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Sökning: WFRF:(Tham Emma)

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1.
  • Heilborn, Johan D, et al. (författare)
  • Antimicrobial protein hCAP18/LL-37 is highly expressed in breast cancer and is a putative growth factor for epithelial cells
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136. ; 114:5, s. 713-719
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Human cathelicidin antimicrobial protein hCAP18/LL-37 is an effector molecule of the nonspecific innate immune system. hCAP18/LL-37 is present in leukocytes and is expressed in skin and other epithelia, where it is upregulated in association with inflammation and injury. In addition, antimicrobial proteins including cathelicidins have been proposed to play a role in the nonspecific defense against tumors. To assess its potential role in tumor host defense, we investigated the expression of hCAP18/LL-37 in a series of breast carcinomas. Unexpectedly, we found that hCAP18/LL-37 was strongly expressed in the tumor cells and not in the adjacent stroma. To test the hypothesis that hCAP18/LL-37 may provide a growth advantage for the tumor cells, we treated human epithelial cell lines with synthetic biologically active LL-37 peptide and found a significant increase in cell proliferation. In addition, transgenic expression of hCAP18 in 2 different human epithelial cell lines resulted in increased proliferation of both cell types. These findings do not support the hypothesis that LL-37 has an antitumor effect, but rather suggest that hCAP18/LL-37 may promote tumor cell growth in breast cancer.
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2.
  • Karimi, Masoud, et al. (författare)
  • A retrospective study of extracolonic, non-endometrial cancer in Swedish Lynch syndrome families 11 Medical and Health Sciences 1112 Oncology and Carcinogenesis 11 Medical and Health Sciences 1117 Public Health and Health Services
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice. - Termedia Publishing House. - 1731-2302. ; 16:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Lynch Syndrome is an autosomal dominant cancer syndrome caused by pathogenic germ-line variants in one of the DNA-mismatch-repair (MMR) genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2. Carriers are predisposed to colorectal and endometrial cancer, but also other cancer types. The purpose of this retrospective study was to characterize the tumour spectrum of the Swedish Lynch syndrome families. Methods: Data were obtained from genetically verified 235 Lynch families from five of the six health care regions in Sweden. The material was stratified for gender, primary cancer, age and mutated gene and the relative proportions of specific cancer types were compared to those in the general population. Results: A total of 1053 family members had 1493 cancer diagnoses of which 1011 were colorectal or endometrial cancer. Individuals with pathogenic variants in MLH1 and MSH2 comprised 78% of the cohort. Among the 482 non-colorectal/non-endometrial cancer diagnoses, MSH2 carriers demonstrated a significantly increased proportion of urinary tract, gastric, small bowel, ovarian and non-melanoma skin cancer compared to the normal population. MLH1 carriers had an elevated proportion of gastrointestinal cancers (gastric, small bowel, pancreas), while MSH6 carriers had more ovarian cancer than expected. Gastric cancer was predominantly noted in older generations. Conclusion: Lynch syndrome confers an increased risk for multiple cancers other than colorectal and endometrial cancer. The proportions of other cancers vary between different MMR genes, with highest frequency in MSH2-carriers. Gender and age also affect the tumour spectrum, demonstrating the importance of additional environmental and constitutional parameters in determining the predisposition for different cancer types.
3.
  • Kharaziha, Pedram, et al. (författare)
  • Functional characterization of novel germline TP53 variants in Swedish families
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Clinical Genetics. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 0009-9163. ; 96:3, s. 216-225
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Pathogenic germline TP53 variants predispose to a wide range of early onset cancers, often recognized as the Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS). They are also identified in 1% of families with hereditary breast cancer (HrBC) that do not fulfill the criteria for LFS. In this study, we present a total of 24 different TP53 variants identified in 31 Swedish families with LFS or HrBC. Ten of these variants, nine exonic and one splice, have previously not been described as germline pathogenic variants. The nine exonic variants were functionally characterized and demonstrated partial transactivation activity compared to wild-type p53. Some show nuclear localization similar to wild-type p53 while others possess cytoplasmic or perinuclear localization. The four frameshift variants (W91Gfs*32, L111 Wfs*12, S227 Lfs*20 and S240Kfs*25) had negligible, while F134 L and T231del had low level of p53 activity. The L111 Wfs*12 and T231del variants are also deficient for induction of apoptosis. The missense variant R110C retain p53 effects and the nonsense E349* shows at least partial transcription factor activity but has reduced ability to trigger apoptosis. This is the first functional characterization of novel germline TP53 pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in the Swedish cohort as an attempt to understand its association with LFS and HrBC, respectively.
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4.
  • Leal, Gabriela Ferraz, et al. (författare)
  • Expanding the Clinical Spectrum of Phenotypes Caused by Pathogenic Variants in PLOD2
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. - AMBMR. - 0884-0431. ; 33:4, s. 753-760
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a strikingly heterogeneous group of disorders with a broad range of phenotypic variations. It is also one of the differential diagnoses in bent bone dysplasias along with campomelic dysplasia and thanatophoric dysplasia and can usually be distinguished by decreased bone mineralization and bone fractures. Bent bone dysplasias also include syndromes such as kyphomelic dysplasia (MIM:211350) and mesomelic dysplasia Kozlowski-Reardon (MIM249710), both of which have been under debate regarding whether or not they are a real entity or simply a phenotypic manifestation of another dysplasia including OI. Bruck syndrome type 2 (BRKS2; MIM:609220) is a rare form of autosomal recessive OI caused by biallelic PLOD2 variants and is associated with congenital joint contractures with pterygia. In this report, we present six patients from four families with novel PLOD2 variants. All cases had multiple fractures. Other features ranged from prenatal lethal severe angulation of the long bones as in kyphomelic dysplasia and mesomelic dysplasia Kozlowski-Reardon through classical Bruck syndrome to moderate OI with normal joints. Two siblings with a kyphomelic dysplasia-like phenotype who were stillborn had compound heterozygous variants in PLOD2 (p.Asp585Val and p.Ser166*). One infant who succumbed at age 4 months had a bent bone phenotype phenotypically like skeletal dysplasia Kozlowski-Reardon (with mesomelic shortening, camptodactyly, retrognathia, cleft palate, skin dimples, but also with fractures). He was homozygous for the nonsense variant (p.Trp561*). Two siblings had various degrees of Bruck syndrome caused by the homozygous missense variant, p.His687Arg. Furthermore a boy with a clinical presentation of moderate OI had a possibly pathogenic homozygous variant p.Trp588Cys. Our experience of six patients with biallelic pathogenic variants in PLOD2 expands the phenotypic spectrum in the PLOD2-related phenotypes.
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5.
  • Tham, Emma, et al. (författare)
  • A novel phenotype in N-glycosylation disorders: Gillessen-Kaesbach-Nishimura skeletal dysplasia due to pathogenic variants in ALG9
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European journal of human genetics : EJHG. - 1476-5438. ; 24:2, s. 198-207
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A rare lethal autosomal recessive syndrome with skeletal dysplasia, polycystic kidneys and multiple malformations was first described by Gillessen-Kaesbach et al and subsequently by Nishimura et al. The skeletal features uniformly comprise a round pelvis, mesomelic shortening of the upper limbs and defective ossification of the cervical spine. We studied two unrelated families including three affected fetuses with Gillessen-Kaesbach-Nishimura syndrome using whole-exome and Sanger sequencing, comparative genome hybridization and homozygosity mapping. All affected patients were shown to have a novel homozygous splice variant NM_024740.2: c.1173+2T>A in the ALG9 gene, encoding alpha-1,2-mannosyltransferase, involved in the formation of the lipid-linked oligosaccharide precursor of N-glycosylation. RNA analysis demonstrated skipping of exon 10, leading to shorter RNA. Mass spectrometric analysis showed an increase in monoglycosylated transferrin as compared with control tissues, confirming that this is a congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG). Only three liveborn children with ALG9-CDG have been previously reported, all with missense variants. All three suffered from intellectual disability, muscular hypotonia, microcephaly and renal cysts, but none had skeletal dysplasia. Our study shows that some pathogenic variants in ALG9 can present as a lethal skeletal dysplasia with visceral malformations as the most severe phenotype. The skeletal features overlap with that previously reported for ALG3- and ALG12-CDG, suggesting that this subset of glycosylation disorders constitutes a new diagnostic group of skeletal dysplasias.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 13 May 2015; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2015.91.
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6.
  • Karimi, Masoud, et al. (författare)
  • A retrospective study of extracolonic, non-endometrial cancer in Swedish Lynch syndrome families
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice. - BMC. - 1731-2302 .- 1897-4287. ; 16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>BackgroundLynch Syndrome is an autosomal dominant cancer syndrome caused by pathogenic germ-line variants in one of the DNA-mismatch-repair (MMR) genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2. Carriers are predisposed to colorectal and endometrial cancer, but also other cancer types. The purpose of this retrospective study was to characterize the tumour spectrum of the Swedish Lynch syndrome families.MethodsData were obtained from genetically verified 235 Lynch families from five of the six health care regions in Sweden. The material was stratified for gender, primary cancer, age and mutated gene and the relative proportions of specific cancer types were compared to those in the general population.ResultsA total of 1053 family members had 1493 cancer diagnoses of which 1011 were colorectal or endometrial cancer. Individuals with pathogenic variants in MLH1 and MSH2 comprised 78% of the cohort. Among the 482 non-colorectal/non-endometrial cancer diagnoses, MSH2 carriers demonstrated a significantly increased proportion of urinary tract, gastric, small bowel, ovarian and non-melanoma skin cancer compared to the normal population. MLH1 carriers had an elevated proportion of gastrointestinal cancers (gastric, small bowel, pancreas), while MSH6 carriers had more ovarian cancer than expected. Gastric cancer was predominantly noted in older generations.ConclusionLynch syndrome confers an increased risk for multiple cancers other than colorectal and endometrial cancer. The proportions of other cancers vary between different MMR genes, with highest frequency in MSH2-carriers. Gender and age also affect the tumour spectrum, demonstrating the importance of additional environmental and constitutional parameters in determining the predisposition for different cancer types.</p>
  •  
7.
  • Karimi, Masoud, et al. (författare)
  • A retrospective study of extracolonic, non-endometrial cancer in Swedish Lynch syndrome families
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice. - BioMed Central. - 1731-2302 .- 1897-4287. ; 16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Lynch Syndrome is an autosomal dominant cancer syndrome caused by pathogenic germ-line variants in one of the DNA-mismatch-repair (MMR) genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2. Carriers are predisposed to colorectal and endometrial cancer, but also other cancer types. The purpose of this retrospective study was to characterize the tumour spectrum of the Swedish Lynch syndrome families.</p>
  •  
8.
  • Lindstrand, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • From cytogenetics to cytogenomics : whole-genome sequencing as a first-line test comprehensively captures the diverse spectrum of disease-causing genetic variation underlying intellectual disability
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Genome Medicine. - 1756-994X .- 1756-994X. ; 11:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>Background</strong>: Since different types of genetic variants, from single nucleotide variants (SNVs) to large chromosomal rearrangements, underlie intellectual disability, we evaluated the use of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) rather than chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) as a first-line genetic diagnostic test.</p><p><strong>Methods</strong>: We analyzed three cohorts with short-read WGS: (i) a retrospective cohort with validated copy number variants (CNVs) (cohort 1, n=68), (ii) individuals referred for monogenic multi-gene panels (cohort 2, n=156), and (iii) 100 prospective, consecutive cases referred to our center for CMA (cohort 3). Bioinformatic tools developed include FindSV, SVDB, Rhocall, Rhoviz, and vcf2cytosure.</p><p><strong>Results</strong>: First, we validated our structural variant (SV)-calling pipeline on cohort 1, consisting of three trisomies and 79 deletions and duplications with a median size of 850kb (min 500bp, max 155Mb). All variants were detected. Second, we utilized the same pipeline in cohort 2 and analyzed with monogenic WGS panels, increasing the diagnostic yield to 8%. Next, cohort 3 was analyzed by both CMA and WGS. The WGS data was processed for large (&gt;10kb) SVs genome-wide and for exonic SVs and SNVs in a panel of 887 genes linked to intellectual disability as well as genes matched to patient-specific Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) phenotypes. This yielded a total of 25 pathogenic variants (SNVs or SVs), of which 12 were detected by CMA as well. We also applied short tandem repeat (STR) expansion detection and discovered one pathologic expansion in ATXN7. Finally, a case of Prader-Willi syndrome with uniparental disomy (UPD) was validated in the WGS data. Important positional information was obtained in all cohorts. Remarkably, 7% of the analyzed cases harbored complex structural variants, as exemplified by a ring chromosome and two duplications found to be an insertional translocation and part of a cryptic unbalanced translocation, respectively.</p><p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The overall diagnostic rate of 27% was more than doubled compared to clinical microarray (12%). Using WGS, we detected a wide range of SVs with high accuracy. Since the WGS data also allowed for analysis of SNVs, UPD, and STRs, it represents a powerful comprehensive genetic test in a clinical diagnostic laboratory setting.</p>
  •  
9.
  • Lindstrand, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • From cytogenetics to cytogenomics : whole-genome sequencing as a first-line test comprehensively captures the diverse spectrum of disease-causing genetic variation underlying intellectual disability
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Genome Medicine. - BMC. - 1756-994X .- 1756-994X. ; 11:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>BackgroundSince different types of genetic variants, from single nucleotide variants (SNVs) to large chromosomal rearrangements, underlie intellectual disability, we evaluated the use of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) rather than chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) as a first-line genetic diagnostic test.MethodsWe analyzed three cohorts with short-read WGS: (i) a retrospective cohort with validated copy number variants (CNVs) (cohort 1, n=68), (ii) individuals referred for monogenic multi-gene panels (cohort 2, n=156), and (iii) 100 prospective, consecutive cases referred to our center for CMA (cohort 3). Bioinformatic tools developed include FindSV, SVDB, Rhocall, Rhoviz, and vcf2cytosure.ResultsFirst, we validated our structural variant (SV)-calling pipeline on cohort 1, consisting of three trisomies and 79 deletions and duplications with a median size of 850kb (min 500bp, max 155Mb). All variants were detected. Second, we utilized the same pipeline in cohort 2 and analyzed with monogenic WGS panels, increasing the diagnostic yield to 8%. Next, cohort 3 was analyzed by both CMA and WGS. The WGS data was processed for large (&gt;10kb) SVs genome-wide and for exonic SVs and SNVs in a panel of 887 genes linked to intellectual disability as well as genes matched to patient-specific Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) phenotypes. This yielded a total of 25 pathogenic variants (SNVs or SVs), of which 12 were detected by CMA as well. We also applied short tandem repeat (STR) expansion detection and discovered one pathologic expansion in ATXN7. Finally, a case of Prader-Willi syndrome with uniparental disomy (UPD) was validated in the WGS data.Important positional information was obtained in all cohorts. Remarkably, 7% of the analyzed cases harbored complex structural variants, as exemplified by a ring chromosome and two duplications found to be an insertional translocation and part of a cryptic unbalanced translocation, respectively.ConclusionThe overall diagnostic rate of 27% was more than doubled compared to clinical microarray (12%). Using WGS, we detected a wide range of SVs with high accuracy. Since the WGS data also allowed for analysis of SNVs, UPD, and STRs, it represents a powerful comprehensive genetic test in a clinical diagnostic laboratory setting.</p>
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10.
  • O'Mara, Tracy A, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of nine new susceptibility loci for endometrial cancer.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Endometrial cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer of the female reproductive tract in developed countries. Through genome-wide association studies (GWAS), we have previously identified eight risk loci for endometrial cancer. Here, we present an expanded meta-analysis of 12,906 endometrial cancer cases and 108,979 controls (including new genotype data for 5624 cases) and identify nine novel genome-wide significant loci, including a locus on 12q24.12 previously identified by meta-GWAS of endometrial and colorectal cancer. At five loci, expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses identify candidate causal genes; risk alleles at two of these loci associate with decreased expression of genes, which encode negative regulators of oncogenic signal transduction proteins (SH2B3 (12q24.12) and NF1 (17q11.2)). In summary, this study has doubled the number of known endometrial cancer risk loci and revealed candidate causal genes for future study.</p>
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