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Sökning: WFRF:(Tholander F)

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  • [1]23Nästa
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1.
  • Dahm-Kähler, Pernilla, 1964, et al. (författare)
  • Implementation of National Guidelines increased survival in advanced ovarian cancer-A population-based nationwide SweGCG study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Gynecologic Oncology. - : Academic Press. - 0090-8258 .- 1095-6859. ; 161:1, s. 244-250
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim. The first Swedish National Guidelines for Ovarian Cancer (NGOC) were published in 2012. We aimed to evaluate surgical outcomes and survival in patients with stage IIIC-IV disease, before and after the NGOC implementation. Method. Women with primary epithelial ovarian cancer, FIGO stage IIIC?IV, registered in the Swedish Quality Registry for Gynecologic Cancer 2008?2011 and 2013?2016 were included. Surgical outcomes were analyzed, including frequency of complete cytoreduction (R0). Relative survival (RS) and excess mortality rate ratios (EMRRs) were computed as measures of survival. Univariable and multivariable regression (Poisson) were calculated. Results. In total, 3728 women were identified, 1746 before and 1982 after NGOC. After adjusting for age and stage, survival was improved 2013?2016 vs. 2008?2011 (EMRR 0.89; 95%CI:0.82?0.96, p < 0.05). For women undergoing primary debulking surgery (PDS), R0 frequency (28.9% vs. 53.3%; p < 0.001) and 5-year RS (29.6% (95% CI:26.8?32.8) vs. 37.4% (95%CI:33.6?41.7)) were increased, but fewer patients (58% vs. 44%, p < 0.001) underwent PDS after NGOC implementation. Median survival for the PDS cohort increased from 35 months (95%CI,32.8?39.2) to 43 months (95%CI,40.9?46.4). In the neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) + interval debulking surgery (IDS) cohort, R0 increased (36.8% to 50.1%, p < 0.001), but not 5-year RS (17.5% vs. 20.7%,ns). Compared to PDS, the EMRR was 1.32 (95%CI,1.19 & ndash;1.47, p < 0.001) for NACT+IDS and 3.00 (95% CI,2.66 & ndash;3.38, p < 0.001) for chemotherapy alone. In multivariable analyses, PDS, R0, age <= 70 years, and stage IIIC were found to be independent factors for improved RS. Conclusion. Implementation of the first National Guidelines for Ovarian Cancer improved relative survival in advanced ovarian cancer. (c) 2021 Published by Elsevier Inc.
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2.
  • Stålberg, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of prevalent and incident ovarian cancer co-morbidity
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 106:11, s. 1860-1865
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The peak in incidence of ovarian cancer occurs around 65 years and concurrent increasing risk by age for a number of diseases strongly influence treatment and prognosis. The aim was to explore prevalence and incidence of co-morbidity in ovarian cancer patients compared with the general population.METHODS: The study population was patients with ovarian cancer in Sweden 1993-2006 (n = 11 139) and five controls per case (n = 55 687). Co-morbidity from 1987 to 2006 was obtained from the Swedish Patient Register. Prevalent data were analysed with logistic regression and incident data with Cox proportional hazards models.RESULTS: Women developing ovarian cancer did not have higher overall morbidity than other women earlier than 3 months preceding cancer diagnosis. However, at time of diagnosis 11 of 13 prevalent diagnosis groups were more common among ovarian cancer patients compared with controls. The incidence of many common diagnoses was increased several years following the ovarian cancer and the most common diagnoses during the follow-up period were thromboembolism, haematologic and gastrointestinal complications.CONCLUSION: Women developing ovarian cancer do not have higher overall morbidity the years preceding cancer diagnosis. The incidence of many common diagnoses was increased several years following the ovarian cancer. It is crucial to consider time between co-morbidity and cancer diagnosis to understand and interpret associations.
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3.
  • Aurelius, Oskar, et al. (författare)
  • The Crystal Structure of Thermotoga maritima Class III Ribonucleotide Reductase Lacks a Radical Cysteine Pre-Positioned in the Active Site
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 10:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) catalyze the reduction of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides, the building blocks for DNA synthesis, and are found in all but a few organisms. RNRs use radical chemistry to catalyze the reduction reaction. Despite RNR having evolved several mechanisms for generation of different kinds of essential radicals across a large evolutionary time frame, this initial radical is normally always channelled to a strictly conserved cysteine residue directly adjacent to the substrate for initiation of substrate reduction, and this cysteine has been found in the structures of all RNRs solved to date. We present the crystal structure of an anaerobic RNR from the extreme thermophile Thermotoga maritima (tmNrdD), alone and in several complexes, including with the allosteric effector dATP and its cognate substrate CTP. In the crystal structure of the enzyme as purified, tmNrdD lacks a cysteine for radical transfer to the substrate pre-positioned in the active site. Nevertheless activity assays using anaerobic cell extracts from T. maritima demonstrate that the class III RNR is enzymatically active. Other genetic and microbiological evidence is summarized indicating that the enzyme is important for T. maritima. Mutation of either of two cysteine residues in a disordered loop far from the active site results in inactive enzyme. We discuss the possible mechanisms for radical initiation of substrate reduction given the collected evidence from the crystal structure, our activity assays and other published work. Taken together, the results suggest either that initiation of substrate reduction may involve unprecedented conformational changes in the enzyme to bring one of these cysteine residues to the expected position, or that alternative routes for initiation of the RNR reduction reaction may exist. Finally, we present a phylogenetic analysis showing that the structure of tmNrdD is representative of a new RNR subclass IIIh, present in all Thermotoga species plus a wider group of bacteria from the distantly related phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria.
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4.
  • Crona, Mikael, et al. (författare)
  • A ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor with deoxyribonucleoside-reversible cytotoxicity
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Molecular Oncology. - 1574-7891 .- 1878-0261. ; 10:9, s. 1375-1386
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ribonucleotide Reductase (RNR) is the sole enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of ribonucleotides into deoxyribonucleotides. Even though RNR is a recognized target for antiproliferative molecules, and the main target of the approved drug hydroxyurea, few new leads targeted to this enzyme have been developed. We have evaluated a recently identified set of RNR inhibitors with respect to inhibition of the human enzyme and cellular toxicity. One compound, NSC73735, is particularly interesting; it is specific for leukemia cells and is the first identified compound that hinders oligomerization of the mammalian large RNR subunit. Similar to hydroxyurea, it caused a disruption of the cell cycle distribution of cultured HL-60 cells. In contrast to hydroxyurea, the disruption was reversible, indicating higher specificity. NSC73735 thus defines a potential lead candidate for RNR-targeted anticancer drugs, as well as a chemical probe with better selectivity for RNR inhibition than hydroxyurea. 
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5.
  • Crona, Mikael, et al. (författare)
  • Biochemical Characterization of the Split Class II Ribonucleotide Reductase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 10:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa can grow under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Its flexibility with respect to oxygen load is reflected by the fact that its genome encodes all three existing classes of ribonucleotides reductase (RNR): the oxygen-dependent class I RNR, the oxygen-indifferent class II RNR, and the oxygen-sensitive class III RNR. The P. aeruginosa class II RNR is expressed as two separate polypeptides (NrdJa and NrdJb), a unique example of a split RNR enzyme in a free-living organism. A split class II RNR is also found in a few closely related gamma-Proteobacteria. We have characterized the P. aeruginosa class II RNR and show that both subunits are required for formation of a biologically functional enzyme that can sustain vitamin B12-dependent growth. Binding of the B12 coenzyme as well as substrate and allosteric effectors resides in the NrdJa subunit, whereas the NrdJb subunit mediates efficient reductive dithiol exchange during catalysis. A combination of activity assays and activity-independent methods like surface plasmon resonance and gas phase electrophoretic macromolecule analysis suggests that the enzymatically active form of the enzyme is a (NrdJa-NrdJb) 2 homodimer of heterodimers, and a combination of hydrogen-deuterium exchange experiments and molecular modeling suggests a plausible region in NrdJa that interacts with NrdJb. Our detailed characterization of the split NrdJ from P. aeruginosa provides insight into the biochemical function of a unique enzyme known to have central roles in biofilm formation and anaerobic growth.
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6.
  • Haeggstrom, JZ, et al. (författare)
  • Leukotriene A4 hydrolase
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Prostaglandins & other lipid mediators. - 1098-8823. ; 68-968-69, s. 495-510
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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7.
  • Ladds, Marcus J. G. W., et al. (författare)
  • Autophagic flux blockage by accumulation of weakly basic tenovins leads to elimination of B-Raf mutant tumour cells that survive vemurafenib
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 13:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Tenovin-6 is the most studied member of a family of small molecules with antitumour activity in vivo. Previously, it has been determined that part of the effects of tenovin-6 associate with its ability to inhibit SirT1 and activate p53. However, tenovin-6 has also been shown to modulate autophagic flux. Here we show that blockage of autophagic flux occurs in a variety of cell lines in response to certain tenovins, that autophagy blockage occurs regardless of the effect of tenovins on SirT1 or p53, and that this blockage is dependent on the aliphatic tertiary amine side chain of these molecules. Additionally, we evaluate the contribution of this tertiary amine to the elimination of proliferating melanoma cells in culture. We also demonstrate that the presence of the tertiary amine is sufficient to lead to death of tumour cells arrested in G1 phase following vemurafenib treatment. We conclude that blockage of autophagic flux by tenovins is necessary to eliminate melanoma cells that survive B-Raf inhibition and achieve total tumour cell kill and that autophagy blockage can be achieved at a lower concentration than by chloroquine. This observation is of great relevance as relapse and resistance are frequently observed in cancer patients treated with B-Raf inhibitors.
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8.
  • Stsiapanava, Alena, et al. (författare)
  • Product formation controlled by substrate dynamics in leukotriene A4 hydrolase.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Biochimica et biophysica acta. - : Elsevier. - 0006-3002. ; 1844:2, s. 439-446
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Leukotriene A4 hydrolase/aminopeptidase (LTA4H) (EC 3.3.2.6) is a bifunctional zinc metalloenzyme with both an epoxide hydrolase and an aminopeptidase activity. LTA4H from the African claw toad, Xenopus laevis (xlLTA4H) has been shown to, unlike the human enzyme, convert LTA4 to two enzymatic metabolites, LTB4 and another biologically active product Δ(6)-trans-Δ(8)-cis-LTB4 (5(S),12R-dihydroxy-6,10-trans-8,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid). In order to study the molecular aspect of the formation of this product we have characterized the structure and function of xlLTA4H. We solved the structure of xlLTA4H to a resolution of 2.3Å. It is a dimeric structure where each monomer has three domains with the active site in between the domains, similar as to the human structure. An important difference between the human and amphibian enzyme is the phenylalanine to tyrosine exchange at position 375. Our studies show that mutating F375 in xlLTA4H to tyrosine abolishes the formation of the LTB4 isomeric product Δ(6)-trans-Δ(8)-cis-LTB4. In an attempt to understand how one amino acid exchange leads to a new product profile as seen in the xlLTA4H, we performed a conformer analysis of the triene part of the substrate LTA4. Our results show that the Boltzmann distribution of substrate conformers correlates with the observed distribution of products. We suggest that the observed difference in product profile between the human and the xlLTA4H arises from different level of discrimination between substrate LTA4 conformers.
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9.
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10.
  • Tholander, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Discovery of antimicrobial ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors by screening in microwell format
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 109:25, s. 9798-9803
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyzes reduction of the four different ribonucleotides to their corresponding deoxyribonucleotides and is the rate-limiting enzyme in DNA synthesis. RNR is a well-established target for the antiproliferative drugs Gemzar and Hydrea, for antisense therapy, and in combination chemotherapies. Surprisingly, few novel drugs that target RNR have emerged, partly because RNR activity assays are laboratory-intense and exclude high-throughput methodologies. Here, we present a previously undescribed PCR-based assay for RNR activity measurements in microplate format. We validated the approach by screening a diverse library of 1,364 compounds for inhibitors of class I RNR from the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and we identified 27 inhibitors with IC50 values from similar to 200 nM to 30 mu M. Interestingly, a majority of the identified inhibitors have been found inactive in human cell lines as well as in anticancer and in vivo tumor tests as reported by the PubChem BioAssay database. Four of the RNR inhibitors inhibited growth of P. aeruginosa, and two were also found to affect the transcription of RNR genes and to decrease the cellular deoxyribonucleotide pools. This unique PCR-based assay works with any RNR enzyme and any substrate nucleotide, and thus opens the door to high-throughput screening for RNR inhibitors in drug discovery.
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 26
  • [1]23Nästa

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