 km s 1 relative to the source velocity, clearly allowing us to distinguish the two outflows on small scales. Column density ratio maps estimated from a rotational diagram analysis allowed us to confirm a clear gradient of the OCS/SO2 column density ratio between the IRAS4A1 and IRAS4A2 outflows. Analysis assuming non Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium of four SO2 transitions towards several SiO emission peaks suggests that the observed gas should be associated with densities higher than 105 cm 3 and relatively warm (T > 100 K) temperatures in most cases. Conclusions. The observed chemical differentiation between the two outflows of the IRAS4A system could be explained by a different chemical history. The outflow driven by IRAS4A1 is likely younger and more enriched in species initially formed in interstellar ices, such as OCS, and recently sputtered into the shock gas. In contrast, the longer and likely older outflow triggered by IRAS4A2 is more enriched in species that have a gas phase origin, such as SO2.
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